Nonexperimental Research in Quantitative Research

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  • Quantitative research for which the researcher does not manipulate an independent variable or randomly assign participants to treatment groups. Terms such as survey, correlational, descriptive, causal-comparative, ex post facto, predictive and explanatory, passive observation, natural experiments, meta-analysis, and cross-sectional and longitudinal describe the members of this family of research in the social sciences. A useful new 3 × 3 classification system classifies nonexperi-mental quantitative research along two dimensions: (1) primary research objective and (2) time. On the dimension of primary research objective, studies can be descriptive, predictive, or explanatory; on the dimension of time, research can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or retrospective. Thus, it is possible to have nine different types of nonexperimental quantitative research, each mutually exclusive.

    A major limitation of nonexperimental research in quantitative research ...

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