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  • Having to do with sound, its recording, and its transmission. In 1860, Edouard Léon Scott de Martinville was the first to record sound using a hog's hair bristle that made grooves on a cylinder coated with lamp black. This device could not play back the music, however. It was not until 1877 that Thomas Edison developed the first device that could do both. A few years later, Emile Berliner, working on Edison's ideas, began using flat disks instead of cylinders and invented the gramophone to play back the sound on the disks. The electric record player and vinyl disks eventually replaced these earlier technologies. In the meantime, the radio was gaining popularity. It and the recorded sound industry shared a symbiotic relationship that survives to ...

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