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The criminal, unjustified killing of one person by another sane person with expressed or implied intent and malice aforethought, without legal justification, excuse, or authority. Murder may be categorized as capital (meriting the death penalty); first, second, or third degree; or, in some jurisdictions, felony murder. Evidence of torture, kidnapping, relation to another crime (e.g., rape), or special victim categories (e.g., police officer) may be required for a first-degree murder conviction. Murder is distinguished from voluntary and involuntary manslaughter (lacking malice aforethought), justified or unintentional killings, suicide, capital punishment, and the wartime killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants.

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