Asian American Society: An Encyclopedia

Asian American Society: An Encyclopedia

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Mary Yu Danico

Abstract

Asian Americans are a growing, minority population in the United States. After a 46 percent population growth between 2000 and 2010 according to the 2010 Census, there are 17.3 million Asian Americans today. Yet Asian Americans as a category are a diverse set of peoples from over 30 distinctive Asian-origin subgroups that defy simplistic descriptions or generalizations. They face a wide range of issues and problems within the larger American social universe despite the persistence of common stereotypes that label them as a “model minority” for the generalized attributes offered uncritically in many media depictions.

Asian American Society: An Encyclopedia provides a thorough introduction to the wide-ranging and fast-developing field of Asian American studies. Published with the Association for Asian American Studies (AAAS), two volumes of ...

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    • Arts, Culture, Pop Culture, and Media
    • Asian American Literature
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    • Education
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    • Family, Generations, and Youth Culture
    • History of Asian Americans
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      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Mary Yu Danico has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa and is a vice chair and professor at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Her areas of expertise are in race relations and family, and she has vested interests in Asian American studies, Korean American family and community formation, ethnic identity, 1.5- and second-generation issues, immigration, diaspora and reverse migration, and LGBT communities.

      She developed and runs the department Peer Mentor program, advises students in the Four-Year Pledge program and students who want to be engaged in university life. She was a Fulbright Senior Scholar at Seoul Korea (2005–06), former chair of the American Sociological Association Asia/Asia America section, and the president of the Association for Asian American Studies (2012–14). She is the author of The 1.5 Generation: Becoming Korean American in Hawaii (2004), Asian American Issues (2004) and Transforming the Ivory Tower: Challenging Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia in Higher Education (2012).

      AAAS Mission Statement

      The Association for Asian American Studies (AAAS) was founded in 1979 for the purpose of advancing the highest professional standard of excellence in teaching and research in the field of Asian American Studies; promoting better understanding and closer ties between and among various sub-components within Asian American Studies: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Hawaiian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, Pacific Islander, and other groups. AAAS sponsors professional activities to facilitate increased communication and scholarly exchange among teachers, researchers, and students in the field of Asian American Studies. The organization advocates and represents the interests and welfare of Asian American Studies and Asian Americans. AAAS is also founded for the purpose of educating American society about the history and aspirations of Asian American ethnic minorities.

      List of Contributors

      • Omar Abdullah

        University of California, Davis

      • Margaret Abraham

        Hofstra University

      • Dean Ryuta Adachi

        Claremont Graduate University

      • Amefil Agbayani

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Constancio R. Arnaldo, Jr.

        University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      • Paul Michael Leonardo Atienza

        University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      • Hazel R. Atuel

        University of Southern California

      • Tyler Baldor

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Victor Bascara

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Eugenia Beh

        Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      • Teresa Bill

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Stephen Bischoff

        Washington State University

      • Rick Bonus

        University of Washington

      • Kyung-Sook Boo

        Sogang University

      • Sarah E. Boslaugh

        Kennesaw State University

      • David L. Brunsma

        Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      • Tracy Lachica Buenavista

        California State University, Northridge

      • Claudine Castano

        Mount Saint Mary College

      • Edward T. Chang

        University of California, Riverside

      • Jason Oliver Chang

        University of Connecticut

      • Stewart Chang

        Whittier Law School

      • Prema Chaudhari

        Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

      • Joseph Cheah

        University of Saint Joseph

      • Wendy Cheng

        Arizona State University

      • Yuching Cheng

        State University of New York, Albany

      • Floyd Cheung

        Smith College

      • Vichet Chhuon

        University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

      • Doris Ching

        University of Hawai‘i

      • Yu-Fang Cho

        Miami University of Ohio

      • Raymond Douglas Chong

        Independent Scholar

      • Catherine Ceniza Choy

        University of California, Berkeley

      • Janet Hyunju Clarke

        Stony Brook University

      • Mary Yu Danico

        California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

      • Loan Dao

        University of Massachusetts, Boston

      • Shilpa Davé

        University of Virginia

      • Lawrence-Minh Bui Davis

        Asian American Literary Review

      • Kris T. De Pedro

        Chapman University

      • Jean-Paul R. deGuzman

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Shruti Devgan

        Rutgers University

      • Lavina Dhingra

        Bates College

      • Pawan Dhingra

        Tufts University

      • Hien Duc Do

        San Jose State University

      • Patti Duncan

        Oregon State University

      • Daniel B. Eisen

        Pacific University

      • Yen Le Espiritu

        University of California, San Diego

      • Kale Bantigue Fajardo

        University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

      • Timothy Fong

        California State University, Sacramento

      • Diane C. Fujino

        University of California, Santa Barbara

      • Catherine Fung

        Bentley University

      • Juilanne P. Gavino

        University of California, Santa Barbara

      • Abbie L. Grubb

        San Jacinto College

      • Rudy P. Guevarra, Jr.

        Arizona State University

      • Sarah Ha

        Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

      • Thao Le-Thanh Ha

        Mira Costa College-Oceanside Campus

      • Gena Hamamoto

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Nicholas D. Hartlep

        Illinois State University

      • Krystal R. Hauseur

        Independent Scholar

      • Biran Masuru Hayashi

        Kyoto University

      • Katie Kaori Hayashi

        Independent Scholar

      • Shawn M. Higgins

        University of Connecticut

      • Stephanie Hinnershitz

        Valdosta State University

      • Phoebe Ho

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Todd Honma

        Pitzer College

      • Stephanie Hsu

        Pace University

      • Shirley Hune

        University of Washington

      • Eric Hung

        Westminster Choir College of Rider University

      • Florante Peter Ibanez

        Loyola Marymount University

      • Jon Iftikar

        University of Wisconsin, Madison

      • Emily Noelle Sanchez Ignacio

        University of Washington, Tacoma

      • Carol Izumi

        University of California, Hastings College of the Law

      • Dimpal Jain

        California State University, Northridge

      • Grace Kao

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Shilpashri V. Karbhari

        New Mexico Highlands University

      • Nazli Kibria

        Boston University

      • Daniel Y. Kim

        Brown University

      • Elaine H. Kim

        University of California, Berkeley

      • Eunbi Kim

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Jinwon Kim

        City University of New York

      • Jessica M. Kizer

        University of California, Irvine

      • Cynya Michelle Ko

        Independent Scholar

      • Sailaja Krishnamurti

        University of Toronto, Mississauga

      • Bill Kte'pi

        Independent Scholar

      • Robert Ji-Song Ku

        Binghamton University

      • Roderick N. Labrador

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Mariam B. Lam

        University of California, Riverside

      • Josephine Lee

        University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

      • Kathy Lee

        Korea University

      • Sharon Heijin Lee

        New York University

      • David J. Leonard

        Washington State University

      • Karen J. Leong

        Arizona State University

      • Genevieve Leung

        University of San Francisco

      • Maxwell Leung

        California College of the Arts

      • Beth Lew-Williams

        Northwestern University

      • Wei Li

        Arizona State University

      • Nhi T. Lieu

        Independent Scholar

      • Belinda C. Lum

        California State University, Long Beach

      • Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Hasan Mahmud

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Dina C. Maramba

        State University of New York, Binghamton

      • Davianna Pomaikai McGregor

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Ninochka McTaggart

        University of California, Riverside

      • Christine Mok

        University of Cincinnati

      • Stephen Murphy Shigematsu

        Stanford University

      • Lata Murti

        Brandman University

      • Samuel D. Museus

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Asha Nadkarni

        University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      • Eric Nakamura

        Independent Scholar

      • Don T. Nakanishi

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Dana Nakano

        University of California, Irvine

      • Anjana Narayan

        California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

      • Cheryl Narumi Naruse

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Franklin Ng

        California State University, Fresno

      • Konrad Ng

        Smithsonian Institution

      • Bach Mai Dolly Nguyen

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Phonshia Nie

        Northwestern University

      • erin Khue Ninh

        University of California, Santa Barbara

      • Eileen O'Brien

        Saint Leo University

      • Anthony C. Ocampo

        California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

      • Paul Ocampo

        Asian Americans Advancing Justice-Asian Law Caucus

      • Franklin Odo

        National Historic Landmarks, NPS

      • Stella Oh

        Loyola Marymount University

      • James Ong

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Mark Padoongpatt

        University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      • Leah L. Panganiban

        University of Washington

      • Jerry Z. Park

        Baylor University

      • Wayne Patterson

        St. Norbert College

      • Malaphone Phommasa

        University of California, Santa Barbara

      • Eric Pido

        San Francisco State University

      • OiYan A. Poon

        Loyola University Chicago

      • Elizabeth Rholetter Purdy

        Independent Scholar

      • Wylene Rholetter

        Auburn University

      • Greg Robinson

        Université du Québec à Montréal

      • Robyn Magalit Rodriguez

        University of California, Davis

      • John P. Rosa

        University of Hawai‘i

      • Shantee Rosado

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Tanya Sanabria

        University of California, Irvine

      • Cathy J. Schlund-Vials

        University of Connecticut, Storrs

      • Shalini Shankar

        Northwestern University

      • Nitasha Tamar Sharma

        Northwestern University

      • Jeff Sheng

        Stanford University

      • Miya Shichinohe-Suga

        Tokyo Gakugei University

      • Elena Shih

        Brown University

      • Kevin Yang Shih

        University of California, Davis

      • Haerlin Shin

        Vanderbilt University

      • Jaideep Singh

        California State University, East Bay

      • Jane Le Skaife

        University of California, Davis

      • Daniel Soodjinda

        California State University, Stanislaus

      • Micheline M. Soong

        Hawai‘i Pacific University

      • Paul Spickard

        University of California, Santa Barbara

      • Phi Hong Su

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Phung Su

        California State University, Fullerton

      • Marie-Therese Cecilia Sulit

        Mount Saint Mary College

      • Bob H. Suzuki

        California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

      • Renee Tajima-Pena

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Dana Y. Takagi

        University of California, Santa Cruz

      • Winnie Tang

        University of British Columbia

      • Jake Tarrence

        Western Washington University

      • Robert Teranishi

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Stanley Thangaraj

        City College of New York

      • Tomoko Tokunaga

        Independent Scholar

      • Yamanishi Toshihiro

        Oyama National College of Technology, Japan

      • Jean Toyama

        University of Hawai‘i at Manoa

      • Monica M. Trieu

        Purdue University

      • Justin K. H. Tse

        University of Washington

      • Glenn Tsunokai

        Western Washington University

      • Dawn Lee Tu

        University of San Francisco

      • Mia Tuan

        University of Oregon

      • Phitsamay Sychitkokhong Uy

        University of Massachusetts, Lowell

      • Chia Youyee Vang

        University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

      • Tanya Grace Velasquez

        University of Washington, Tacoma

      • Leighton Kenji Vila

        Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      • Linda Trinh Vo

        University of California, Irvine

      • Thuy Vo Dang

        University of California, Irvine

      • Grace Wang

        University of California, Davis

      • Kaori Mori Want

        Shibaura Institute of Technology

      • Kathy Warnes

        Independent Scholar

      • Jenny Heijun Wills

        University of Winnipeg

      • Diane Wong

        Cornell University

      • Janelle S. Wong

        University of Maryland, College Park

      • Kent Wong

        UCLA Center for Labor Research & Education

      • Vivian Wong

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Laura A. Wright

        University of Connecticut

      • Frank H. Wu

        University of California, Hastings College of the Law

      • Ming-Hsuan Wu

        University of Pennsylvania

      • David K. Yoo

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Nancy Yuen

        Biola University

      • James Zarsadiaz

        Northwestern University

      Introduction

      This encyclopedia is an ambitious project that describes the breadth and depth of Asian American society. By presenting the multifaceted nature and the intersectionality of Asian American Studies, this project brings together Association for Asian American Studies members, leading and emerging scholars in the field, to provide articles that we hope will capture the critical imagination of our readers. We recognize that it is impossible to discuss every facet of Asian American society, but we have put forth our best efforts to examine the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political aspects of our society through the lens of multiple disciplines and voices. The encyclopedia astutely addresses and questions Asian American studies in the past, today, and the future. We examine our positionality on linking transnational and diasporic connections that continue to strengthen Asian American communities with the help of technology and advancements such as the social media that have opened up the airwaves to pop culture, social movements, and international human rights issues. The oceans that once separated us are now linked by modernization, globalization, and increased diasporic connections via social media, affordable travel, and heightened awareness of how to stay connected to our global neighbors. Furthermore, the imperialization that has permeated much of Asia's continent has taken on a neoimperial position as peoples are still commodified in the labor and entertainment industry. This encyclopedia encourages the readers to rethink our positionality in this global village and to challenge the global-local as well as the paradox that exists in our respective imperial nations, both at the macro- and microinterpersonal levels.

