Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Norman B. Anderson

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      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      Associate Editors

      Assessment and Treatment

      Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob

      School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh

      Policy and Organizations

      Robert M. Kaplan

      Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego

      Epidemiology of Risk and Protective Factors

      Ichiro Kawachi

      Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health

      Biopsychosocial Interactions

      Margaret E. Kemeny

      Health Psychology Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco

      Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

      Shiriki K. Kumanyika

      University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

      Basic Processes, Theory, and Methodology

      Peter Salovey

      Department of Psychology, Yale University

      Senior Advisers

      Lisa F. Berkman

      Department of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health

      Joel E. Dimsdale

      Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego

      William Gerin

      Integrative & Behavioral Cardiology Program, Zena & Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Sherman James

      Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University

      C. Tracy Orleans

      Senior Program Office, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      Neil Schneiderman

      Department of Psychology, University of Miami

      Contributors

      Ana F. Abraido-Lanza

      Columbia University

      Dolores Acevedo-Garcia

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Nancy E. Adler

      University of California, San Francisco

      Gunnar Agren

      Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden

      Icek Ajzen

      University of Massachusetts–Amherst

      Carolyn M. Aldwin

      University of California, Davis

      Alex J. Allen III

      Isles, Inc.

      Gene G. Ano

      Bowling Green State University

      Benjamin C. Amick III

      University of Texas Health Science Center–Houston

      Paul A. Arbisi

      Minneapolis VA Medical Center and University of Minnesota

      Bruce A. Arnow

      Stanford University Medical Center

      Carlotta M. Arthur

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Audie A. Atienza

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Nancy E. Avis

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Simon L. Bacon

      Duke University Medical Center

      Elizabeth A. Baker

      Saint Louis University School of Public Health

      Tamara A. Baker

      University of Michigan

      Albert Bandura

      Stanford University

      Oscar A. Barbarin

      University of North Carolina

      Paule Barbeau

      Medical College of Georgia

      John C. Barefoot

      Duke University Medical Center

      Orna Baron-Epel

      University of Haifa, Israel

      Andrew Baum

      University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

      Aaron T. Beck

      Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research

      Adam B. Becker

      Tulane University

      S. Beth Bellman

      University of Iowa

      Gary G. Bennett

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Gerald S. Berenson

      Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

      Lisa F. Berkman

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Allan Best

      Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Evaluation

      David R. Black

      Purdue University

      Edward B. Blanchard

      University at Albany

      Dan Blazer

      Duke University School of Medicine

      Carolyn L. Blue

      Purdue University

      James A. Blumenthal

      Duke University Medical Center

      Diane Bonfiglio

      Ohio State University

      Julienne Bower

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Stephen H. Boyle

      Duke University Medical Center

      Kelly D. Brownell

      Yale University

      Ross C. Brownson

      Saint Louis University School of Public Health

      Eric Brunner

      University College London

      David M. Burns

      University of California, San Diego

      James N. Butcher

      University of Minnesota

      Virginia S. Cain

      National Institutes of Health

      Michael P. Carey

      Syracuse University

      Edward G. Carr

      State University of New York at Stony Brook

      Olivia Carter-Pokras

      University of Maryland

      Charles S. Carver

      University of Miami

      Patricia P. Chang

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Steven J. Choi

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Noreen M. Clark

      University of Michigan School of Public Health

      Catherine Classen

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Lynn Clemow

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Sheldon Cohen

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Laura Coker

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Graham A. Colditz

      Harvard Medical School

      Steve Cole

      University of California, Los Angeles

      R. Lorraine Collins

      University at Buffalo, State University of New York

      James W. Collins Jr.

      Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago

      Cynthia A. Conklin

      University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

      Tamlin Conner

      Boston College

      Jacqueline Corcoran

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      Jeffrey Cram

      Sierra Health Institute

      J. David Creswell

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Hank Dart

      University of Queensland

      Karina Davidson

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Mary C. Davis

      Arizona State University

      Alan M. Delamater

      University of Miami School of Medicine

      Barbara A. Dennison

      Bassett Healthcare

      Kurt H. Dermen

      University at Buffalo, State University of New York

      Ed Diener

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Ana V. Diez Roux

      Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center

      Peggye Dilworth-Anderson

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Robin DiMatteo

      University of California, Riverside

      Angela Liegey Dougall

      University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

      William W. Dressler

      University of Alabama

      Patricia M. Dubbert

      University of Mississippi School of Medicine

      Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob

      University of Pittsburgh

      Christine Dunkel Schetter

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Christopher L. Edwards

      Duke University Medical Center

      John P. Elder

      San Diego State University

      Charles F. Emery

      Ohio State University

      Edward Emmett

      University of Pennsylvania Medical Center

      Judith A. Erlen

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Gary W. Evans

      Cornell University

      Susan A. Everson-Rose

      Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center

      Craig K. Ewart

      Syracuse University

      Noha H. Farag

      University of California, San Diego

      Lisa Feldman Barrett

      Boston College

      Rebecca Fink

      Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

      Martin Fishbein

      University of Pennsylvania

      Ray Fitzpatrick

      University of Oxford

      Tanya R. Fitzpatrick

      Arizona State University West

      Brian R. Flay

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Susan Folkman

      University of California, San Francisco

      Cynthia Franklin

      University of Texas at Austin

      Barbara L. Fredrickson

      University of Michigan

      Robert R. Freedman

      Wayne State University SOM

      Michael Fries

      DePaul University

      Linda C. Gallo

      San Diego State University

      Kim M. Gans

      Brown University

      Marc Gellman

      University of Miami

      William Gerin

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Todd Gilmer

      University of California, San Diego

      Ronald Glaser

      Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health

      Thomas A. Glass

      Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

      Steven L. Gortmaker

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Carmen Reneé Green

      University of Michigan Medical School

      Lawrence W. Green

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Judith Green-McKenzie

      University of Pennsylvania Medical Center

      Sander Greenland

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Erik Groessl

      University of California, San Diego

      Carla J. Groom

      University of Texas at Austin

      Jessie C. Gruman

      Center for the Advancement of Health

      Brooks B. Gump

      State University of New York at Oswego

      J. Ricardo Guzman

      Community Health and Social Services Center, Inc.

