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  • The modern theory of planetary motion, which replaced the geocentric Ptolemaic system in the early 16th century and places the sun motionless at the center of the solar system. Using ancient astronomical records, Copernicus determined that the planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun. This shift of worldviews of the universe generated much political and religious controversy and culminated in Galileo's heresy trial, conviction, and abjuration in 1633 in Rome.


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