      Is Asian American the “New Immigrant”?

      According to the U.S. census, Asian American populations have increased four times faster than the total U.S. population. The total U.S. population grew by 9.7 percent, from 281.4 million in 2000 to 308.7 million in 2010. In comparison, the Asian American population increased more than four times faster than the total U.S. population, growing by 43 percent from 10.2 million to 14.7 million. This seemed to surprise many, as Latinos were slated as the fastest growing immigrant group. What many fail to address is that U.S. policies against undocumented immigrants in general, and Latino profiling in particular, have reduced the number of Latino immigrant groups. Yet when we exam Asian American history, it is clear that policies also reduced the number of Asian immigrants at different time periods in U.S. history. Policies that were formalized, for example, in the Immigration Act of 1790 and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which restricted access for Asian immigrants to the United States, are not new and, in some cases, entrance to the United States was given to laborers or temporary visa holders but without the opportunities for citizenship or ownership of land. It was not until the 1940s and early 1950s that people of Asian descent were allowed to become naturalized: the Chinese in 1943, Filipinos and Asian Indians in 1946, and Japanese and Koreans in 1952. Despite the long history of Asian immigrants in the United States and Hawai‘i (before it became the 50th state), Asian Americans continue to face the stereotype of being foreigners in the United States.

      Compared to the number of Asian immigrants in the early 1800s, there is a significant shift in the way the United States looks at and responds to Asian Americans today.

      Early immigrants worked on orange groves, Hawai‘i plantations, and railroads with a sojourner mentality. While laborers, largely men, came in droves to supplement the United States' growing agricultural, fishing, and industrial economy, upper-class Asian Americans have long traveled to the United States as students and diplomats. While the elites maintained the privilege of early diasporic identities, laborers sought ways to support themselves and their families back home. There is documentation from all Asian ethnic groups of sending money back home, consolidating wages to help one member bring a bride or family member to join them, and, in some cases, creating calabash families in their temporary home. While laborers were predominantly men in the beginning, women laborers also entered the U.S. landscape early on as picture brides, war brides, and domestic workers. The women, in many ways, should be credited with creating Asian American family structures in the United States and, in some cases, crossing ethnic and racial boundaries by having mixed race or mixed ethnic children. As families situated themselves or nomadically sought out places where opportunities surfaced, incidents of hate crimes against Asian immigrants, domestic violence, sexual assault, and racial discrimination permeated the society of the United States. The challenges and often-violent experiences of the early immigrants cannot be overstated; however, the purpose of this discussion is not to give a historical overview but rather to connect how situations, while significantly different, mirror those of the past.

      No incident can portray the institutional racism better than the incarceration of Japanese Americans in the United States. First- and second-generation Japanese Americans were deemed enemies of the country and possible threats to national security after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. As non-Japanese Asians wore badges that stated “I'm not Japanese,” Japanese Americans and some non-Japanese family members were interned in various camps throughout the Midwest, South, and West Coast. As anti-Japanese sentiments flared, so did the need to profess one's American-ness. For Japanese Americans this was done by taking the loyalty oath that swore allegiance to the United States while stating a clear abandonment of the Japanese emperor. Those who resisted the internments or the loyalty oath were received with disdain and contempt. The Japanese American Citizens League also condemned resisters such as Fred Korematsu and the No-No boys. The 442nd combat troupe, however, were the most decorated and most lauded as the ideal Japanese immigrants as they clearly showed their loyalty to the United States.

      Post-War Immigrants

      The post-1965 immigrants came with a different background from that of the early immigrants, as they were more educated and came with capital, which made transition slightly easier. In addition, they immigrated at the turn of the civil rights movement when demand for racial justice, combined with a call to ban Eurocentric teachings in the United States, and growing anger with the U.S. occupation in Asian countries meant the climate was significantly different. The Americanization campaign's forced assimilation of Japanese Americans through incarceration sent a clear message to Asian Americans that, in the word of Star Trek's Borg, “resistance is futile.” Yet, the notion of resistance is what fueled Asian American studies, as it partnered with the Chicano/Latino Studies and Black Studies movement of 1968. While Asian Americans are often left invisible in the discourse of the civil rights movement, early pioneers like Richard Aoki and Yuri Koshigaya led the way to begin the ideas of building coalitions with other ethnic groups to develop antiracist, antioppression, and anti-imperial ideas of who belongs in the U.S. landscape and in the U.S. curriculum.

      There have been key moments in Asian American history that have been well documented and taught in Asian American Studies courses. The relocation of peoples, whether it be through the internment and incarceration of bodies or the displacement of people in SF I Hotel or the colonization of the sovereign nation of Hawai‘i, is slowly entering the academic consciousness of Asian Americanists who study Asian Americans in the United States and the Pacific.

      Yet, for Asian Americanists raised in the 1980s, the brutal murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 slapped the reality of racisms and anti-Japanese and anti-Asian sentiment that continued to permeate the U.S. consciousness. The perpetrators of the attack faced no prison time and were released with no consequences, despite the challenges of Vincent Chin's mother and an army of community leaders/activists who continued to fight for justice for Vincent Chin. Today, the question “Who killed Vincent Chin?” would be merely a question that has no contextual framework if not for the teaching of Asian American Studies classes that remind us that racism and the foreignization of Asian Americans lingers. The racial divide in the United States has been polarized as black and white. The binary paradigm continues despite the long history of anti-Asian sentiments and discrimination against people of color.

      In 1992, the Los Angeles Riots became the first multiethnic uprising in response to the acquittal of police officers who were videotaped beating Rodney King. The question “Why can't we get along?” became a mantra for this period when scholars and community members alike question why it was difficult for those living in the United States to get along. In the case of the Los Angeles Riots, the black-Korean conflict was highlighted by the media, who ignored that the riot or uprising stemmed from a response to what the public perceived as an unjust verdict. Angela Oh, an attorney who eloquently articulated the positions of Korean Americans living in Los Angeles and its “Koreatown,” quickly challenged images of vigilante immigrants holding off rioters with guns, speaking broken English. This became a pivotal moment for many Korean Americans as it became evidently clear that the 1.5 generation and 2nd generation were fast becoming community leaders and spokespersons, and they did not personify the stereotypical foreigner image that the media was continuing to perpetuate. Only a decade later, September 11, 2001, created a new enemy in our homeland when the Twin Towers in New York City, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the Flight 93 crash in Pennsylvania were all linked to terrorist attacks on U.S. soil. Not since Pearl Harbor had the United States encountered the vulnerability of being attacked on U.S. soil. This event ignited patriotism throughout the nation as American flags were seen flying on a majority of cars driving on national roads and Americans sought to support and help each other grieve the loss of their friends and families. Concurrently, an increased level of hate crimes against Middle Easterners, Sikh Indians, and anyone perceived as Muslim.

      The paradox of being Asian American is that we are perceived as both the model minority who are “happier, more successful, and more educated” while at the same time a perpetual foreigner. The 2012 Pew report titled “The Rise of Asian Americans” stated that not only were Asian Americans the fastest growing immigrant group, they were also the most successful and happiest of all groups. Through an expansive survey, the Pew report concluded what many demographers have known for a while. Yet, this report was a surprise to many, and news reporters and television stations read the summaries of the report with little discussion. Fact checking was minimal, since the Pew Center, a respected think tank, stood by its report that Asian Americans were on the rise. The report reaffirmed long-held stereotypes of Asian Americans as the model minority who are in many ways doing much better economically and socially than other racial groups. The monolithic views of Asian Americans sparked a healthy discussion between Asian American and Pacific Islander communities and galvanized divergent communities to respond to the stagnant stereotypes that permeate Asian American communities.

      As president of the Association for Asian American Studies, I responded that the discourse on Asian Americans has not been in-depth and has not represented the diverse experiences of Asian Americans. Generalizations, based on aggregate data, have been used to make assumptions about all Asian Americans. This generalization has led to stereotypes, including that of perpetual foreigners or honorary whites, aka the model minority. And these stereotypes have been used to exclude or ignore various issues and problems that many subgroups of Asian American still face. Sadly, the recent Pew Center report perpetuated this sentiment in its framing of the model minority, tiger mom, foreigner, and the implication of an Asian Invasion. The way in which the data were contextualized made this report a red flag concern for many Asian American advocates around the nation.

      Scholars accurately questioned the exclusion of different subgroups of Asian American communities, as well as raised concerns about the potential interethnic conflict that may arise and hate crimes against Asian Americans. Why make a fuss? Why make waves? Why not just take it as a compliment? To be lauded as educated, successful, and happy should make any community happy? These are a few of the questions that have been asked since the Pew Report. Why is a monolithic view about Asian immigrants and ignoring a large segment of our Asian American community a compliment?

      What is even more alarming is the message that the report reinforces to those who feel that Asian Americans have an unfair advantage, that they are taking over, and that perhaps they are going to take over our society. The framing from the media is likely to flame the fires of anti-Asian sentiments in an economically challenged United States. We need to learn from the 30-year anniversary of Vincent Chin's murder to ensure that reports such as this need to portray a comprehensive picture. We also see a rebirth of anti-Affirmative Action brought on by the 80–20 initiative or the Supreme Court decision in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin.

      What has been impactful about the Pew report is that the study has galvanized Asian American scholars and community organizations to be engaged in the discussion. Those who feel that the report accurately represents Asian Americans and those who feel marginalized by the report all have an opportunity to dialogue about the importance of understanding the diverse and nuanced complexity of Asian American communities.

      What is clear is that the report does not reflect the lives of Asian Americans today, but it has opened the gates so that we can discuss what more needs to be done.

      Bringing to light the positive accomplishments of Asian Americans is a part of the immigrant narrative but it is not the only one. The reality is that there is a significant body of our community who are not happy, educated, or high-income earners. In fact, these invisible Asian Americans are among our poor and those with limited opportunities for education.