      Mary Beth Harris

      New Mexico Highlands University

      Anthony Hedley

      University of Hong Kong

      Sarah H. Heil

      University of Vermont

      Stephen J. Heishman

      National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH

      Kathryn E. Henderson

      Yale University

      Robert A. Hiatt

      University of California, San Francisco

      Stephen T. Higgins

      University of Vermont

      Marcelle Christian Holmes

      Pomona College

      Kenneth A. Holroyd

      Ohio University, Athens

      Deborah Holtzman

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Frank B. Hu

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Joel W. Hughes

      Duke University Medical Center

      Mary Kay Hunt

      Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

      Shannon Q. Hurtz

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Bruce A. Huyser

      Albuquerque VAMC

      Esmeralda M. Iñiguez

      San Diego State University

      Carlos Iribarren

      Kaiser Permanente Division of Research

      Michael Irwin

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Barbara A. Israel

      University of Michigan

      Leonard A. Jason

      DePaul University

      Camara P. Jones

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Carolyn C. Johnson

      Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

      Randall S. Jorgensen

      Syracuse University

      Marjorie Kagawa-Singer

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Carolyn Phan Kao

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      Robert M. Kaplan

      University of California, San Diego

      Ichiro Kawachi

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Robert M. Kelsey

      University of Tennessee Health Science Center

      Rebecca Kentor

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Mark W. Ketterer

      Henry Ford Hospital

      Deborah M. Khoshaba

      Pepperdine University

      Abby C. King

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Irving Kirsch

      University of Connecticut

      Willem J. Kop

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      David Krantz

      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

      Nancy Krieger

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Laura D. Kubzansky

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Sandra Larios

      San Diego State University

      Thomas M. Lasater

      Brown University

      Kristina Laskovski

      Bassett Healthcare

      Amy E. Latimer

      McMaster University

      I-Min Lee

      Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

      E. Sue Lehman-Trzynka

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Paul Lehrer

      UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

      Anthony Lembo

      Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

      Jane Leserman

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Susan Levenstein

      Aventino Medical Group, Rome, Italy

      Wolfgang Linden

      University of British Columbia

      Bruce G. Link

      Columbia University

      Shira Lipsky

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      William R. Lovallo

      University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

      Leslie Lytle

      University of Minnesota

      Salvatore R. Maddi

      University of California, Irvine

      G. Alan Marlatt

      University of Wisconsin

      Kathleen A. Martin

      McMaster University

      René Martin

      University of Iowa

      James A. McCubbin

      Clemson University

      Bruce McEwen

      Rockefeller University

      Angele McGrady

      Medical College of Ohio

      Monica McPhail-Pruitt

      University of Michigan Medical School

      Elizabeth L. McQuaid

      Rhode Island Hospital

      Mary Pat Mellors

      University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing

      Ronald Melzack

      McGill University

      Shawna L. Mercer

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Suzanne M. Miller

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      Paul J. Mills

      University of California, San Diego

      David C. Mohr

      University of California, San Francisco

      Ali H. Mokdad

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Beth E. Molnar

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Miranda Montrone

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      David G. Moriarty

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Judith Tedlie Moskowitz

      University of California, San Francisco

      Peter Muehrer

      National Institutes of Health

      Robert Murison

      University of Bergen, Norway

      Lynn B. Myers

      University College London

      Hector F. Myers

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Tonja R. Nansel

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

      Michelle Naughton

      Wake Forest University School of Medicine

      Toben F. Nelson

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Arthur M. Nezu

      Drexel University

      Christine Maguth Nezu

      Drexel University

      Julie K. Norem

      Wellesley College

      Judith K. Ockene

      University of Massachusetts Medical School

      Gbenga Ogedegbe

      Weill Medical College of Cornell University

      Akiko Okifuji

      University of Utah

      C. Tracy Orleans

      Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      J. Bruce Overmier

      University of Minnesota

      David A. Padgett

      Ohio State University

      Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr.

      Stanford University

      Sherry Pagoto

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Sara Palmer

      Johns Hopkins University

      Kenneth I. Pargament

      Bowling Green State University

      Crystal L. Park

      University of Connecticut

      Edith A. Parker

      University of Michigan

      Jerry C. Parker

      Truman VAMC

      Andrea Farkas Patenaude

      Harvard Medical School

      Thomas L. Patterson

      University of California, San Diego

      J. Gregory Payne

      Emerson College

      Lori Pbert

      University of Massachusetts Medical School

      James W. Pennebaker

      University of Texas at Austin

      Mary Ann Pentz

      University of Southern California

      Willo Pequegnat

      National Institutes of Health

      Maria Gabriela Pereira

      Cornell University

      Kenneth A. Perkins

      University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

      Daniel Perlman

      University of British Columbia

      Christopher Peterson

      University of Michigan

      Jo C. Phelan

      Columbia University

      Thomas G. Pickering

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Kate E. Pickett

      University of Chicago

      Sarah Pressman

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Rebecca Puhl

      Yale University

      Sandra Radin

      University of Wisconsin

      William Rakowski

      Brown University

      Kevin L. Rand

      University of Kansas, Lawrence

      Scott Ratzan

      Johnson and Johnson, Europe

      Rupa Redding-Lallinger

      University of North Carolina

      Eric C. Reheiser

      University of South Florida, Tampa

      Tracey A. Revenson

      Graduate Center of the City University of New York

      Christine M. Rini

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      J. Peter Rosenfeld

      Northwestern University

      Joseph S. Rossi

      University of Rhode Island

      Gabriella Rothman

      Mount Sinai School of Medicine

      Rima E. Rudd

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Daniel W. Russell

      Iowa State University

      Catherine Tomeo Ryan

      Harvard School of Public Health

      James F. Sallis

      San Diego State University

      Lisa A. Pualani Sanchez-Johnsen

      University of Hawai'i at Manoa

      Jean J. Schensul

      Institute for Community Research

      Skye K. Schulte

      HealthGate Data Corp.

      Amy J. Schulz

      University of Michigan

      Amy R. Schwartz

      Yale University School of Medicine

      Christie Napa Scollon

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Teresa Seeman

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Louise Sharpe

      University of Sydney, Australia

      Joan L. Shaver

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Kerry Sherman

      Fox Chase Cancer Center

      Andrew Sherwood

      Duke University Medical Center

      William J. Sieber

      University of California, San Diego

      Johannes Siegrist

      Heinrich-Heine University

      Edward G. Singleton

      Consulting psychologist

      Paula Smith

      University of Utah

      C. R. Snyder

      University of Kansas, Lawrence

      Glorian Sorensen

      Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

      Charles D. Spielberger

      University of South Florida, Tampa

      Bonnie Spring

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Gloria Stables

      National Cancer Institute

      Annette L. Stanton

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Robert A. Steer

      University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

      Carl J. Stepnowsky Jr.

      University of California, San Diego

      Andrew Steptoe

      University College London

      Catherine M. Stoney

      Ohio State University

      S. V. Subramanian

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Jerry Suls

      University of Iowa

      C. Barr Taylor

      Stanford Medical Center

      Julian F. Thayer

      National Institute on Aging

      Töres Theorell

      Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

      Robert Joseph Thompson Jr.

      Duke University

      Jonathan N. Tobin

      Clinical Directors Network, Inc.

      Susan Torres-Harding

      DePaul University

      Kimberlee J. Trudeau

      City University of New York Graduate Center

      Michele M. Tugade

      Boston College

      Dennis C. Turk

      University of Washington

      Sharon Williams Utz

      University of Virginia

      Melissa A. Valerio

      University of Michigan School of Public Health

      Peter A. Vanable

      Syracuse University

      Elizabeth Vásquez

      Helen Hayes Hospital Clinical Research Center

      Marja J. Verhoef

      University of Calgary

      Peter P. Vitaliano

      University of Washington

      Linda J. Waite

      University of Chicago

      Natalie Walders

      Rhode Island Hospital

      Shari R. Waldstein

      University of Maryland, Baltimore County

      Ken Wallston

      Vanderbilt University

      Sarah P. Wamala

      Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden

      Shirley S. Wang

      Yale University

      Nancy L. Weaver

      Saint Louis University

      Henry Wechsler

      Harvard School of Public Health

      Kellee White

      Columbia University

      Keith E. Whitfield

      Pennsylvania State University

      Adrienne A. Williams

      Duke University Medical Center

      David R. Williams

      University of Michigan

      Redford B. Williams

      Duke University Medical Center

      Sharon Wallace Williams

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Marilyn A. Winkleby

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Alistair Woodward

      Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago

      Alison Woolery

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Rosalind J. Wright

      Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School

      Eric V. Yang

      Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health

      Barbara Yee

      University of South Florida

      Heather Young

      University of Washington

      Ruth E. Zambrana

      University of Maryland

      Alex J. Zautra

      Arizona State University

      Tanya Zazula

      Clinical Directors Network, Inc.

      Introduction

      Rationale

      The field of health and behavior addresses the interaction of behavioral, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and biological factors with physical health outcomes, such as heart disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and chronic pain. The core philosophy of the field of health and behavior is threefold: (1) Behavioral, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and biological factors are inextricably linked; (2) these factors together affect health; and (3) these factors can be used as avenues for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Research and clinical practice in health and behavior are inherently multidisciplinary—that is, many disciplines contribute and no one discipline owns the field. Disciplines involved in health and behavior include psychology, epidemiology and public health, sociology, nursing, medicine, and anthropology, to name a few.

