ARCS Instructional Motivation Model

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  • The four-step model of instruction originated by John Keller in 1987. The steps are to generate the following: attention, or students' interest and curiosity captured through variety, visual aids, references to real and imaginary people, and problems or paradoxes; relevance to students' personal, educational, and career goals; confidence, by ensuring student success with clear assignments, explicit criteria, practice, and specific feedback; and satisfaction, by reinforcing accomplishments, applications to the real world, incorporating new skills, and acknowledging the risks taken. For more information, see Keller (1987).

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