      Following the International Monetary Fund (IMF) crisis, there was a political shift in Korea, India, and China, and Asian Americans began to move back to Asia for work, family, and community. The idea of reverse migration became an interest for many Asian Americanist as the reality of transnational lives became increasingly evident throughout the globe. There is also a challenge here for Asian Americans returning to their homeland or to Asia. What becomes clear to some is that they are foreigners in the United States and they are foreigners in Asia as well. Many suggest a feeling of not being accepted here nor there and struggling to find a place. The U.S. powers have encouraged cultural amnesia for people of Asian descent. The assimilation or Americanization campaign post-World War II and the continuing significance of anti-immigrant laws throughout the United States have incentivized immigrants against adopting the American way of live. There has been resistance, however, from those who see the advantage of having and maintaining multiple cultural lives. The changing economic standing of Asian countries has also elevated their social standing. I use Korean Pop Music (KPOP) or the Korean Wave (Hallyu) as examples of how the social media outlets have globalized Korean culture and also have added cultural and social capital to being Korean. The social media outlets like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, etc., have made Korean culture accessible and available to millions of viewers and observers around the world. Social media have also opened the gates of social movements and political issues that are impacting our world and have motivated many to be engaged in events occurring outside the United States.

      Asian American Studies: What Is Our Role Now and What Is the Future of Asian American Studies?

      As Asian American Studies (AAS) celebrates 45 years of struggle and institutional recognition, the reality for AAS is that the struggle continues and the fight for institutional recognition is far from over. The threat to higher education has directly hit Ethnic Studies programs in general and Asian American Studies in particular. The increasing complexities of Asian American and Pacific Islander communities stem from legal and policy shifts, demographic movement, and the increased recognition of diasporic ties and identities. As an interdisciplinary discipline that envelops social justice in its mission, Asian American Studies has a heightened investment in ensuring that all voices are heard and represented. This includes not only the traditional academic disciplines but also creative writers, visual arts and technology, and community organizations and leaders who continue to impact Asian American lives.

      Despite the interdisciplinary nature of Asian American Studies, programs and departments around the globe have been forced to or self-segregated themselves from other traditional disciplines. The academy does not do well in accepting new or emerging disciplines and has created an elite system of merit and promotion based on a traditional order of rewarding and recognizing scholarship. This is the challenge in countries, states, and cities that are still living with racialized criteria of what is real scholarship and curriculum. Asian Americans Studies is challenged with the need to not only produce excellent scholarship but also present it to the mainstream public in a way that is palatable to those who may not have seen Asian Americans as visible members of their academic institutions.

      Similar dilemmas face Asian American undergraduates as they are evaluated differently than their white counterparts when in comes to college admissions. (For greater discussion on this point, see Scott Jaschik, “Meritocracy or Bias?” in Higher Education [August 13, 2013].) How does Asian American Studies remain relevant and current in this climate? How is it possible to respond to the cyclical model minority and foreigner paradigm that continues to daunt Asian Americans Studies from progressing forward? The realities of the U.S. census made it strikingly clear that the demographic shifts, which many saw coming, have hit the mainstream consciousness. The invisible minority group has somehow become the new immigrant and one that is on the rise. The idea of making waves and speaking up is not a new concept for Asian American Studies and, in fact, many believe that it is time to reclaim the social justice stance that helped launch Asian American Studies. Yet, the struggle is complicated by the pressure to professionalize and become institutionally relevant in a climate that is increasingly less friendly to Asian American Studies and its community.

      Suggestions for the Future: Is Asian American Studies Accessible?

      There have been various debates on who actually controls or dominates Asian American Studies. Is it ethnically based? The voices that resonated in the field were predominantly Japanese and Chinese Americans, as the histories of Hawai‘i’s plantations and U.S. railroads were dominated by these two east Asian groups. However, more recently we have seen increased scholarship from and on Korean Americans, Filipino Americans, Southeast Asian Americans, and South Asians. In addition, the scholarship has refocused on the national discourse rather than California versus the rest of the nation. As we continue to experience an influx of Asian immigrants, we also are experiencing a growing number of diasporic and transnational Asian Americans who travel between continents and nation-states. While some maintain dual citizenship, we also have others who are homeless and are nomadic in the diaspora. The connection that Asian Americans have today to the global community is vast. The future of Asian American Studies is to continue to examine and discuss our histories, as we have many more to unravel. To avoid cultural and historical amnesia and having a false consciousness of what is Asian American Studies, it is crucial to examine the intersectionality of space and peoples by gender, class, sexuality, and abilities. Only a fragment of Asian American histories have been told, and the future of Asian American Studies is to continue digging into the archives of our histories to better put into context where we are today.

      The question of whether Asian American Studies is accessible, translatable, or relatable has to do with whether we are inclusive of different groups and disciplines. Specifically, to not only look at the specific Asian ethnic groups but also to reflect on multiethnic and mixed-race Asian Americans and the global/diasporic Asian Americans will allow us to further expand Asian American Studies in a time when global connections are no longer imagined but real. Thus, the ability to translate literally the language that is spoken and translated to the culturally nuanced meanings in every day interactions helps us decipher the intercultural competence of our field. To avoid discipline jargons, Asian American Studies should remain connected to community concerns and hear the needs of the community.

      Mary YuDanicoEditor

      Chronology

      13,000–10,000 b.c.e.: The first humans migrate to North America, crossing a land bridge from Asia to Alaska; this land bridge disappears under water with rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age.

      300–750 c.e.: The first Polynesians arrive in Hawai‘i and other South Pacific islands.

      1763: Filipino sailors working for Spain jump ship and settle in small communities along the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana.

      1789: A small number of Chinese, mostly from the Guangdong and Fujian provinces, migrate to Hawai‘i.

      1790: The U.S. Naturalization Act excludes Asians and many others from citizenship, a privilege accorded only to “free white persons.”

      1806: The first Japanese immigrants arrive in Hawai‘i.

      1849: During the California Gold Rush, large numbers of Chinese immigrate to the United States to try their luck as miners.

      1850: The Criminal Proceedings Act declares that Native Americans cannot give testimony in court; the law is invoked in 1855 to prevent a Chinese from testifying, on the grounds that Native Americans arrived from Asia via the Bering Strait and thus that contemporary Asian immigrants should be treated similarly to Native Americans.

      1852: The first Chinese contract laborers are brought to Hawai‘i to work on sugar plantations; by 1900, about 50,000 Chinese will have arrived in Hawai‘i.

      1855: Chinese immigrant Yung Wing graduates from Yale, making him the first Chinese to graduate from an American college.

      1862: In California, a monthly tax of $2.50 is levied on Chinese people aged 18 and older as a means to discourage Chinese competition with American laborers.

      1875: The Page Law bans Chinese, Japanese, and Mongolian felons, prostitutes, and contract laborers from entering the United States.

      1876: The Reciprocity Treaty between the United States and Hawai‘i allows Hawai‘ian sugar to enter the United States without paying duty.

      1882: The Chinese Exclusion Act bars Chinese laborers from entering the United States for 10 years; only a few classes of workers are exempt, including teachers, merchants, and diplomats.

      1885: In Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, violence against Chinese working for a coal mining company results in 28 deaths.

      1888: The Scott Act prohibits reentry to the United States by Chinese who have left the country to visit relatives in China, an exception previously allowed under the Chinese Exclusion Act; the Scott law is upheld in the 1889 court decision Chae Chan Ping v. United States.

      1898: The U.S. Supreme Court, in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, rules that anyone born in the United States is a citizen, including the plaintiff, an American of Chinese descent; in addition, the right of Chinese American citizens to leave the United States and return freely is also confirmed.

      1898: As part of the Treaty of Paris following the Spanish-American War, Spain cedes the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the United States.

      1898: On July 7, the United States annexes Hawai‘i, which remains a U.S. territory until becoming a state in 1959.

      1898: Abiko Kyutaro, a Japanese immigrant, founds the Nichibei Shimbun in San Francisco; it is the first Japanese-language newspaper published on the U.S. mainland.

      1900: In United States v. Mrs. Gun Lim, a federal circuit court rules that Chinese merchants in the United States can bring their wives and minor children into the country.

      1900: The Organic Act bans contract labor in Hawai‘i and makes all U.S. laws valid in Hawai‘i as well.

      1907: The “Gentleman's Agreement” between Japan and the United States informally limits Japanese immigration to the United States; the agreement applies primarily to male laborers, and female “picture brides” are allowed to immigrate to the United States.

      1913: In California, the Alien Land Law prohibits aliens from purchasing or leasing land for more than three years; similar laws are passed in other states, aimed at limiting the economic power of the Japanese, who have achieved outstanding success working in agriculture. Some Japanese circumvent the law by purchasing or leasing land in the names of their American-born children.

      1918: Japanese immigrant Sessue Hayakawa, a stage actor and the first major male Asian film actor in Hollywood, founds a production company, Howarth Pictures.

      1920: The U.S. census records 85,202 Chinese and 220,596 Japanese Americans, demonstrating the decline of the Chinese population due to the Exclusion Act and the increase in the Japanese population as Japanese women are allowed to immigrate to the United States.

      1921: The “Ladies Agreement” ends the steady stream of Japanese “picture brides” to the United States as Japan agrees to not issue passports to likely picture brides (young women entering the country to marry a man they know only from photographs and/or from letters).

      1922: The Cable Act reverses the 1907 Expatriation Act and makes an American woman's citizenship independent from that of her husband, as long as the husband is eligible to become a naturalized citizen.

      1922: The U.S. Supreme Court decides in Takao Ozawa v. United States that Japanese are ineligible to become naturalized citizens because they are not white.

      1922: Anna May Wong, an actress born in Los Angeles to Chinese parents, has her first starring film role in The Toll of the Sea; she will later appear in films such as The Thief of Baghdad (1924) and Shanghai Express (1932) and becomes the first Asian American woman to play the lead role in a television program, in the detective series The Gallery of Madam Liu-Tsong.

      1923: The U.S. Supreme Court, in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, rules that Asian Indians do not qualify as “white” despite the fact that they are generally classified by anthropologists as Aryans; in the specific case in question, the United States retracts the citizenship of an immigrant from India, Bhagat Sing Thind.

      1924: The Immigration Act establishes a quota system based on the number of people of each nationality residing in the United States in 1890 and bars immigration of individuals who are not eligible for citizenship, a category that applies to many Asians.

      1926: Japanese immigrant George Shima, aka Kinji Ushijima, dies with a net worth of about $15 million; Shima arrived as a poor immigrant and worked as an agricultural laborer before making his fortune by converting swamps to farmland.

      1931: American author Pearl Buck publishes The Good Earth, a novel about Chinese farmers based in part on her experiences as the child of Presbyterian missionaries working in China; it is made into a successful movie in 1935, and she is later awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, largely on the basis of this book.

      1933: In New York City, Chinese laundrymen form the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance to fight a regulation that only American citizens can own hand laundries and the requirement to post a security bond of $1,000 before opening a laundry.

      1934: The Tydings-McDuffie Act restricts immigration from the Philippines; by changing the status of the Philippines from a territory to a commonwealth, it made Filipinos aliens rather than U.S. nationals and limited immigration to 50 per year.

      1939: In San Francisco, Charlie Low founds the nightclub Forbidden City, offering entertainment by an all-Asian cast (primarily Chinese, although some are Japanese or Filipino) as well as food and drink.

      1942: On February 19, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066, authorizing the confinement in internment camps of people of Japanese heritage, including U.S. citizens, residing in designated military areas that include much of the West Coast, Hawai‘i, and Arizona.

      1942: Several Japanese Americans challenge curfew and internment orders, including Minoru Yasui, Gordon Hirabayashi, and Fred Korematsu; however, all their challenges are unsuccessful, and the curfew and internment orders are upheld as constitutional.

      1942: The First Filipino Infantry Regiment and Second Filipino Infantry Regiment, both segregated units, are formed as part of the U.S. military. In addition, several all-Japanese units, including the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, begin training.

      1943: The United States administers a loyalty questionnaire to Japanese over age 17 living in internment camps; some who refuse to sign a loyalty oath or who do not answer “correctly” questions about willingness to serve in the American military and to renounce foreign allegiances are sent to a detention center at Tule Lake in California.