      The field of health and behavior research is vast and ranges from the scientific examination of basic behavioral and social processes to the evaluation of preventive and treatment approaches to policy analysis. It addresses such varied topics as pain management, cardiac rehabilitation, social aspects of genetic testing, anxiety and heart disease, prevention of HIV/AIDS, stress effects on the immune system, approaches to smoking cessation, chronic disease management, community interventions, and socioeconomic status and health.

      Health and behavior research has grown dramatically and has had increased visibility since the early 1980s. This growth is evidenced by a significant increase in the number of published scientific articles and books on the topic; the increase in funding for health and behavior research at federal and private funding agencies; and the appearance of health and behavior topics such as diet, exercise, smoking, and stress in popular publications and in electronic media. The growth, status, and potential of the field of health and behavior were recently affirmed by two landmark reports from the National Academies: the Institute of Medicine's Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences (2001, Washington, DC: National Academy Press) and the National Research Council's New Horizons in Health: An Integrative Approach (2001, Washington, DC: National Academy Press). The 1995 opening of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at NIH is another example of the growth of the field. The OBSSR works across all of the institutes and centers of NIH to advance health and behavior research and other relevant areas.

      Despite the tremendous growth and visibility of research on health and behavior, there existed no single reference source that captured the diversity and the multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary nature of the field and that was concise and accessible to lay audiences. The Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior was designed to be that reference source. The encyclopedia was designed to provide an introduction to the many topics in health and behavior for diverse audiences including undergraduate and graduate students in the behavioral and social sciences, medical students and those in the biomedical sciences, lay audiences (e.g., journalists, librarians, general public) seeking a nontechnical resource on health and behavior, and health scientists and practitioners who desire a quick reference source and introduction to areas outside their expertise.

      Organization and Themes

      The Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior is organized in an A–Z (alphabetical) format rather than by specific themes. In developing the topics that were to be included, however, the editors did rely on several different content areas or themes. These themes included, but were not limited to, the following:

      • Theories and methods in health and behavior (e.g., the theory of planned behavior, health belief model, and multilevel methods theory)
      • Biopsychosocial interactions and basic behavioral and social processes (e.g., behavioral genetics, psychoneuroimmunology, and cardiovascular reactivity)
      • Epidemiology of risk and protective factors (e.g., the relationship to health and illness of factors such as diet, bereavement, acculturation, social capital, anxiety, social support, and stress)
      • Health promotion and disease prevention (e.g., HIV/AIDS prevention, health promotion in schools, tailored communications, and church-based interventions)
      • Treatment and rehabilitation (e.g., behavioral and psychological treatment of diabetes, drug abuse, fibromyalgia, asthma, headaches, and pain; doctorpatient communication; motivational interviewing; and adherence)
      • Policy and organizational issues (e.g., health care costs and behavior, and health and behavior organizations)

      Within the encyclopedia, considerable use is made of cross-referencing. That is, at the end of many of the entries there is information to guide readers to other related entries or further reading.

      Editorial Process

      The editorial process began with the appointment of the six associate editors and six senior advisers. The members of these groups were selected because of their scientific leadership and vast knowledge of research on health and behavior. They also represented a number of disciplines, given the multidisciplinary nature of health and behavior. These individuals reviewed and revised a preliminary list of topics and potential headwords constructed by the editor in chief. The associate editors then selected Advisory Committee members, who also reviewed the preliminary topics and headword list and added potential titles. Many of these Advisory Committee members ultimately became contributing authors.

      From the revised headword list, the associate editors and the editor in chief then identified and invited contributing authors to write the entries. Once entries were written and submitted, the associate editors were responsible for reviewing and editing these manuscripts.

      Many of the associate editors also contributed entries themselves. Following the associate editors' review of the entries, they were submitted to the editor in chief for a final review.

      Acknowledgments

      I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to serve as editor in chief for this very special and first-of-its-kind publication. I wish to thank the Harvard School of Public Health for providing the ideal intellectual setting in which to work on this project. The volume would not have been possible without the encouragement, support, and guidance of Jim Brace-Thompson of Sage Publications, who believed from the start that an encyclopedia of this type would make a substantial contribution to the public health literature. Jim's expertise in behavioral and social science publishing, and especially in putting together encyclopedias, made my job so much easier. I am indebted to my managing editors, initially Mary Riso, and later Karen Ehrmann. They handled nearly all of the day-to-day work on the volume, including helping to identify and contact possible contributing authors, answering their many questions, prompting them to complete their entries, and ensuring that I stayed on task.

      The associate editors cannot be thanked enough. These are all extraordinarily busy scientists and administrators who volunteered to spend a great deal of time on this project, when they could have been writing grant proposals or research papers. These people, because of their talent and expertise, are asked to do many things and are pulled in many directions. For them to take this on is a testament to their dedication to advancing the field of health and behavior. I will be forever grateful to them, as well as to our senior advisers and Advisory Committee members.

      Most important, I wish to thank the contributing authors. Like the associate editors, the contributing authors are scholars with much on their professional plates, and they could have easily turned down the offer to write an entry due to time constraints. But they too recognized that the production of the first encyclopedia devoted exclusively to health and behavior research, which would cut across all of the disciplines that compose it, was an important development for our field. This encyclopedia is the result of their incredible efforts and the research conducted by scores of scientists.

      Norman B.Anderson
      About the Editor

      Norman B. Anderson, PhD, is Chief Executive Officer and Executive Vice President of the American Psychological Association (APA). Trained as a scientist and a practitioner, Dr. Anderson has dedicated much of his professional life to studying the relationships between health and behavior, and health and race. At APA, his priorities include bringing psychology's broad expertise to health care, the public, and policy-makers and expanding the role of psychologists in our nation's health care system, the workplace, and education.

      Prior to joining APA, Dr. Anderson was Professor of Health and Social Behavior at the Harvard University School of Public Health, where his interests centered on health disparities and mass media approaches to public health. He is also widely known as the first Associate Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, and the first Director of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR). At NIH, he was charged with facilitating behavioral and social sciences research across all of the (then) 24 institutes and centers of the NIH. Under his purview was behavioral and social research in such areas as cancer, heart disease, mental health, diabetes, aging, and oral health.

      Prior to going to NIH, Dr. Anderson was Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychology: Social and Health Sciences at Duke University. There he studied the role of stress in the development of hypertension in African Americans and directed the NIH-funded Exploratory Center for Research on Health Promotion in Older Minorities. He received several awards for his research, including the 1986 New Investigator Award from the Society of Behavioral Medicine, the 1991 Award for Outstanding Contributions to Health Psychology from the APA, and a Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institute of Mental Health.

      Dr. Anderson is a Fellow of the APA, the American Psychological Society, the Society of Behavioral Medicine, and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, and he is a Past President of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. He has served as President of the Board of Directors for the STARBRIGHT Foundation of Los Angeles. He has also served on the Advisory Committee for Public Issues for the Advertising Council and chaired the National Academy of Science's Panel on the Future of Research on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life.

      Dr. Anderson has published widely in the field of health and behavior and is author or editor of several books, including Emotional Longevity: What Really Determines How Long You Live (2003).

    • Appendix A: Online Resources and Health and Behavior Organizations

      Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

      2101 E. Jefferson Street, Suite 501

      Rockville, MD 20852

      Telephone: 301-594-1364

      http://www.ahcpr.gov/

      According to its Web site, the “mission of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research is to support, conduct, and disseminate research that improves access to care and the outcomes, quality, cost, and utilization of health care services. The research sponsored and conducted by the Agency provides better information that enables better decisions about health care” (in 1999, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research changed its name to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ).

      Alan Guttmacher Institute

      120 Wall Street, 21st Floor

      New York, NY 10005

      Telephone: 212-248-1111

      http://www.agi-usa.org/

      The Alan Guttmacher Institute is a nonprofit organization focused on sexual and reproductive health research, policy analysis, and public education. The institute's mission is to protect the reproductive choices of all women and men in the United States and throughout the world. It is to support their ability to obtain the information and services needed to achieve their full human rights, safeguard their health, and exercise their individual responsibilities in regard to sexual behavior and relationships, reproduction, and family formation.

