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  • A view of global politics that emphasizes the international competition for valuable land and natural resources. The origins of the philosophical underpinnings of geopolitics trace back to the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel's (1844–1904) “organic state theory,” which viewed nations as organisms biologically programmed to compete for resources and living space. The term was coined in an 1899 article by Rudolf Kjellen (1864–1922), a Swedish political scientist who wrote of Sweden's geographical boundaries and the importance a state's natural resources play in determining its power.

    Kjellen, a former member of the Swedish Conservative Party, became a supporter of the German empire after Sweden's failure to prevent Norway's independence. Kjellen's writings were adopted by the German geographer Karl Haushofer (1869–1946) and transformed into the Nazi concept of ...

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