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  • The attempt to construct principles for governing right and wrong behavior. The most famous codes of morality can be found in religion; the Christian Bible instructs its readers how to avoid eternal damnation, for example, while Judaism offers the Ten Commandments, which must not be violated under any conditions. Morality forms a central element of much of the standard philosophy as well and is grouped under the category of ethics. The Greek philosopher Plato famously argued that people should act according to ideal principles (influencing many early versions of Judeo-Christian philosophy), whereas his successor, Aristotle, believed that life should pivot around notions of temperance. Perhaps, the most extensive system of morals was proposed in the 18th century by the philosopher Immanuel Kant, whose so-called categorical ...

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