      Alzheimer's Association

      225 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1700

      Chicago, IL 60601-7633

      Telephone: 312-335-8700

      http://www.alz.org/

      The Alzheimer's Association, a national network of chapters, is the largest national voluntary health organization dedicated to advancing Alzheimer's research and helping those affected by the disease. Having awarded $136 million in research grants, the association ranks as the top private funder of research into the causes, treatments, and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. The association also provides education and support for people diagnosed with the condition, their families, and caregivers.

      American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

      3615 Wisconsin Avenue N.W.

      Washington, DC 20016-3007

      Telephone: 202-966-7300

      http://www.aacap.org

      The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is a membership-based organization, composed of more than 6,500 child and adolescent psychiatrists and other interested physicians. Its members actively research, evaluate, diagnose, and treat psychiatric disorders and pride themselves on giving direction to and responding quickly to new developments in addressing the health care needs of children and their families.

      American Academy of Nursing

      600 Maryland Avenue, S.W., Suite 100 West

      Washington, DC 20024-2571

      Telephone: 202-651-7238

      http://www.nursingworld.org/aan/

      The American Academy of Nursing is constituted to potentiate the contributions of nursing leaders in transforming the health care system to optimize public well-being. This leadership is grounded in a global perspective, enriched by diversity, and actualized through partnerships with other health care and consumer groups.

      American Academy of Pediatrics

      141 Northwest Point Boulevard

      Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098

      Telephone: 847-434-4000

      http://www.aap.org/

      The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and its member pediatricians dedicate their efforts and resources to the health, safety, and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. The AAP has 57,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Members include pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists, and pediatric surgical specialists. More than 41,000 members are board certified and are called Fellows of the American Academy of Pediatrics (FAAP).

      American Association of Colleges of Nursing

      One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 530

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-463-6930

      http://www.aacn.nche.edu/

      The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) is the national voice for America's baccalaureateand higher-degree nursing education programs. AACN's educational, research, government advocacy, data collection, publications, and other programs work to establish quality standards for bachelor' sand graduate-degree nursing education, assist deans and directors to implement those standards, influence the nursing profession to improve health care, and promote public support of baccalaureate and graduate education, research, and practice in nursing.

      American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers

      75–20 Astoria Boulevard.

      Jackson Heights, NY 11370

      Telephone: 718-803-3782

      http://www.aascipsw.org/

      The American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers (AASCIPSW) is an organization of psychologists and social workers who provide for the emotional, behavioral, and psychosocial care of persons affected by spinal cord impairment (SCI). AASCIPSW, incorporated in 1986, operates exclusively for scientific, charitable, and educational purposes. AASCIPSW provides members the opportunity to develop and refine leadership skills through active participation in the association.

      American Association of Suicidology

      4201 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 408

      Washington, DC 20008

      Telephone: 202-237-2280

      http://www.suicidology.org/

      The goal of the American Association of Suicidology (AAS) is to understand and prevent suicide. AAS promotes research, public awareness programs, public education, and training for professionals and volunteers. In addition, AAS serves as a national clearinghouse for information on suicide. The membership of AAS includes mental health and public health professionals, researchers, suicide prevention and crisis intervention centers, school districts, crisis center volunteers, survivors of suicide, and a variety of laypersons who have an interest in suicide prevention.

      American Cancer Society

      http://www.cancer.org

      Telephone: 1-800-ACS-2345

      The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide, community-based voluntary health organization. With chartered divisions throughout the country and more than 3,400 local offices, the ACS is committed to fighting cancer through balanced programs of research, education, patient service, advocacy, and rehabilitation.

      American College of Preventive Medicine

      1307 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 200

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-466-2044

      http://www.acpm.org

      The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) is the national professional society for physicians committed to disease prevention and health promotion.

      American Counseling Association

      5999 Stevenson Avenue

      Alexandria, VA 22304

      Telephone: 1-800-347-6647

      http://www.counseling.org

      The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a not-for-profit, professional and educational organization dedicated to the growth and enhancement of the counseling profession. Founded in 1952, ACA is the world's largest association exclusively representing professional counselors in various practice settings. ACA has been instrumental in setting professional and ethical standards for the counseling profession.

      American Diabetes Association National Center

      1701 North Beauregard Street

      Alexandria, VA 22311

      Telephone: 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383)

      http://www.diabetes.org

      The American Diabetes Association is the nation's leading nonprofit health organization providing diabetes research, information, and advocacy. The mission of the organization is to prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people affected by diabetes.

      American Heart Association National Center

      7272 Greenville Avenue

      Dallas, TX 75231

      Telephone: 1-800-AHA-USA-1 or 1-800-242-8721

      http://www.americanheart.org

      The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency whose mission is to reduce disability and death from cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

      American Institute of Stress

      124 Park Avenue

      Yonkers, NY 10703

      Telephone: 914-963-1200

      http://www.stress.org/

      The American Institute of Stress is committed to developing a better understanding of how to tap into the vast innate potential that resides in each of us for preventing disease and promoting health.

      American Psychiatric Association

      1000 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1825

      Arlington, VA 22209-3901

      Telephone: 703-907-7300

      http://www.psych.org

      The American Psychiatric Association is a medical specialty society recognized worldwide. Its 37,000 U.S. and international member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including mental retardation and substance-related disorders. It is the voice and conscience of modern psychiatry. Its vision is a society that has available accessible quality psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.

      American Psychological Association

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 1-800-374-2721 or 202-336-5500

      http://www.apa.org

      The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With more than 155,000 members, APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide. APA's initiatives include supporting psychology as a science, profession, and means to improve health and human welfare; educating the public and the media on the value of psychology; advocating in legislatures, educational settings, and major social institutions on behalf of the discipline and psychologists; and working to advance education and training in psychology from preschool to postdoctorate levels.

      American Psychological Society

      1010 Vermont Avenue N.W., Suite 1100

      Washington, DC 20005-4907

      Telephone: 202-783-2077

      http://www.psychologicalscience.org/

      The mission of the American Psychological Society (APS) is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare. The APS is a nonprofit membership organization founded in 1988 to advance scientific psychology and its representation as a science on the national level. APS grew quickly, surpassing 5,000 members in its first 6 months. In 2003, APS membership exceeded 13,500 and includes the leading psychological scientists and academics, clinicians, researchers, teachers, and administrators.

      American Psychosocial Oncology Society

      2365 Hunters Way

      Charlottesville, VA 22911

      Telephone: 434-293-5350

      http://www.apos-society.org/

      The mission of American Psychosocial Oncology Society is to promote the psychological, social, and physical well-being of patients with cancer and their families at all stages of disease and survivorship through clinical care, education, research, and advocacy.

      American Psychosomatic Society

      6728 Old McLean Village Drive

      McLean, VA 22101-3906

      Telephone: 703-556-9222

      http://www.psychosomatic.org

      The mission of the American Psychosomatic Society is to promote and advance the scientific understanding of the interrelationships among biological, psychological, social, and behavioral factors in human health and disease, and the integration of the fields of science that separately examine each, and to foster the application of this understanding in education and improved health care.

      American Public Health Association

      800 I Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-777-2742

      http://www.apha.org/

      The American Public Health Association (APHA) is the oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world, representing more than 50,000 members from over 50 occupations of public health. APHA brings together researchers, health service providers, administrators, teachers, and other health workers in a unique, multidisciplinary environment of professional exchange, study, and action. APHA is concerned with a broad set of issues affecting personal and environmental health, including federal and state funding for health programs, pollution control, programs and policies related to chronic and infectious diseases, a smoke-free society, and professional education in public health.

