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  • Nerve cells that are specialized to quickly respond to signals and send signals of their own. They are the fundamental components of the nervous system. Like other cells, they have an outer membrane (a fine screen that blocks some substances and allows others to pass) and a cell body containing a nucleus (which carries the genetic information that determines how the neuron will function), and they contain mitochondria (structures that turn oxygen and glucose into energy). However, neurons are distinguished from other types of cells by certain features of their structure: (a) axons are long, thin structures that extend from the cell body, carrying signals from the neuron to other neurons; (b) dendrites are similar to axons except that they receive signals from other neurons ...

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