      1943: The Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed, in part to court the favor of China, a U.S. ally against Japan.

      1946: The Philippines becomes an independent country.

      1947: Two hundred sixty-seven Japanese Americans who resisted the military draft during World War II are granted pardons by U.S. President Harry Truman.

      1948: The Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act allows Japanese Americans who were interned during World War II to file claims for reparations; however, many lack the necessary documents to do so.

      1948: Larry Kwong becomes the first hockey player of Asian descent to play in the National Hockey League (NHL) when he joins the New York Rangers; Kwong, born to Chinese parents in Canada, played in the United States for only one year before returning to Canada.

      1948: In the Olympics in London, several Asian Americans win medals, including the Korean American diver Sammy Lee (later Olympic gold medalist Greg Louganis's coach), the Hawai‘ian weight lifter Harold Sakata, and the Filipino American diver Vicki Manolo Draves.

      1950: The U.S. census records 326,379 Japanese, 150,005 Chinese, 122,707 Filipinos, and 7,030 Koreans living in the United States.

      1952: The alien land laws, which severely restricted the ability of Asians to own land, are declared unconstitutional by the California Supreme Court because they violate the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteeing equal protection under the law.

      1952: Several Asian Americans win medals at the Helsinki Summer Olympics, including diver Sammy Lee, weight lifter Tommy Kono, and swimmers Ford Konno and Yoshinbu Oyakawa.

      1955: James Wong Howe, a Chinese American cinematographer, wins an Academy Award for his work on The Rose Tattoo; he later wins a second Oscar, for Hud.

      1955: Gyo Obata, a Japanese American architect, cofounds the architectural firm HOK with George Hellmuth and George Kassabaum; HOK's best-known buildings include the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., and the Tokyo Telecom Center.

      1956: Dalip Singh Saund becomes the first Asian American to win a seat in the U.S House of Representatives; an immigrant from Punjab, India, he represented California until 1962.

      1957: John Okada publishes No-No Boy, a novel set in Seattle in 1946. The book recalls the experiences of a Japanese American man who spent two years in an internment camp and two years in federal prison; the title refers to persons who answered “no” to two questions on a loyalty questionnaire administered to adults in the internment camps, asking about their willingness to serve in the U.S. military and to renounce any foreign loyalties.

      1958: The musical Flower Drum Song, based on a novel by C. Y. Lee, opens on Broadway; written by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, it centers on life in San Francisco's Chinatown and the generational conflict within a Chinese American family.

      1959: After Hawai‘i becomes a state, military veteran Daniel Inouye becomes the first Japanese American to be elected to the U.S. Congress; he had previously served in the territorial House and the territorial Senate.

      1959: Bruce Lee, born in California but raised in Hong Kong, returns to the United States and begins teaching martial arts; he plays a large role in popularizing Asian martial arts in the United States, particularly through his films, which include Fists of Fury (1972) and Enter the Dragon (1973).

      1959: Hiram Fong, born in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, to Chinese parents, becomes the first Chinese American elected to the U.S. Senate.

      1960: The U.S. census reports that 464,332 Japanese, 237,292 Chinese, and 176,310 Filipinos are living in the United States; Asian Indians are not reported separately because they are considered to be white.

      1962: Filipino American quarterback Roman Gabriel, a native of North Carolina, is selected first in the American Football League (AFL) draft and second in the National Football League (NFL) draft. Gabriel goes on to a long and successful career with the Los Angeles Rams and the Philadelphia Eagles; he is selected as the NFL's most valuable player in 1969.

      1964: Patsy Mink, a Japanese American politician from Hawai‘i, becomes the first Asian American woman (and first woman of color) to serve in the House of Representatives.

      1965: Mako Iwamatsu, a Japanese American actor known as Mako, and a group of young Asian American actors, found the East West Players in Los Angeles; it is the first Asian American theater company in the United States.

      1965: The Immigration Act abolishes racial quotas for immigration to the United States; instead, it sets broad quotas for geographic regions and favors a family unification policy in which spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens can enter outside the quota limits.

      1966: Robert Wise's film The Sand Pebbles, set in 1920s China, is nominated for eight Academy Awards, including a nomination for Best Supporting Actor for Japanese American actor Mako (Mako Iwamatsu).

      1968: Har Gobind Khorana, an Asian Indian émigré working at the University of Washington, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

      1969: The University of California, Berkeley, and San Francisco State University both establish Asian American Studies programs.

      1970: The Japanese American Citizens League begins the process of seeking redress in the amount of $25,000 for each Japanese and Japanese American person interned in the United States during World War II.

      1973: Following a series of pilgrimages by Japanese Americans, the Manzanar internment camp in California becomes a state historical landmark; in 1992, it also becomes a National Historic Site.

      1974: The U.S. Supreme Court, in Lau v. Nichols, declares that children whose first language is not English are entitled to English as a second language (ESL) classes in public schools.

      1975: Following the end of the Vietnam War and U.S. withdrawal of military forces from the country, President Gerald Ford authorizes admittance to the United States of 130,000 refugees from Cambodia and Vietnam.

      1976: Chinese American author Maxine Hong Kingston publishes The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Childhood Among Ghosts, a work of creative nonfiction reflecting on her life and experiences of other Chinese Americans, interwoven with elements drawn from Chinese folktales; it wins the National Book Critics Circle Award for General Nonfiction.

      1981: A design by Maya Lin, a Chinese American student at Yale University, is chosen for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.

      1982: Japanese American sculptor and architect Isamu Noguchi is awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal for his contributions to the arts.

      1982: In Detroit, Chinese immigrant Vincent Chin is killed by two white autoworkers, who mistake him for Japanese and blame him symbolically for the decline of the American auto industry; they receive light sentences (probation and a fine) and neither man serves any time in jail.

      1982: The Amerasian Immigration Act makes it easier for the children of American GIs and Asian women to enter the United States; about 4,500 children from Vietnam alone enter the United States under this law by 1987.

      1983: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, an American immigrant from Lahore, India, is awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on dwarf stars.

      1984: At the Los Angeles Summer Olympics, Greg Louganis, a Samoan American coached by Korean American Sammy Lee, wins a gold medal in diving; he will win two more gold medals at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, Korea.

      1986: Yuan T. Lee, a U.S. immigrant from Taiwan and professor at the University of California, Berkeley, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with Dudley R. Herschback and John C. Polanyi.

      1989: President George H. W. Bush appoints Elaine L. Chao, an immigrant from Taiwan, to serve as deputy secretary of the Department of Transportation; in 2001, she becomes the first Asian American woman appointed to a cabinet position, as President George W. Bush's Secretary of Labor.

      1989: Amy Tan, an author born in California to Chinese immigrant parents, publishes The Joy Luck Club, a novel about the lives of Chinese and Chinese American women; it becomes a national best seller and is later adapted into a film (with the screenplay written by Tan) directed by Wayne Wang in 1993.

      1990: Chang-Lin Tien, a Chinese émigré who earned his Ph.D. from Princeton University, becomes the first Asian American to lead a major U.S. university; he holds the position of chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley, campus until 1997.

      1990: According to the U.S. census, the Chinese are the largest Asian American population, with 1.6 million, followed by Filipinos (1.5 million), Japanese Americans (850,000), Asian Indians (810,000), Korean Americans (800,000), Vietnamese Americans (610,000), and smaller numbers of Laotians, Cambodians, and Hmong.

      1992: Japanese American Kristi Yamaguchi, born in California, wins the gold medal in figure skating at the Albertville (France) Winter Olympics, becoming the first Asian American woman to win this event.

      1992: Riots in Los Angeles, California, following the acquittal of three of the four policemen charged with using excessive force in the beating of Rodney King, an African American, do widespread damage to Asian American-owned businesses.

      1992: Jay Kim, a businessman from California, becomes the first Korean American elected to the U.S. House of Representatives; Kim was born in Seoul and educated in both the United States and Korea.

      1993: The death of eight Chinese immigrants, attempting to enter the United States aboard the smuggling ship The Golden Venture, draws attention to the human smuggling trade.

      1994:Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision, Freida Lee Mock's documentary film about Chinese American architect Maya Lin who designed the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, wins the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

      1995: Jerry Yang, an immigrant from Taiwan, founds Yahoo! Inc. with David Filo; it becomes one of the most popular Web sites in the United States, offering a number of services including e-mail, news, and shopping.

      1996: Chinese American figure skater Michelle Kwan wins her first world championship; she will go on to win four more world championships, as well as silver and bronze medals in the Olympics.

      1997: American golfer Tiger Woods, the son of an African American father and a Thai mother, wins the first of his many championships, the Masters Tournament; many consider him the best golfer of all time.

      1997: Kalpawna Chawla, an Indian immigrant from Karnal, becomes the first Indian American astronaut when she flies on the space shuttle Columbia. In 2003, she will also be one of the crew members on the Columbia when it disintegrates in flight, killing all on board.

      1997: Gary Locke, a Chinese American politician born in Seattle, is elected governor of Washington State, making him the first Asian American governor in the continental United States; he later serves as secretary of commerce (2009–11) and is appointed U.S. ambassador to China in 2011.

      1999:The Sixth Sense, written and directed by Asian Indian American M. Night Shyamalan, is nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay.

      1999: Dat Nguyen becomes the first Vietnamese American to play in the National Football League; Nguyen, a linebacker, plays seven seasons for the Dallas Cowboys.

      2000: The U.S. census reports that the U.S. population includes 11.9 million Asian Americans, including 2.9 million Chinese, 2.4 million Filipinos, 1.8 million Asian Indians, 1.2 million Koreans, and 1.1 million Japanese.

      2002: Apolo Anton Ohno, a Japanese American short track speed skater born in Seattle, Washington, wins the first of his eight career Olympic medals at the Winter Games in Salt Lake City; he will also win 21 medals at Skating World Championship competitions.

      2004: Bobby Jindal, a Republican politician born in Louisiana to Asian Indian parents, is elected governor of Louisiana; Jindal had previously served as president of the University of Louisiana system and in the U.S. House of Representatives.

      2005: Film director Ang Lee, an immigrant from Taiwan, wins his first Academy Award for Brokeback Mountain; he will win a second for Life of Pi (2012) and previously won a Foreign Language Academy Award for Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000).

      2005: Chinese American writer Ha Jin (a pseudonym) is given the PEN/Faulkner Award for his novel War Trash; he also won the prize in 2000 for his novel Waiting.

      2006: Kaavya Viswanathan, an Asian Indian American high school student, publishes a young adult novel, How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild, and Got a Life; however, the book is withdrawn from circulation after it is revealed to be partly plagiarized.

      2007: A study released by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program reveals that the number of Asian Americans in higher education in the United States doubled nearly every decade from 1971 to 2005, with an increasing proportion describing themselves as native English speakers (48.1 percent in 1987, 58.6 percent in 2005); in addition, a higher proportion (30.9 percent) of Asian American freshmen in 2005 came from families with incomes below $40,000, compared to the national average (22.7 percent).

      2007: A study by the Pew Institute reveals that most Buddhists in America describe themselves as converts to the faith, that most Buddhists are native-born Americans, and that only one-third describe themselves as Asian.

      2008: Michael Chang, born in New Jersey to Taiwanese parents, becomes the first Chinese American admitted to the International Tennis Hall of Fame; earlier in his career, Chang had been the youngest man to win the French Open, in 1989 at age 17.