      American Social Health Association

      P.O. Box 13827

      Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

      Telephone: 919-361-8400

      http://www.ashastd.org/

      The American Social Health Association is recognized by the public, patients, providers, and policymakers for developing and delivering accurate, medically reliable information about sexually transmitted diseases.

      American Society for Clinical Nutrition

      9650 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20814-3998

      Telephone: 301-530-7110

      http://www.faseb.org/ascn/

      The American Society for Clinical Nutrition (ASCN) is the clinical division of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. The goals and objectives of the ASCN are to encourage and implement undergraduate and graduate education in basic and clinical nutrition, particularly in medical schools; expand research and clinical training opportunities in nutrition science for health professionals; and provide opportunities for investigators to present and discuss current research in human nutrition.

      American Society for Nutritional Sciences

      9650 Rockville Pike, Suite 4500

      Bethesda, MD 20814

      Telephone: 301-530-7050

      http://www.asns.org/

      The American Society for Nutritional Sciences is the premier research society dedicated to improving the quality of life through the science of nutrition.

      American Sociological Association

      1307 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 700

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-383-9005

      http://www.asanet.org/

      The American Sociological Association (ASA) is a membership association dedicated to advancing sociology as a scientific discipline and profession serving the public good. With approximately 13,000 members, ASA encompasses sociologists who are faculty members at colleges and universities, researchers, practitioners, and students.

      Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

      10200 W. 44th Avenue, Suite 304

      Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-2840, USA

      Telephone: 303-422-8436

      http://www.aapb.org

      The mission of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) is to advance the development, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge about applied psychophysiology and biofeedback to improve health and the quality of life through research, education, and practice. The goals of the association are to promote a new understanding of biofeedback and advance the methods used in this practice.

      Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy

      305 7th Avenue, 16th Floor

      New York, NY 10001

      Telephone: 212-647-1890

      http://www.aabt.org

      The Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy (AABT) is a professional, interdisciplinary organization that is concerned with the application of behavioral and cognitive sciences to the understanding of human behavior, developing interventions to enhance the human condition, and promoting the appropriate utilization of these interventions. AABT is a not-for-profit membership organization of more than 4,500 mental health professionals and students who are interested in behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in order to gain a better understanding of human behavior; develop, assess, and apply interventions to assist in behavior change; help people deal with personal and social problems and issues; and further the empirical study, theory, and practice of these therapies.

      Association of Behavior Analysis

      1219 South Park Street

      Kalamazoo, MI 49001

      Telephone: 269-492-9310

      http://www.abainternational.org/

      The mission of the Association of Behavior Analysis is to develop, enhance, and support the growth and vitality of behavioral analysis through research, education, and practice.

      Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education

      1101 15th Street, N.W., Suite 601

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-659-2230

      http://www.astdhpphe.org

      The Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education (ASTDHPPHE) was founded in 1946 (as the Conference of State Directors of Public Health Education) as a joint effort between directors of health education in state health departments and deans of health education in schools of public health. In 1994, the association changed its name to the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education to better reflect the mission and roles of the membership in promoting health and preventing disease in states and communities.

      Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine

      1660 L Street, N.W., Suite 208

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-463-0550

      http://www.atpm.org/

      The Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM) is the national association supporting health promotion and disease prevention educators and researchers. Since 1942, ATPM and its members have been in the forefront of advancing, promoting, and supporting health promotion and disease prevention in the education of physicians and other health professionals.

      Behavior OnLine http://www.behavior.net/about.html

      Behavior OnLine aspires to be the premier World Wide Web gathering place for mental health professionals and applied behavioral scientists—a place where professionals of every discipline can feel at home.

      Center for Behavioral Neuroscience http://www.cbn-atl.org

      The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience examines the neural mechanisms underlying the social behaviors that are essential for species survival, such as fear, affiliation, aggression, and reproductive behaviors.

      Center for Communication Programs

      Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

      111 Market Place, Suite 310

      Baltimore, MD 21202

      Telephone: 410-659-6300

      http://www.jhuccp.org/

      The Center for Communication Programs (CCP) works with international agencies, foundations, governments, and nongovernmental organizations in the United States and overseas to promote healthy behavior.

      The CCP's work focuses on the field of strategic, research-based communication for behavior change and health promotion that has helped transform the theory and practice of public health.

      Center for the Advancement of Health

      2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Suite 210

      Washington, DC 20009–1231

      Telephone: 202-387-2829

      http://www.cfah.org/

      The Center for the Advancement of Health promotes a view of health that recognizes that where we live, how we are educated, and what we eat, drink, breathe, and do affect health as much as, if not more than, access to health care. Its mission is to translate research on this expanded view of health into effective policy and practice.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      1600 Clifton Road

      Atlanta, GA 30333

      Telephone: 404-639-3311

      http://www.cdc.gov

      The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is recognized as the lead federal agency for protecting the health and safety of people, at home and abroad, providing credible information to enhance health decisions and promoting health through strong partnerships. The CDC serves as the national focus for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States. The CDC's mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

      College on Problems of Drug Dependence

      3420 N. Broad Street

      Philadelphia, PA 19140

      Telephone: 215-707-3242

      http://www.cpdd.vcu.edu/

      The College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD), formerly the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, has been in existence since 1929 and is the longest-standing group in the United States addressing problems of drug dependence and abuse. CPDD serves as an interface among government, industrial, and academic communities maintaining liaisons with regulatory and research agencies as well as educational, treatment, and prevention facilities in the drug abuse field. It also functions as a collaborating center of the World Health Organization.

      Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities

      4891 E. Grant Road

      Tucson, AZ 85712

      Telephone: 520-325-1044

      http://www.carf.org

      The Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF) is an independent, not-for-profit accrediting body promoting quality, value, and optimal outcomes of services through a consultative accreditation process that centers on enhancing the lives of the persons receiving services. Founded in 1966 as the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities, the accrediting body is now known as CARF. The mission of CARF is to promote the quality, value, and optimal outcomes of services through a consultative accreditation process that centers on enhancing the lives of the persons served.

      Consortium of Social Science Associations

      1522 K Street, N.W., Suite 836

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-842-3525

      http://www.cossa.org/

      The Consortium of Social Science Associations (COSSA) is an advocacy organization supported by more than 100 professional associations, scientific societies, universities, and research institutions. COSSA stands alone in representing the full range of social scientists. COSSA represents the needs and interests of social and behavioral scientists; educates federal officials about social and behavioral science; informs the science community about relevant federal policies; and cooperates with other science and education groups in pursuit of common goals. COSSA lobbies Congress and the Executive Branch on issues affecting the social science portfolios of the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Justice, and Labor, and many other federal agencies.

      Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology http://psych.wfu.edu/cogdop/

      The Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology (COGDOP) is a society constituted of chairs and heads of departments of psychology or other equivalent administrative units, which are authorized to offer graduate degrees in psychology in institutions accredited by their regional accrediting association. Membership is held by the department, not by the individual.

      Decade of Behavior

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-336-6166

      http://www.decadeofbehavior.org

      The Decade of Behavior, launched in September 2000, is a multidisciplinary initiative to focus the talents, energy, and creativity of the behavioral and social sciences on meeting many of society's most significant challenges. These include improving education and health care; enhancing safety in homes and communities; actively addressing the needs of an aging population; and helping to curb drug abuse, crime, high-risk behaviors, poverty, racism, and cynicism toward government.

      Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002

      Telephone: 202-336-5920

      http://www.thefederationonline.org/

      The Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences is a dues-supported coalition of member organizations, university departments of psychology, schools of education, research centers, regional psychological associations, and science divisions of the American Psychological Association. The federation represents the interests of scientists who do research in the areas of behavioral, psychological, and cognitive sciences. The efforts of the federation are focused on legislative and regulatory advocacy, education, and the communication of information to scientists.

