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  • A critical theoretical framework based on the assumption that women are oppressed and exploited by virtue of gender. Many forms of feminism exist, such as Marxist, liberal, radical, psychoanalytic, socialist, existentialist, and postmodern (Crotty, 2003). Feminism is often divided into “waves” or time periods, with the “First Wave” referring to the suffrage movement in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The “Second Wave” refers to work during the 1960s to late 1980s. The “Third Wave” began in the 1990s and continues through the present. Major authors include Judith Butler, Patricia Collins, Betty Friedan, Sandra Harding, bell hooks, and Simone de Beauvoir. For more information, see Crotty (2003).

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