      2008: Bryan Clay, born in Texas to Japanese and African American parents, wins the decathlon at the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics; he also won a silver medal in the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics, and a gold medal at the 2005 Helsinki World Championships. Clay is joined by 27 other Asian American athletes, including Raju Rai and Khan Malaythong (badminton), Annabelle Orme and Becky Kim (synchronized swimming), Sandra Fong (shooting), Logan Tom and Robyn Ah Mow-Santos (volleyball), and Sayaka Matsumoto (judo).

      2009: A study by sociologists Thomas Espenshade and Alexandria Radford suggests the existence of a “bamboo ceiling” limiting access of Asian Americans to elite colleges and universities; one finding from their study is that Asian Americans need an SAT score 140 points higher than white students to have the same chance of admission to elite colleges.

      2010: The U.S. census reports that 15.5 million Asians and Asian Americans reside in the United States, comprising about 5 percent of the population; California, New York, and Texas have the largest Asian and Asian American populations, while Hawai‘i is the only state with a majority (54 percent) of persons of Asian descent.

      2010: Julie Chu becomes the first Asian American to play on the U.S. women's national ice hockey team; Chu and her teammates won the silver medal at the Vancouver Winter Olympics, losing to Canada in the finals. Other Asian Americans competing for the United States include Amora Evora and Mirai Nagasu (figure skating); J. R. Celski, Simon Cho, and Apolo Anton Ohno (short track speed skating); and Graham Watanabe (snowboarding).

      2010–11: Filipino pop star Charice has a recurring role in the Fox Television series Glee, playing a foreign exchange student named Sunshine Corazon.

      2011: Amy Chua, a Chinese American law professor, publishes Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, a book in which she describes how she brought up her two daughters and why she believes her methods, which she calls “traditional Chinese,” are superior to what she calls “American” methods of childrearing; her book becomes a national best seller and sparks debate about childrearing and national stereotypes.

      2011: Danny Chen, a Chinese American serving in the U.S. Army, is found dead while on duty in Afghanistan. Chen, who grew up in New York City, was originally thought to have committed suicide, but later investigation suggests that he might have been murdered; investigations into Chen's death reveal that he was regularly made the target of abuse, some of it based on his ethnicity.

      2011: Edwin Lee becomes the first Chinese American to serve as mayor of San Francisco; Lee was initially appointed in January by the Board of Supervisors to serve out Gavin Newsom's term but was then elected in his own right in November.

      2012: Jeremy Lin, a graduate of Harvard University, becomes the first Chinese American to be a starter in the National Basketball Association (NBA); Lin, a point guard, played for the New York Knicks, then signed a three-year contract to play for the Houston Rockets.

      2012: In May, the Economic Policy Institute releases a report finding that Asian Americans disproportionately suffered from long-term unemployment, compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States, and that highly educated Asian Americans were more likely to be unemployed than white Americans with similar levels of education.

      2012: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) files a complaint with the Department of Education, charging that the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test used to admit students to elite public schools in New York City, is discriminatory; the complaint is based on the fact that most of the students admitted to the elite schools are Asian or white, while only a small minority are black or Latino.

      2012: A study by the Pew Foundation, released in April, reveals that more Asians than Hispanics immigrated to the United States in 2010, and that among racial and ethnic groups in the United States, Asian Americans had the highest incomes and highest levels of education and were most likely to live in racially mixed neighborhoods and marry across racial lines.

      2012: Japanese American author Julie Otsuka wins the PEN/Faulkner Award for The Buddha in the Attic, a novel about Japanese picture brides immigrating to America.

      2012: More than a dozen Asian American athletes represent the United States at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, in sports as diverse as wrestling (Clarissa Chun), field hockey (Kayla Bashore-Smedley), swimming (Nathan Adrian), badminton (Howard Bach, Tony Gunawan, and Rena Wang), gymnastics (Kyla Ross), and shooting (Sandra Uptagrafft). Chinese American gymnastics coach Liang Chow, a former member of the Chinese national team, finds himself in the spotlight after one of his athletes, Gabby Douglas, wins the women's all-around gymnastics title at the London Summer Olympics.

      2013: In New York City, it is announced that ballots printed in Bengali will be available for the September 10 primary election in 60 polling places in the borough of Queens; ballots are also available in Spanish, Chinese (since 1993), and Korean (since 2001).

      2013: Analysis of the student population in the University of California system and its most elite campus, Berkeley, reveals that in the 17 years since the state legislature prohibited the use of racial preferences in the state university system, the study body has become disproportionately white and Asian. Some feel this is a suitable result because it rewards students with the best academic credentials and preparation, while others feel it is due to an undue emphasis on test scores and high school grades.

      2013: A study by the Pew Foundation, released in April, reveals that the largest Asian groups in the United States, by self-identification, are Chinese (4 million), Filipino (3.4 million), Asian Indian (3.2 million), Vietnamese (1.7 million), Korean (1.7 million), Japanese (1.3 million), and Pakistani (400,000). The same study revealed that the median household income for Asian Americans was $66,000, compared to $49,800 for the United States as a whole.

      2013: A study released in June by the National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development reveals that over half of the U.S. Asian American and Pacific Islander population lives in just 10 U.S. cities: New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Honolulu, Seattle, San Jose, Houston, Sacramento, and Philadelphia.

      2013: In July, San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee and other city officials launch an initiative to help permanent residents become naturalized citizens; many local nonprofit organizations join the effort, including the Asian Law Caucus, Asian Pacific Islander Legal Outreach, and the International Institute of the Bay Area.

      2013: On August 8, President Barack Obama named the late Daniel K. Inouye one of 16 recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. Inouye received the Medal of Honor for his service with the 442 Regimental Combat Team during World War II and became the first Japanese American to serve in Congress, as a member of the House of Representatives from Hawai‘i.

      2013: In December, Nielsen announces that Asian Americans were the fastest-growing multicultural market segment in the United States, growing by 58 percent between 2000 and 2013, almost five times as fast as the growth of the U.S. population as a whole.

      2014: In February, numerous Asian Americans represent the United States at the Winter Olympics, including Julie Chu (hockey), J. R. Celski (short track speed skating), Maia and Alex Shibutani (ice dancing), Felicia Zhang (pairs figure skating), and Madison Chock (ice dancing).

      2014: In May, a Gallup poll reveals that among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States, Asian Americans have shifted most strongly toward the Democratic party. In the 2012 presidential election, 73 percent of Asian Americans supported Barack Obama, an 11-point increase from 2008, when 62 percent supported him.

      2014: In June, New York City major Bill de Blasio proposes changing the way student are selected for the city's elite public schools, a process that has been based by law since 1971 entirely on scores on a standardized admission test. The mayor's argument is that the student population of the elite schools does not reflect the city's racial and ethic composition: for instance, students at Stuyvesant High are 73 percent Asian, 22 percent white, 2 percent Hispanic and 1 percent black, while the city's public school students are 40 percent Hispanic, 28 percent black, 15 percent Asian, and about 15 percent white.

      2014: On June 8, Linda Cho won a Tony Award for Best Costume Design in a Musical for her work on A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder; it was her first work on a Broadway production, although her work has been seen internationally in venues such as the Royal Shakespeare Company in the United Kingdom and the Hong Kong Performing Arts Center.