      Gerontological Society of America

      1030 15th Street, N.W., Suite 250

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-842-1275

      http://www.geron.org/

      The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit professional organization with more than 5,000 members in the field of aging. GSA provides researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers with opportunities to understand, advance, integrate, and use basic and applied research on aging to improve the quality of life as one ages.

      Healthfinder

      P.O. Box 1133

      Washington, DC 20013-1133

      http://www.healthfinder.gov/

      Healthfinder is a guide to reliable health information from the Department of Health and Human Services. The guide includes a health library of hand-picked health information from A to Z—prevention and wellness, diseases and conditions, and alternative medicine—plus medical dictionaries, an encyclopedia, journals, and more.

      Health Psychology, Division 38 of the American Psychological Association

      750 First Street, N.E.

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-336-6013

      http://www.apa.org/about/division/div38.html

      Division 38 seeks to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research, education, and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge. The division has a nursing and health group and special interest groups in aging, women, and minority health issues. The division publishes the bimonthly journal Health Psychology and the quarterly newsletter Health Psychologist. Division 38 offers a listing of training programs in health psychology and presents an annual student paper award.

      Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

      P.O. Box 1369

      Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369

      Telephone: 310-394-2410

      http://www.hfes.org/

      The mission of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society is to promote the discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds. The society was founded in 1957 as the Human Factors Society of America. Later, the name was changed to the Human Factors Society, Inc., to reflect its international influence and membership. In 1992, the name was changed to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

      Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior

      4370 Alpine Road, Suite 209

      Portola Valley, CA 94028

      Telephone: 1-800-258-8411

      http://www.iahb.org

      The Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior (IAHB) is a fully accredited sponsor of continuing education and continuing medical education for mental health, chemical dependency, and substance abuse treatment providers in the United States and Canada. IAHB's mission is to provide high-quality clinical training to health care professionals as well as to companies and individuals with health care-related interests.

      Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research

      750 First Street, N.E., Suite 700

      Washington, DC 20002-4241

      Telephone: 202-336-8385

      http://www.iaswresearch.org/

      The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR) is a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit organization. IASWR works to improve the lives of vulnerable populations by advocating for the importance of research to strengthen the social work profession's capacity to address complex social needs, and to contribute to improved prevention and treatment interventions, services, and policies. The overarching, single mission of IASWR is to promote and strengthen research in the social work profession.

      Institute of Medicine The National Academies

      500 Fifth Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-334-2138

      http://www.iom.edu/

      The mission of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is to advance and disseminate scientific knowledge to improve human health. The institute provides objective, timely, authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to government, the corporate sector, the professions, and the public. IOM is part of the National Academy of Sciences organizations and does not receive direct federal appropriations for its work. The National Academy of Sciences was created by the federal government to be an adviser on scientific and technological matters.

      Intercultural Cancer Council

      6655 Travis, Suite 322

      Houston, TX 77030-1312

      Telephone: 713-798-4617

      http://iccnetwork.org

      The Intercultural Cancer Council (ICC) promotes policies, programs, partnerships, and research to eliminate the unequal burden of cancer among racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States and its associated territories.

      International Psycho-Oncology Society

      2365 Hunters Way

      Charlottesville, VA 22911

      Telephone: 434-971-4788

      http://www.ipos-society.org

      The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) was created to foster international multidisciplinary communication about clinical, educational, and research issues that relate to the subspecialty of psycho-oncology. The society seeks to provide leadership and development of standards for educational training and research in the two psychosocial dimensions of cancer: the response of patients, families, and staff to cancer and its treatment at all stages, and the psychological, social, and behavioral factors that influence tumor progression and survival. It has boundaries with all clinical oncologic specialties, epidemiology and cancer control, basic sciences, bioethics, palliative care, rehabilitation, clinical trials, and decision making.

      International Social Science Council UNESCO House

      1, rue Miollis

      75732 Paris Cedex 15, France

      http://www.unesco.org/ngo/issc/sommaire.htm

      The International Social Science Council (ISSC) is an international nonprofit scientific organization with its headquarters in UNESCO House in Paris. The ISSC has as its aims and objectives the promotion of the understanding of human society in its environment by fostering the social and behavioral sciences throughout the world and their application to major contemporary problems and by enhancing cooperation by means of a global international organization of social and behavioral scientists and social and behavioral science organizations, encouraging multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary cooperation among the members of the ISSC.

      International Society for Developmental Psychobiology

      http://www.oswego.edu/isdp/

      The purposes of the International Society for Developmental Psychobiology are to (a) promote and encourage research on the development of behavior in all organisms including humans, with special attention to the effects of biological factors operating at any level of organization; (b) facilitate communication of research results and theory in the area of developmental psychobiology through the use of both professional and popular printed media and through the presentation of papers at meetings of the society; and (c) foster application of the valid findings of research to human affairs in a way beneficial to humankind.

      International Society of Behavioral Medicine

      http://www.isbm.miami.edu

      The International Society of Behavioral Medicine (ISBM) is a federation of national societies whose goal is to serve the needs of all health-related disciplines concerned with issues relevant to behavioral medicine. Each national society includes both biomedical and behavioral scientists.

      MEDLINEplus

      http://medlineplus.gov/

      MEDLINEplus is a Web site with authoritative consumer health information from the National Institutes of Health and others.

      MEDLINE/PubMed

      http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi

      MEDLINE/PubMed is a database with references, primarily from MEDLINE, to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on articles in the biomedical field.

      The Metanexus Institute

      3624 Market Street, Suite 301

      Philadelphia, PA 19104

      Telephone: 215-789-2200

      http://www.metanexus.net

      The Metanexus Institute advances research, education, and outreach on the constructive engagement of science and religion. It seeks to create an enduring intellectual and social movement by collaborating with persons and communities from diverse religious traditions and scientific disciplines.

      National Academy of Neuropsychology

      2121 South Oneida Street, Suite 550

      Denver, CO 80224–2594

      Telephone: 303-691–3694

      http://www.nanonline.org/

      The National Academy of Neuropsychology is a professional society that includes clinicians, scientist practitioners, and researchers interested in neuropsychology.

      National Academy of Sciences

      500 Fifth Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20001

      Telephone: 202-334-2000

      http://www4.nationalacademies.org/nas/nashome.nsf

      The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. The academy is governed by a council composed of 12 members (councilors) and five officers, elected from among the academy membership. The council is responsible to the membership for the activities undertaken by the organization and for the corporate management of the National Academy of Sciences, a corporation created by act of Congress that also includes the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and the National Research Council (NRC). Collectively, these organizations are called the National Academies.

      National Cancer Institute

      6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC 8322

      Bethesda, MD 20892-8322

      Telephone: 1-800-422-6237

      http://www.nci.nih.gov/

      The National Cancer Institute (NCI) leads a national effort to reduce the burden of cancer morbidity and mortality. Its goal is to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, NCI conducts and supports programs to understand the causes of cancer; prevent, detect, diagnose, treat, and control cancer; and disseminate information to the practitioner, patient, and public.

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 1-888-644-6226

      http://www.nccam.nih.gov/

      The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices in the context of rigorous science, training CAM researchers, and disseminating authoritative information.

      National Center for Research Resources

      One Democracy Plaza, Room 984

      6701 Democracy Boulevard, MSC 4874

      Bethesda, MD 20892-4874

      Telephone: 301-435-0888

      http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/

      The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) advances biomedical research and improves human health through research projects and shared resources that create, develop, and provide a comprehensive range of human, animal, technological, and other resources. NCRR's support is concentrated in four areas: biomedical technology, clinical research, comparative medicine, and research infrastructure.

      National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities

      6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, MSC 5465

      Bethesda, MD 20892-5465

      Telephone: 301-402-1366

      http://www.ncmhd.nih.gov/

      The mission of the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) is to promote minority health and to lead, coordinate, support, and assess the National Institutes of Health effort to reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. In this effort, NCMHD will conduct and support basic, clinical, social, and behavioral research; promote research infrastructure and training; foster emerging programs; disseminate information; and reach out to minority and other health disparity communities.