      Sarah E.BoslaughKennesaw State University
    • Glossary

      • All American Girl: A television series airing in 1994 on ABC and starring Korean American comic Margaret Cho; the show was criticized for stereotypical characters and was cancelled after one season.
      • Amerasian: A person of mixed American and Asian heritage; the term is sometimes used in a more narrow sense to refer to children born of a Vietnamese mother and American father during the Vietnam War.
      • America Is in the Heart: An autobiographical novel written by Filipino author and activist Carlos Bulosan; published in 1946, the novel describes his experiences as a member of the Asian American working class in the United States and as a union organizer.
      • American Homecoming Act: A 1987 federal law allowing the Vietnamese children of American fathers to immigrate to the United States.
      • Angel Island: An immigration processing station located in San Francisco Bay; it opened in 1910 and was the port of entry for many Asian immigrants to the United States.
      • Anti-Coolie Act: A law passed in California in 1862 imposing a monthly tax of $2.50 on Chinese miners and other laborers; a few classes of workers, including those working in sugar and rice production, were excluded from the tax.
      • APALA, AFL-CIO: The Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance, AFL-CIO, founded in 1992, is an organization of Asian Pacific American union members that addresses workplace issues of its members and acts as a liaison between the labor movement and the Asian Pacific community.
      • Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month: By congressional designation, May was declared Asian Pacific American Heritage Month in 1992 (the current name was adopted in 2009); from 1978 the celebration was called Asian Pacific American Heritage Week, observed the first week of May, marking the month during which the first Japanese immigrants arrived in the United States as well as the completion of the transcontinental railroad (on which many Chinese laborers worked).
      • Asian American Theatre Company: A company founded in 1973 under the auspices of the American Conservatory Theatre in San Francisco and originally called the Asian American Theatre Workshop; the particular focus of the Asian American Theatre Company is developing Asian American playwrights.
      • Bamboo Ceiling: The concept that racial or ethnic discrimination or stereotyping precludes Asian Americans from rising as high in the workplace as their talents and work record should predict; the term is analogous to the “glass ceiling” often said to limit women's rise to positions of authority in their work.
      • Barred Zone Act: This term refers to the Immigration Act of 1917, which prohibited immigration from much of Asia and the Pacific Islands. Previously, Chinese and Japanese immigration had been restricted by the Chinese Exclusion Act and the so-called Gentleman's Agreement, respectively, but the Barred Zone Act was the first law to restrict immigration from Asia generally.
      • Boat People: A term used to refer to refugees from Vietnam who left their country in boats following the fall of Saigon in 1975; the plight of the boat people became an international humanitarian crisis, as many of the boats were not suited to ocean travel, those on the boats were often the victims of pirates, and many of the refugees passed through multiple refugee camps before being able to settle in the United States or other Western countries.
      • California Alien Land Law: A 1913 law restricting the ability of Asians to farm, it prohibits aliens not eligible for citizenship from owning agricultural land or leasing agricultural land for longer than three years; in the following years, many states pass similar laws.
      • California Gold Rush: A gold rush in California that began in 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill; many Chinese immigrated to the United States to work as miners, and, because they were perceived by some as a threat, various laws were passed restricting their freedom.
      • CCBA: The Consolidated Chinese Benevolent Association, also known as the Chinese Six Companies, an organization founded in 1869 in San Francisco to serve as a consulate and spokesperson for the Chinese community; before establishment of the Chinese Chamber of Conference in 1910, the CCBA also regulated business activities and performed functions such as clearing Chinese immigrants to return to China.
      • Chae Chan Ping v. United States: An 1889 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Chinese laborers who left the United States to visit China and were out of the country at the time of the passage of the Scott Act did not automatically have the right to return to the United States.
      • Cham: An ethnic minority people traditionally residing primarily in central Cambodia and southeastern Vietnam and in urban centers in both countries; many Cham became refugees after the fall of Saigon in 1975 and immigrated to the United States.
      • Chan Is Missing: A 1982 film directed by Wayne Wang set in San Francisco's Chinatown and notable at the time for featuring a number of Asian characters who were realistic rather than stereotypical.
      • Charlie Chan: A fictional Chinese American detective created by novelist Earl Derr Biggers and also featured in a number of films from the 1920s through the 1950s. Chan was frequently played by a white actor (Warner Oland and Sidney Toler are two of the best known. Some find the character stereotypical (e.g., Chan speaks in broken English), while others feel that he is a positive character because he is shown to be intelligent and honorable.
      • The Chickencoop Chinaman: A play written by Frank Chin and produced off Broadway in 1972, The Chickencoop Chinaman satirizes stereotypes of Asian Americans.
      • Chinatown: A general term for urban areas outside China where large numbers of people of Chinese descent have settled; among the best-known Chinatowns are those in New York City and San Francisco.
      • Chinese Exclusion Act: An 1882 federal law that barred Chinese laborers and miners from entering the United States for a period of 10 years; it was the first U.S. immigration law to single out a particular nationality for exclusion. The Chinese Exclusion Act, which was extended several times, had the effect of almost ending Chinese immigration to the United States and also imposed hardships on Chinese already settled in the United States, such as restricting their ability to visit their families in China and then reenter the United States. The Chinese Exclusion Act was not repealed until 1943.
      • Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance: An organization founded in New York City in 1933 to protest the imposition of a $25 annual fee and $1,000 bond on Chinese laundries as well as the regulation that only U.S. citizens could own laundries.
      • Civil Liberties Act of 1988: A federal law that granted reparations to Japanese who were interned during World War II; the act acknowledged that the internments were illegitimate and granted about $20,000 to living survivors of the internment camps.
      • Coram nobis Cases: Three legal cases—those of Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu, and Minoru Yasui—that challenged legal restrictions placed on persons of Japanese descent in the United States during World War II and that were reconsidered in the 1980s under the legal principle of error coram nobis, meaning that their convictions rested on a fundamental error of fact.
      • Desi: A term used to describe people of Asian Indian descent living outside the Indian subcontinent, and the culture of those individuals; some regard it as a derogatory label.
      • Diaspora: A population originating in a specific geographic area but currently living outside that area, often with the implication of involuntary departure.
      • East West Players: The first Asian American theater company in the United States, founded in 1965 by Mako, James Hong, June Kim, Guy Lee, Pat Li, Yet Lock, and Beulah Quo, with the particular goal of allowing Asian American actors to perform in a broader variety of roles than were available in mainstream theater; their first production, in 1966, was Rashomon, based on a short story by Akutagawa Ryunosuke.
      • Executive Order 9066: An executive order issued by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, describing parts of the western United States as military areas from which individuals could be excluded; this executive order paved the way for the internment of some 120,000 persons of Japanese descent, many of them U.S. citizens.
      • Executive Order 9102: An executive order issued on March 18, 1942, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that created the War Relocation Authority, the body in charge of relocating and interning Japanese in the western United States during World War II.
      • Farewell to Manzanar: The True Story of Japanese American Experience During and After World War II Internment: A memoir written by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and her husband, James Houston, describing her experiences in the Manzanar internment camp during World War II; published in 1972, it has become a popular classic and was adapted into a television movie in 1976.
      • “Fifth Column on the Coast”: A newspaper column written by Walter Lippmann and published on February 12, 1942, suggesting that Japanese and other aliens on the West Coast posed a threat to U.S. security and should be removed; the column is considered influential in motivating the internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans.
      • 1st Filipino Infantry Battalion: A battalion of the U.S. Army, activated on April 22, 1942, and consisting primarily of Filipinos; members served in the Pacific theater during World War II, including at Leyte Gulf and Samar.
      • Flower Drum Song: A 1958 Broadway musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II based on C. Y. Lee's 1957 novel of the same name; it was set in San Francisco's Chinatown and the plot focused on questions of assimilation, heritage, and clashes between the generations. It was also adapted as a film in 1961.
      • 442nd Infantry Regiment: A combat regiment in the U.S. Army during World War II comprised primarily of Japanese Americans recruited from internment camps. The 442nd fought mostly in Europe, and its members won many distinctions for valor, including eight Presidential Unit Citations and 21 Medals of Honor.
      • Gam Saan: Cantonese for “Gold Mountain,” a term for the United States used by Chinese immigrants to California and eventually for the Western regions of the United States and Canada; the term originated in the Gold Rush of 1848, after which many Chinese immigrated to America.
      • Geary Act: An 1892 federal law extending the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 for another 10 years; it also required Chinese already living in the United States to obtain certificates of identity and certificates of residence.
      • Gentleman's Agreement: A 1907 agreement between the empire of Japan and the United States that informally restricted the immigration of Japanese to the United States; the United States agreed to allow immigration of wives and children of Japanese already in the United States, and Japan agreed to not issue passports to Japanese laborers wishing to immigrate to the United States.
      • Go for Broke!: A 1951 MGM film, directed by Robert Pirosh, starring several members of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and celebrating the valor of the regiment during World War II.
      • The Good Earth: A 1931 novel by American author Pearl S. Buck that became a best seller and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. Buck, the child of missionaries, spent much of her early life in China, and the novel was praised for its depiction of peasant life in China. The Good Earth was adapted as a film in 1937 and was nominated for five Academy Awards; following the typical Hollywood practice of the time, Caucasians (Paul Muni and Luise Rainer) were cast in the lead roles, playing Chinese characters.
      • The Good Times Are Killing Me: The first novel by Lynda Barry, a Filipino author best known for her comics, including the widely distributed Ernie Pook's Comeek. The Good Times Are Killing Me, published in 1988, won the Washington State Governor Writer's Award.
      • Gosei: A fifth-generation Japanese, that is, someone born outside Japan but having at least one Yonsei (fourth-generation Japanese) parent.
      • Guangdong: A province in southeastern China, also known as Canton and Kwangtung, which was the homeland of many Chinese migrants to the United States, particularly before 1965, as well as the exit point for many other Chinese immigrants to the United States.
      • Hart-Celler Act: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, a federal law that abolished quotas based on national origins in favor of family reunification and preference for individuals with valuable skills.
      • Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee: An organization formed at the Heart Mountain Japanese internment camp in Wyoming in 1944 to advocate draft resistance until their civil rights were restored; about 400 Nisei took part, and 267 were convicted of draft resistance.
      • Holt International Children's Services: A Christian adoption agency founded in the mid-1950s by Harry and Bertha Holt, Americans who adopted eight Korean children, at the time an unprecedented choice and one that was not possible until Congress passed a law permitting such adoptions.
      • Issei: A term referring to first-generation Japanese, that is, those born in Japan who later immigrated to the United States or another country.
      • Japanese American Industrial Corporation: A labor contracting firm founded in California in 1902 to supply Japanese labor to the railroads, agriculture, and mining.
      • K2: A play by Patrick Meyers, premiering in Washington, D.C., in 1982 and on Broadway in 1983, about two men trapped on K2, the second-highest mountain in the world, located on the border between China and Pakistan. The Broadway production was notable for the sets designed by Chinese American Ming Cho Lee, who won the Tony Award in 1983 for Best Scenic Design.
      • Korematsu v. United States: A 1943 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared that Executive Order 9066, which caused many persons of Japanese descent to be confined to internment camps, did not violate the Constitution.
      • Kuma Kahua Theatre: The second-oldest Asian American theater company in the United States, founded in 1971 by a group of students and professors from the University of Hawai‘i; the company specializes in plays about Hawai‘i and plays written by Hawai‘ians.
      • Kye: An informal banking and lending system common in Korean American communities; generally speaking, members of a kye contribute a set sum each month to a central fund, and each month one member receives the entire amount, which he or she often uses to fund a business venture. Similar informal banking systems also exist in the Chinese (hui) and Japanese (tanomoshi) American communities.
      • Little Saigon: A term applied to several communities outside Vietnam where a high proportion of Vietnamese have settled, analogous to “Chinatown” for areas with large numbers of people of Chinese descent. In the United States, Little Saigons exist in Houston, Texas; San Jose, California; and Orange County, California, among other places.
      • Luce-Celler Act: A 1946 federal law allowing Filipinos and Asian Indians to immigrate to the United States, with a quota of 100 per year from each country.
      • M. Butterfly: A 1988 play by Chinese American playwright David Henry Hwang, based on a true historical relationship between a male Peking opera singer and a male French diplomat, the latter believing the former to be female; it won numerous awards, including the 1988 Tony Award for Best Play, and was adapted into a film in 1993.
      • Magnuson Act: A 1943 federal law repealing the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, thus allowing immigration from China to the United States to resume and allowing some Chinese residents of the United States to become naturalized citizens.
      • Manzanar National Historic Site: The location of a Japanese internment camp in southwestern California during World War II, Manzanar was designated a California Historical Landmark in 1972, a National Historic Landmark in 1985, and a National Historic Site in 1992.
      • Mississippi Masala: A 1991 film directed by Mira Nair and starring Denzel Washington and Sarita Choudhury; set in Mississippi, the film is notable for featuring an interracial romance between the characters portrayed by Washington (African American) and Choudhury (American immigrant of Ugandan Indian heritage).
      • Model Minority: A term referring to members of an ethnic or racial minority who are considered to be particularly successful or to embody desirable traits such as high school achievement or strong family connections; in the United States, members of some Asian groups, including the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, are sometimes pointed to as model minorities.
      • Mr. Moto: A fictional Japanese detective and secret agent created by novelist and short story writer John P. Marquand, in part to carry on the tradition of the Charlie Chan character invented by Earl Derr Biggers; Mr. Moto also appears in six films starring the Hungarian American actor Peter Lorre, as well as in radio shows and comic books.
      • Mr. T and Tina: A television program that ran on ABC for five episodes in 1976; although not successful, it was the first American sitcom with a lead actor of Asian descent (Pat Morita, best known for his role as Mr. Miyagi in the Karate Kid movies).
      • National Japanese American Student Relocation Council: An organization founded in the spring of 1942, after internment of Japanese living on the West Coast began, to help Japanese American college students in the western states transfer to colleges and universities outside the restricted areas.
      • Naturalization Act of 1790: The first U.S. law to address the process of becoming a naturalized citizen; it required two years of residence in the United States and was limited to white persons of good moral character.
      • Naturalization Act of 1870: A U.S. law enacted after the conclusion of the Civil War that extended naturalization to persons born in Africa or of African descent but excluded Asians and other nonwhite individuals.
      • Nichibei Shimbun: The first Japanese-language newspaper published in the mainland United States, founded by Abiko Kyutaro in San Francisco in 1898.
      • Nisei: A term referring to a second-generation Japanese person, that is, someone of Japanese heritage born in the United States or some other country outside Japan and having at least one Issei or Japanese nonimmigrant parent.
      • Nisei Daughter: A memoir published in 1953 by Monica Sone, recalling her years growing up in Seattle, Washington, and her time in the Minidoka internment camp during World War II.
      • No-No Boy: A novel written by John Okada, describing the experiences of a Japanese American conscientious objector during World War II; published in 1957, it became popular in the 1970s.
      • Oyama v. California: A U.S. Supreme Court case decided in 1948 that ruled that California's Alien Land Law deprived Fred Oyama, an American citizen, and his father Kajiro Oyama, a Japanese citizen, their rights to equal protection under the law.
      • PACE: The Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor, an organization founded at San Francisco State College in 1968 to encourage Filipino students to apply to college, and to provide support services to help them succeed once enrolled.
      • Page Act of 1875: The first U.S. immigration law, it restricted entry of undesirable immigrants, including convicts of any race or nationality, Asian laborers, and Asian prostitutes.
      • Pan Asian Repertory Theatre: The major Asian American theater company on the East Coast, founded by Tisa Chang in 1977.
      • Paper Son: A Chinese boy or man who entered the United States claiming to be the son of a Chinese with American citizenship, conceived while the Chinese American was visiting China; the creation of paper sons was facilitated by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, which destroyed many public records and allowed Chinese immigrants to claim they were born in San Francisco and were thus American citizens.
      • Pearl Harbor: A U.S. naval base in Honolulu, Hawai‘i, which was attacked by Japanese bombers on December 7, 1941, precipitating U.S. entry into World War II; one consequence of the attack on Pearl Harbor was Executive Order 9066 and the internment of many Japanese Americans living in the western United States.
      • Picture Bride: In the early 20th century, a Japanese or Korean woman who entered the United States to marry a man whom she had not met in person but knew only from exchanging photographs and letters.
      • Pinoy: A term coined in the 1920s by Filipinos living abroad, for themselves and their culture, which was later expanded to include all Filipinos, including those living in the Philippines.
      • The Rape of Nanking: A 1997 book written by Taiwanese American author Iris Chang, describing the 1937–1938 Rape of Nanking during the Sino-Japanese War and charging that the Japanese government has not accepted sufficient responsibility for that event; it became a best seller and was translated into several languages.
      • Sansei: A term referring to third-generation Japanese people, that is, persons of Japanese heritage born in a country other than Japan and having at least one Nisei (second-generation Japanese) parent.
      • Sino-Vietnamese: Ethnically Chinese people living in Vietnam; many Sino-Vietnamese immigrated to the United States as refugees between 1978 and 1985.
      • Sriracha: A type of hot sauce invented by David Tran, the Chinese-Vietnamese founder of Huy Fong Foods, which has become popular in many different Asian and Asian American communities; it is easily recognized by the rooster on its label, which also includes text in five languages.
      • Takahashi v. Fish and Game Commission: A 1948 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring that the policy of the California Fish and Game Commission to deny fishing licenses to aliens ineligible for citizenship was unconstitutional.
      • Takao Ozawa v. United States: A 1922 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared that the Japanese were not “white” and therefore could not become naturalized U.S. citizens under the Naturalization Act of 1906.
      • Tule Lake Segregation Center: A Japanese internment camp in northern California, it was originally called the Tule Lake War Relocation Center but in 1943 was renamed the Tule Lake Segregation Center. It was used to house interned Japanese who were deemed disloyal to the United States, generally because they had not given the “correct” answers on a loyalty questionnaire administered to interned Japanese aged 17 and older.
      • TWLF: The Third World Liberation Front, a student organization including Asian American, Latino, and African American student groups at San Francisco State College. The TWLF called a strike in November 1968, demanding that more attention be paid to the concerns of students of color; when the strike was resolved, in March 1969, one result was the formation of a School of Ethnic Studies at the college.
      • United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind: A 1923 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared that Asian Indians were not “white” and therefore were not eligible to become naturalized citizens of the United States. The decision was surprising because most anthropologists consider Asian Indians to be Aryans and therefore white.
      • United States v. Mrs. Gun Lim: A federal court decision in 1900 ruling that Chinese merchants living in the United States can bring their wives and minor children to join them and live in the United States.
      • United States v. Wong Kim Ark: A U.S. Supreme Court case decided on March 28, 1898, which declared that Wong Kim Ark, the American-born child of Chinese parents, was a U.S. citizen by reason of birth and therefore had the right to travel overseas and return to the United States without restriction.
      • Walter-McCarran Act: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which overturned racial restrictions in previous immigration law while retaining broad quotas for regions and granting preference to relatives of U.S. citizens and to individuals with desirable skills.
      • War Brides Act: A 1945 federal law allowing the spouses and dependent children of members of the American military to immigrate to the United States, bypassing the quotas of the Immigration Act of 1924; originally, Asians were excluded from the benefits of this act, but it was extended in 1947 to include the Asian spouses of American military personnel.
      • Wards' Cove Packing Co.: An Alaskan cannery company that was the object of a lawsuit by Asian and Pacific Islander workers in 1974 on the grounds that Asians and Pacific Islanders were all placed in inferior jobs, compared to white workers, and were also segregated into separate living and dining facilities.
      • When I Was a Boy in China: An 1887 book written by Lee Yan Phou, who was educated in the United States under the auspices of the Chinese Education Mission and graduated from Yale University; it covers topics such as Chinese literature, philosophy, and customs.
      • Who Killed Vincent Chin?: A documentary film directed by Christine Choy and Renee Tajima about the murder of a Chinese American who was mistaken for Japanese by two auto workers and was blamed by them for the decline in America's auto industry; the film premiered on television (PBS) in 1989.
      • Yasui v. United States: A 1943 Supreme Court decision that upheld the conviction of Minoru Yasui, who challenged the curfew imposed on Japanese Americans and enemy aliens following Executive Order 9066.
      • Yellow Peril: A pejorative term referring to the ostensible threat posed by Chinese immigrants to the United States and, more generally, to all immigrants from east Asia.
      • Yonsei: A term referring to fourth-generation Japanese, that is, those not born in Japan and having at least one Sansei (third-generation Japanese) parent.
      Sarah E.Boslaugh, Kennesaw State University