      National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-592-8573

      http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

      The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides leadership for a national program in diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and sleep disorders. NHLBI plans, conducts, fosters, and supports an integrated and coordinated program of basic research, clinical investigations and trials, observational studies, and demonstration and education projects.

      National Human Genome Research Institute

      http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/

      The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) supports the National Institutes of Health component of the Human Genome Project, a worldwide research effort designed to analyze the structure of human DNA and determine the location of the estimated 30,000 to 40,000 human genes.

      National League for Nursing

      61 Broadway

      New York, NY 10006

      Telephone: 1-800-669-1656 or 212-363-5555

      http://www.nln.org/

      The National League for Nursing advances quality nursing education that prepares the nursing workforce to meet the needs of diverse populations in an ever-changing health care environment.

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

      Building 31, Room 7A-50, MSC 2520

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2520

      http://www.niaid.nih.gov/

      National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) research strives to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the myriad infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases that threaten millions of human lives.

      National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

      1 AMS Circle

      Bethesda, MD 20892-3675

      Telephone: 301-495-4484

      http://www.niams.nih.gov/

      The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases.

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

      Building 31, Room 2A32, MSC 2425

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2425

      http://www.nichd.nih.gov/

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) research on fertility, pregnancy, growth, development, and medical rehabilitation strives to ensure that every child is born healthy and wanted and grows up free from disease and disability.

      National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2190

      Telephone: 301-496-4261

      http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/

      The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) provides leadership for a national research program designed to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent the infectious and inherited craniofacial-oral-dental diseases and disorders that compromise millions of human lives.

      National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

      Building 31, Room 9A04, MSC 2560

      Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      http://www.niddk.nih.gov/

      The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts and supports basic and applied research and provides leadership for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. Several of these diseases are among the leading causes of disability and death; all seriously affect the quality of life of those who have them.

      National Institutes of Health

      9000 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      http://www.nih.gov/

      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the United States. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability. The goals of the agency are as follows: (1) foster fundamental creative discoveries, innovative research strategies, and their applications as a basis to advance significantly the nation's capacity to protect and improve health; (2) develop, maintain, and renew scientific human and physical resources that will assure the nation's capability to prevent disease; (3) expand the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences in order to enhance the nation's economic well-being and ensure a continued high return on the public investment in research; and (4) exemplify and promote the highest level of scientific integrity, public accountability, and social responsibility in the conduct of science.

      National Institute of Mental Health

      6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-443-4513

      http://www.nimh.nih.gov/

      The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provides national leadership dedicated to understanding, treating, and preventing mental illnesses through basic research on the brain and behavior, and through clinical, epidemiological, and services research.

      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

      P.O. Box 5801

      Bethesda, MD 20824

      Telephone: 1-800-352-9424

      http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

      The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to reduce the burden of neurological diseases—a burden borne by every age group, every segment of society, and people all over the world. To accomplish this goal, the NINDS supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseased nervous system, fosters the training of investigators in the basic and clinical neurosciences, and seeks better understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of neurological disorders.

      National Institute of Nursing Research

      http://www.ninr.nih.gov/

      The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) supports clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span—from the management of patients during illness and recovery to the reduction of risks for disease and disability; the promotion of healthy lifestyles; the promotion of quality of life in those with chronic illness; and the care for individuals at the end of life. This research may also include families within a community context, and it also focuses on the special needs of at-risk and underserved populations, with an emphasis on health disparities.

      National Institute on Aging

      Building 31, Room 5C27, MSC 2292

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892

      Telephone: 301-496-1752

      http://www.nia.nih.gov/

      The National Institute on Aging (NIA) leads a national program of research on the biomedical, social, and behavioral aspects of the aging process; the prevention of age-related diseases and disabilities; and the promotion of a better quality of life for all older Americans.

      National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

      6000 Executive Boulevard, Willco Building

      Bethesda, MD 20892-7003

      http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/

      The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the enormous health, social, and economic consequences of this disease.

      National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

      MSC 2320

      31 Center Drive

      Bethesda, MD 20892-2320

      http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/

      The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) conducts and supports biomedical research and research training on normal mechanisms as well as diseases and disorders of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language that affect 46 million Americans.

      National Institute on Drug Abuse

      http://www.nida.nih.gov/

      The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) leads the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines and rapid and effective dissemination of results of that research to improve drug abuse and addiction prevention, treatment, and policy.

      National Library of Medicine

      8600 Rockville Pike

      Bethesda, MD 20894

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/

      The National Library of Medicine (NLM) collects, organizes, and makes available biomedical science information to investigators, educators, and practitioners and carries out programs designed to strengthen medical library services in the United States. Both health professionals and the public use its electronic databases, including MEDLINE and MEDLINEplus, extensively throughout the world.

      National Science Foundation

      4201 Wilson Boulevard

      Arlington, VA 22230

      Telephone: 703-292-5111

      http://www.nsf.gov

      The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the U.S. government. The NSF's mission is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense.

      Neurobehavioral Teratology Society

      http://www.nbts.org/

      The purpose of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society (NBTS) is to understand the behavioral and developmental alterations that result from genetic and environmental perturbations of the nervous system during the preand perinatal period. NBTS is also focused on communicating such findings to physicians, scientists, public health officials, and the general public to promote awareness and lessen the risks for teratologic occurrences in the population at large. NBTS also has a special focus of educating scientists in the appropriate methodology for conducting teratologic research.

      Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research

      http://obssr.od.nih.gov/

      The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) mission is to stimulate behavioral and social sciences research throughout the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to integrate these areas of research more fully into others of the NIH health research enterprise, thereby improving our understanding, treatment, and prevention of disease.

      Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

      200 Independence Avenue S.W., Room 738G

      Washington, DC 20201

      Telephone: 202-205-8611

      http://www.odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/

      Created by Congress in 1976, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) plays a vital role in developing and coordinating a wide range of national disease prevention and health promotion strategies.

      http://Psychology.info

      http://psychology.info/

      http://Psychology.info is the easiest starting point for psychology and mental health information on the Internet. The links are handpicked psychology destinations with reliable information and include recent headlines in the field of psychology.

      PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society

      6619 Palma Lane

      Morton Grove, IL 60053

      http://www.pnirs.org

      The PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society (PNIRS) is an international organization for researchers in a number of scientific and medical disciplines, including psychology, neurosciences, immunology, pharmacology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, infectious diseases, and rheumatology, who are interested in interactions between the nervous system and the immune system, and the relationship between behavior and health.

      Psychonomic Society

      1710 Fortview Road

      Austin, TX 78704

      Telephone: 512-462-2442

      http://www.psychonomic.org/

      The Psychonomic Society promotes the communication of scientific research in psychology and allied sciences. Its members are qualified to conduct and supervise scientific research, must hold a PhD degree or equivalent, and must have published significant research other than the doctoral dissertation.

      Psych web http://www.psywww.com/

      Psych web is a Web site containing lots of psychology-related information for students and teachers of psychology.

      Public Health Institute

      2001 Addison Street, Second Floor

      Berkeley, CA 94704-1103

      Telephone: 510-644-8200

      http://www.phi.org/

      The Public Health Institute (PHI) is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting health, well-being, and quality of life for people throughout California, across the nation, and around the world. As one of the largest and most comprehensive public health organizations in the nation, the PHI focuses its efforts in two distinct but complementary ways. PHI promotes and sustains independent, innovative research, training, and demonstration programs—many in collaboration with the private health care system and community-based organizations. PHI also serves as a partner with government to support its role in assessment, policy development, and assurance.