      Resource Guide

      Books
      Abelman, Nancy. The Intimate University: Korean American Students and the Problems of Segregation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822391586
      Aguilar; San, Juan, Karin. Little Saigons: Staying Vietnamese in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
      Alinder, Jasmine. Moving Images: Photography and the Japanese American Incarceration. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
      Bahr, Diana Meyers. The Unquiet Nisei: An Oral History of the Life of Sue Kunitomi Embrey. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230609990
      Bangarth, Stephanie D.Voices Raised in Protest: Defending Citizens of Japanese Ancestry, North American, 1942–1949. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008.
      Bow, Leslie. Betrayal and Other Acts of Subversion: Feminism, Sexual Politics, Asian American Women's Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
      Brettell, Caroline and DeborahReed-Danahay. Civic Engagement: The Citizenship Practices of Indian and Vietnamese Immigrants. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.
      Brian, Kristi. Reframing Transracial Adoption: Adopted Koreans, White Parents, and the Politics of Kinship. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Buckley, Roger N. and TamaraRoberts, eds. Yellow Power, Yellow Soul: The Radical Art of Fred Ho. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013.
      Castelnuovo, Shirley. Soldiers of Conscience: Japanese American Military Resisters in World War II. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008.
      Chan, Jeffery Paul. Eat Everything Before You Die. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.
      Chang, Gordon H., ed. Asian American Art: A History, 1850–1970. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
      Cheng, Anne Anlin. The Melancholy of Race: Psychoanalysis, Assimilation, and Hidden Grief. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
      Cho, Grace M.Haunting the Korean Diaspora: Shame, Secrecy, and the Forgotten War. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
      Choo, Kung-Seok. Gangs and Immigrant Youth. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub lishing, 2007.
      Chow, Claire S.Leaving Deep Water: The Lives of Asian American Women at the Crossroads of Two Cultures. New York: Dutton, 1998.
      Cornell, Daniel and Mark DeanJohnson, eds. Asian American Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.
      Cuyjet, Michael J., Mary F.Howard-Hamilton, and Diane L.Cooper, eds. Multiculturalism on Campus: Theory, Models, and Practices for Understanding Diversity and Creating Inclusion. Sterling, VA: Stylus, 2011.
      Daniels, Roger and Otis L.Graham. Debating American Immigration, 1882 - Present. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
      Davé, Shilpa, LeiLaniNishine, and Tasha G.Oren. East Main Street: Asian American Popular Culture. New York: New York University Press, 2005.
      Dhingra, Pawan. Life Behind the Lobby: Indian American Motel Owners and the American Dream. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.
      Diggs, Nancy Brown. Looking Beyond the Mask: When American Women Marry Japanese Men. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.
      Dong, Lan, ed. Transnationalism and the Asian American Heroine: Essays on Literature, Film, Myth and Media. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010.
      Du drah, Rajinder and JignaDesai. The Bollywood Reader. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.
      Duncan, Patti. Tell This Silence: Asian American Women Writers and the Politics of Speech. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004.
      Duong, Lan P.Treacherous Subjects: Gender, Culture, and Trans-Vietnamese Feminism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Dusselier, Jane E.Artifacts of Loss: Crafting Survival in Japanese American Concentration Camps. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
      Fugita, Stephen and MarilynFernandez. Altered Lives, Enduring Community: Japanese American s Remember Their World War II Incarceration. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.
      Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood: A Guide to Popular Hindi Cinema. New York: Routledge, 2013.
      Hall, Ronald E.An Historical Analysis of Skin Color Discrimination in America: Victimism Among Victim Group Populations. New York: Springer, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5505-0
      Harth, Erica, ed. Last Witnesses: Reflections on the Wartime Internment of Japanese Americans. New York: Palgrave/St. Martin's Press, 2001.
      Helweg, Arthur Wesley. Strangers in a Not- S o- S trange Land: Indian American Immigrants in the Global Age. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2004.
      Hirabayashi, Gordon K. with James A.Hirabayashi and Lane RyoHirabayashi. A Principled Stand: The Story of Hirabayashi v. United States. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.
      Ho, Fred. Wicked Theory, Naked Practice: A Fred Ho Reader. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
      Howard, John. Concentration Camps on the Home Front: Japanese Americans in the House of Jim Crow. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226354774.001.0001
      Howard, Keith, ed. Music as Intangible Cultural Heritage: Policy, Ideology, and Practice in the Preservation of East Asian Traditions. Burling ton, VT: Ashgate, 2012.
      Hune, Shirley and Gail M.Nomura, eds. Asian/Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
      Kang, Millan. The Managed Hand: Race, Gender, and the Body in Beauty Service Work. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.
      Kano, Hisanori. Nikkei Farmer on the Nebraska Plains: A Memoir. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 2010.
      Kim, Elaine H., MargoMachida, and SharonMizota. Fresh Talk, Daring Gazes: Conversations on Asian American Art. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.
      Kim, Thomas P.The Racial Logic of Politics: Asian Americans and Party Competition. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.
      Kina, Laura and Wei MingDariotis, eds. War Baby/Love Child: Mixed Race Asian American Art. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.
      Kondo, Dorinne. About Face: Performing Race in Fashion and Theater. New York: Routledge, 1997.
      Kong, Belinda. Tiananmen Fictions Outside the Square: The Chinese Literary Diaspora and the Politics of Global Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Lan, Shanshan. Diaspora and Class Consciousness: Chinese Immigrant Workers in Multiracial Chicago. New York: Routledge, 2012.
      Law, Anna O.The Immigration Battle in American Courts. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750991
      Le, C. N.Asian American Assimilation: Ethnicity, Immigration, and Socioeconomic Attainment. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub lishing, 2007.
      Lee, Esther Kim. A History of Asian American Theatre. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
      Lee, Eunju. Gendered Process: Korean Immigrant Small Business Ownership. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing, 2006.
      Lee, Jennifer and MinZhu, eds. Asian American Youth: Culture, Identity, and Ethnicity. New York: Routledge, 2004.
      Lee, Joann, FaungJean. Asian American Actors: Oral Histories From Stage, Screen, and Television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
      Lee, Josephine D.Performing Asian America: Race and Ethnicity on the Contemporary Stage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.
      Lee, Josephine, Imogene L.Lim, and YukoMatsukawa. Re/Collecting Early Asian America: Essays in Cultural History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.
      Li, Wei. Ethnoburb: The New Ethnic Community in Urban America. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2009.
      Ling, Huping. Chinese Chicago: Race, Transnational Migration, and Community Since 1870. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.
      Ling, Huping. Voices of the Heart: Asian American Women on Immigration, Work, and Family. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2007.
      Liu, William Ming, Derek KenjiIwamoto, and Mark H.Chae, eds. Culturally Responsive Counseling With Asian American Men. New York: Routledge, 2010.
      Lyon, Cherstin M.Prisons and Patriots: Japanese American Wartime Citizenship, Civil Disobedience, and Historical Memory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Machida, Margo. Unsettled Visions: Contemporary Asian American Artists and the Social Imaginary. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008.
      Maira, Sunaina. Desis in the House: Indian American Youth Culture in New York City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.
      Mimura, Glen M.Ghostlife of Third Cinema: Asian American Film and Video. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
      Mohammad-Arif, Aminah. Salaam America: South Asian Muslims in New York. Trans. SarahPatey. London: Anthem Press, 2002.
      Murray, Alice Yang. Historical Memories of the Japanese American Internment and the Struggle for Redress. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008.
      Myung, April, ed. Korean-American Chronicles: As Recounted by Korean High School Leaders. Highland Park, NJ: Kingdom Press, 2010.
      Nguyen, Diem T.Vietnamese Immigrant Youth and Citizenship: How Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Shape a Sense of Belonging. El Paso, TX: LFP Scholarly Publishing, 2012.
      Nguyen, Tai Van. The Storm of Our Lives: A Vietnamese Family's Boat Journey to Freedom. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.
      Nguyen, Tuyen D., ed. Domestic Violence in Asian American Communities: A Cultural Overview. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005.
      Pak, Jenny Hyun Chung. Korean American Women: Stories of Acculturation and Changing Selves. New York: Routledge, 2006.
      Park, Clara C., RussellEndo, and Xue LanRong, eds. New Perspectives on Asian American Parents, Students, and Teacher Recruitment. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2009.
      Park, John S. W.Elusive Citizenship: Immigration, Asian Americans, and the Paradox of Civil Rights. New York: New York University Press, 2004.
      Robinson, Greg. After Camp: Portraits in Midcentury Japanese American Life and Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.
      Rudrappa, Sharmila. Ethnic Routes to Becoming American: Indian Immigrants and the Cultures of Citizenship. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
      Russell, Stephen T., Lisa J.Crockett, and Ruth K.Chao, eds. Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships. New York: Springer, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5728-3
      Saito, Natsu Taylor. From Chinese Exclusion to Guantanamo Bay: Plenary Power and the Prerogative State. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007.
      Shah, Bindi V.Laotian Daughters: Working Toward Community, Belonging, and Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Shah, Sonia, ed. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End Press, 1997.
      Shimuzu, Celine Parreñas, ed. Straitjacket Sexualities: Unbinding Asian American Manhoods in the Movies. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012.
      Srikanath, Rajini. The World Next Door: South Asian American Literature and the Idea of America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
      Tong, Benson. The Chinese Americans,
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      Toyota, Tritia. Envisioning America: New Chinese Americans and the Politics of Belonging. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.
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      Valverde, Kleu-Linh Caroline. Transnationalizing Viet Nam: Community, Culture, and Politics in the Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
      Vergara, Benito Manalo Jr., Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.
      Vo, Linda Trinh and RickBonus, eds. Contemporary Asian American Communities: Intersections and Divergences. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2002.
      Wat, Eric C.The Making of A Gay Asian Community: An Oral History of Pre-AIDS Los Angeles. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
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      Journals
      AAPI Nexus: Asian Americans and Pacific Islander, Policy Practice and Community
      Asian American Drama
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      Chinese America: History and Perspectives
      Chinese American Forum
      Cross Currents: Newsmagazine of the UCLA Asian American Studies Center
      Ethnic & Racial Studies
      Georgetown Immigration Law Journal
      Immigration and Nationality Law Review
      International Migration
      Journal of American Ethnic History
      Journal of Asian American Studies
      Journal of Contemporary Ethnography
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      Internet Sites
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      National Library of Medicine: Medline: Asian American Health
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      University of California, Berkeley: Pacific Film Archive
      University of California, Los Angeles: Asian American Studies Center
      U.S. Census Bureau: Asian American Data Links
      U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Asian American Populations
      U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services: Research Guidance
      The White House: Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