      Research Society on Alcoholism

      4314 Medical Parkway, Suite 12

      Austin, TX 78756-3332

      Telephone: 512-454-0022

      http://www.rsoa.org/

      The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) serves as a meeting ground for scientists in the broad areas of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. The society promotes research and the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge.

      Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

      P.O. Box 2316

      Princeton, NJ 08543

      Telephone: 1-888-631-9989

      http://www.rwjf.org

      The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is the largest philanthropy devoted exclusively to health and health care in the United States. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation seeks to improve the health and health care of all Americans. To achieve the most impact with its funds, it prioritizes grants into four goal areas: to ensure that all Americans have access to quality health care at reasonable cost; to improve the quality of care and support for people with chronic health conditions; to promote healthy communities and lifestyles; and to reduce the personal, social, and economic harm caused by substance abuse—tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs.

      http://Science.gov

      http://www.science.gov

      http://Science.gov is a gateway to authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies, including research and development results. It contains reliable information resources selected by the respective agencies as their best science information. Two major types of information are included—selected authoritative science Web sites and databases of technical reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, and other published materials. The selected Web sites can be explored from the http://science.gov home-page. The Web pages and the databases can be searched individually or simultaneously from the search page.

      Social Sciences Institute

      North Carolina AT&T University

      Charles H. Moore Building, A-35

      Greensboro, NC 27411

      http://www.ssi.nrcs.usda.gov/ssi/

      The Social Sciences Institute (SSI) integrates customer opinion and fieldwork with science-based analysis to discover how social and economic aspects of human behavior can be applied to natural resource conservation programs, policies, and activities.

      Society of Behavioral Medicine

      7600 Terrace Avenue, Suite 203

      Middleton, WI 53562

      Telephone: 608-827-7267

      http://www.sbm.org

      The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) is the nation's largest multidisciplinary organization dedicated to advancing the science and practice of behavioral medicine. Behavioral medicine is defined as an interdisciplinary field dedicated to improving individual and population health through the integration of scientific knowledge from the behavioral, biomedical, social, and public health disciplines and through the application of this evidence-based knowledge to improve prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, chronic illness management, quality of life, and coping during all phases of the life cycle.

      Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology

      4327 Ridge Road

      Palmyra, VA 22963

      http://www.sbn.org

      The Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology (SBN) is a scientific society committed to understanding interactions between behavior and neuroendocrine function to advance understanding of behavioral neuroendocrinology. The society promotes exchanges between investigators approaching this problem from diverse perspectives. Researchers working in laboratory, field, or clinical settings and on invertebrates, vertebrates, or cell lines both in vitro and in vivo are encouraged to join the society. Scientists interested in behavioral ecology, animal behavior, biological timing, neurosciences, endocrinology, development, cell biology, and genetics are all welcome. One's research need not explicitly employ behavioral techniques as long as the research is relevant to behavior. Similarly, behavioral research need not employ neuroendocrine techniques, but only be related to neuroendocrine function. Integrating cellular and molecular concepts into a functional framework is crucial to understanding how neuroendocrine function affects behavior and is, in turn, affected by behavior.

      Society for Medical Decision Making

      1211 Locust Street

      Philadelphia, PA 19107

      Telephone: 215-545-7697

      http://www.smdm.org/

      The Society for Medical Decision Making's mission is to improve health outcomes through the advancement of proactive systematic approaches to clinical decision making and policy formation in health care by providing a scholarly forum that connects and educates researchers, providers, policymakers, and the public.

      Society for Neuroscience

      11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 500

      Washington, DC 20036

      Telephone: 202-462-6688

      http://www.sfn.org

      The Society for Neuroscience (SfN) is a nonprofit membership organization of basic scientists and physicians who study the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience includes the study of brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, sleep, stress, aging, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. It also includes the molecules, cells, and genes responsible for nervous system functioning.

      Society of Pediatric Psychology

      P.O. Box 170231

      Atlanta, GA 30317

      http://www.apa.org/divisions/div54/

      The Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) provides a forum for scientists and professionals interested in the health care of children, adolescents, and their families. The field of pediatric psychology is defined by the concerns of psychologists and allied professionals who work in interdisciplinary settings such as children's hospitals, developmental clinics, and pediatric or medical group practices, as well as traditional clinical child or academic arenas. It focuses on the rapidly expanding role of behavioral medicine and health psychology in the care of children, adolescents, and their families. As Division 54 of the American Psychological Association (APA), it provides an annual forum for research and practice presentations at the annual APA convention.

      Society for Prevention Research

      1300 I Street, N.W., Suite 250 West

      Washington, DC 20005

      Telephone: 202-216-9670

      info@preventionresearch.org

      One of the primary goals of the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) is to create a scientific, multidisciplinary forum for prevention science, and a concerted effort is being made to invite investigators whose research specialties are not represented in the current membership to join SPR.

      Society for Psychophysiological Research

      1010 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Suite 1100

      Washington, DC 20005-4907

      Telephone: 202-393-4810

      http://www.wlu.edu/~spr/

      The Society for Psychophysiological Research is an international scientific society with worldwide membership. The purpose of the society is to foster research on the interrelationships between the physiological and psychological aspects of behavior.

      Society for Public Health Education

      750 First Street N.E., Suite 910

      Washington, DC 20002-4242

      Telephone: 202-408-9804

      http://www.sophe.org/

      The Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) is an independent, international professional association made up of a diverse membership of health education professionals and students. The society promotes healthy behaviors, healthy communities, and healthy environments through its membership, its network of local chapters, and its numerous partnerships with other organizations. With its primary focus on public health education, SOPHE provides leadership through a code of ethics; standards for professional preparation, research, and practice; professional development; and public outreach.

      Society for Research in Child Development

      University of Michigan

      3131 South State Street, Suite 302

      Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1623

      http://www.srcd.org/

      The purposes of the Society for Research in Child Development are to promote multidisciplinary research in the field of human development, to foster the exchange of information among scientists and other professionals of various disciplines, and to encourage applications of research findings. The society is a multidisciplinary, not-for-profit, professional association with a membership of approximately 5,500 researchers, practitioners, and human development professionals from more than 50 countries.

      Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

      7600 Terrace Avenue, Suite 203

      Middleton, WI 53562, USA

      Telephone: 608-836-3787

      http://www.srnt.org/

      The mission of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) is to stimulate the generation of new knowledge concerning nicotine in all its manifestations—from molecular to societal.

      Society for Stimulus Properties of Drugs

      http://www.sspd.org.uk/

      The Society for Stimulus Properties of Drugs (SSPD) supports the use of drug discrimination methods and some related approaches in teaching and research on psychoactive drugs. Many of these drugs have medical uses in psychiatry and neurology, whereas others have no recognized medical uses but may be under development for such use, or are subject to abuse. Both licit and illicit substances are included. Membership of SSPD is open to individuals with bachelor or higher degrees in relevant subjects and with a genuine interest in the field.

      Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency

      5600 Fishers Lane

      Rockville, MD 20857

      http://www.samhsa.gov/

      The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Agency (SAMHSA) is the federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses.

      U.S. National Committee of the International Union of Psychological Science

      http://www.iupsys.org/

      The International Union of Psychological Science serves as an umbrella international voice supporting “the development of psychological science, whether biological or social, normal or abnormal, pure or applied.” It has national members from close to 70 countries, and works to represent the full breadth of psychology as a profession and as a science.

      Women's Health Initiative

      http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi/

      http://www.whi.org/

      The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) is one of the largest preventive studies of its kind in the United States. The WHI is a 15-year research program that is composed of three major components: a randomized controlled clinical trial of promising but unproven approaches to prevention, an observational study to identify predictors of disease, and a study of community approaches to developing healthful behaviors.

      World Health Organization

      Avenue Appia 20

      1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland

      Telephone: (+ 41 22) 791 21 11

      http://www.who.int

      The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations specialized agency for health, was established in 1948. WHO's mission is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's constitution as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

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