      The Asian-American Labor Force in the Recovery

      The Asian-American Labor Force in the Recovery

      Asian-Americans and Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are a growing share of the United States labor market. They are also a diverse population who identify their ethnicity as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and several other ethnicities. Aggregate numbers show that the Asian-American community as a whole exhibits better labor market outcomes than other racial groups, but the aggregate measurements veil the wide variations within this highly diverse group. Numbers broken down by gender, by age and by country of origin, illustrate that there exists significant disparity within those who identify their race as Asian. These numbers demonstrate that some Asian-Americans face greater challenges and therefore need more attention and assistance than the aggregate data suggest.

      The Asian-American Labor Force in General

      In 2010, the United States labor force included 7.2 million people of Asian descent1 0.4 million people of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Island descent.2 Together these two groups were 5.0 percent of the labor force in 2010. Asians are expected to comprise 5.6 percent of the U.S. labor force by 2018.3

      In 2010, nearly 60 percent of Asian-Americans aged 16 and over were employed and just under one in six of those employed were working part-time. Forty-six (46) percent of all employed Asians in 2010 were women, similar to the percentage among employed whites, but lower than the figure of 50 percent among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The labor force participation rate of Asian-American women (57.0 percent) in 2010 was lower than the labor force participation rate of white women (58.5 percent) and of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander women (65.5 percent).

      Asian-Americans are more likely than either whites or blacks to be employed as wage and salary workers in the private sector, with more than 8 in 10 employed Asians working in the private sector. Conversely, Asians are less likely to work for government than are either whites or blacks. Self-employment is a growing alternative to private sector employment among Asians. In 2010, 6.3 percent of Asians were self-employed. According to the most recent Census Bureau Survey of Business Owners (2007), the number of Asian-owned businesses expanded at a rate (40.4 percent), a rate that more than doubles the national average between 2002 and 2007.

      The median wage of Asian-Americans is higher than other racial groups. Half of Asian-Americans working full-time earned $855 or more per week in 2010. This median weekly wage exceeds that earned by whites by nearly 12 cents for every dollar. Asian-Americans' median weekly earnings have consistently been greater than those earned by whites during the last decade; the difference reached a high of 16 cents in 2008 and 2009 before declining in 2010.

      One reason that median wages are higher for Asian-Americans is because a much larger proportion of Asians are college graduates: 57.5 percent of employed Asian-Americans who are 25 or older have a college degree. This proportion is 60 percent more than whites, and more than twice that of blacks. The high share of college graduates highlights why aggregate data for Asian-Americans is more likely to hide the challenges of some in the community. While a large proportion is highly-skilled, those with fewer skills face significant challenges that are too easily overlooked when focusing on the larger group. Later in the report we detail some of the challenges of education and wages for specific groups within Asian-Americans

      1 This includes Asian-Americans and others who self-identify as “Asian” in the Current Population Survey (CPS), regardless of their citizenship or nation of origin. Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders are a separate racial category and include survey respondents who only identify as “Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.” These categories comply with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards

      2 We have included statistics about Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders where data are available; however detailed statistics are limited due to insufficient sample size for statistical analysis.

      3 As noted above, due to the limited sample size of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is unable to forecast data for this group.

      Table 1. Unemployment, employment, and earnings characteristics by race and Hispanic ethnicity, 2010 annual averages

      RECENT UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS

      As illustrated in Chart 1, people of Asian descent have the lowest unemployment rates compared to other groups, while unemployment among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders is higher than that of whites, but lower than that faced by Hispanles and blacks. In 2007, the year in which the recession started, the unemployment rate for Asians was 3.2 percent, which was lower than the figure of 4.1 percent among whites, 4.8 percent among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 5.6 percent among Hispanics and 8.3 percent among blacks. In 2010, the Asian-American unemployment rate averaged 7.5 percent, more than doubling its 2007 level, while the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander unemployment rate was 12.0 percent. In comparison, unemployment rates were 8.7, 12.5 and 16.0 percent for whites, Hispanics and blacks, respectively.

      Chart 1: Unemployment Rate by Race and Hispanic ethnicity Annual Averages, 2003–2010

      The change in the unemployment rate for Asians echoed the national trend in general. The national unemployment rates rose substantially from the start of the recession in 2007 through 2009, reaching a peak in October 2009. The Asian-American unemployment rate had a similar trend, rising 4.1 percentage points from 2007 to 2009. The jobless rate for Asians rose only 0.2 percentage points to reach 7.5 percent in 2010. In the first half of 2011, the Asian-American unemployment rate was 6.8 percent, which was an improvement over the 7.7 percent rate in the first half of 2010.

      While Asians are less likely to be unemployed, those who are unemployed face longer durations of unemployment and are more likely to join the ranks of the long-term unemployed compared to either whites or Hispanics. However, the lower rate of unemployment among all Asians means that a smaller share of the total Asian-American population will experience long-term unemployment than any of the other racial or ethnic groups.

      Asian-American Unemployment by Ethnicities

      The unemployment rate of Asian-Americans varies by ethnicity. As shown in Chart 2, people of Japanese ethnicity had the lowest unemployment rate in 2010 at 4.6 percent, while the highest rate at 10.3 percent was found among Other Asians-who are people from Asian ethnicities that are not separately identified in the Current Population Survey (CPS).4 The unemployment rate of people with Filipino ethnicity (8.5 percent) and Vietnamese ethnicity(7.6 percent) were higher than people of Asian Indians (6.6 percent), Chinese (6.5 percent) and Korean (6.4 percent) ethnicity.

      Chart 2: Unemployment Rates by Asian Ethnicities 2010 Annual Averages

      Educational Disparity Among the Employed

      Overall, employed Asians are substantially more likely to have a college degree than are whites, blacks or Hispanics. Nearly three out of five employed Asians aged 25 and over have earned a bachelor's degree or higher; this is 60 percent greater than whites and more than double and triple the proportions for blacks and Hispanics, respectively. However, these race/ethnicity gaps in college graduation among the employed were even larger in 2007.

      Even though a large proportion of Asian-Americans have a college degree, there are educational disparities worth noting. For instance, about three quarters of employed people with Asian Indian ethnicity had a bachelor's degree or more while only about 30 percent of employed people of Vietnamese ethnicity had earned that level of education.5 Approximately three-fifths of employed people of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese and Korean ethnicity had a college degree, respectively.

      As is true for all race and ethnicity groups, there is a strong link between greater educational attainment and employment outcomes among Asians. As Chart 3 illustrates, those aged 25 and over with a bachelor's degree have the lowest unemployment rates, while high school drop-outs have the highest rates. However, the differences in unemployment rates by education are less pronounced among Asians than they are among other groups. Asian-American college graduates are more likely than white college graduates to be unemployed and that is also true for those with some college. In contrast, Asian-Americans who are high school graduates and those who are high school drop-outs are less likely than their white counterparts to be unemployed

      4 The CPS asks people who select Asian as their race to further self-identify as one of seven Asian groups: “Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or other Asian.”

      5 These are pooled 2008–2010 averages to account for the small survey sample size.

      Chart 3: Unemployment Rate for Asians by Educational Attainment

      Gender and Age Differences Among Asian-Americans

      The unemployment rates of adult Asian-American men and adult Asian-American women were quite similar in 2007 and 2008 (see Chart 4).6 However, as the recession progressed unemployment rates rose most for Asian-American men and a notable gap emerged. This gap narrowed slightly in 2010 as the unemployment rate among adult Asian-American men was unchanged, while the jobless rate rose among adult Asian-American women.

      Chart 4: Asian Unemployment Rate by Age and Sex Annual Averages, 2007–2010

      The Asian-American Labor Force by Age

      Among all but the oldest Asian-Americans, labor force participation is on a downward trend; furthermore, declines are greatest among those who are young. These trends are similar to those seen among all Americans

      In 2007, 24.5 percent of Asian-American teens (aged 16 to 19) were in the labor force (either employed or unemployed); by 2010 only 22.0 percent were.7 This decline in labor force participation largely came from teens in school who became less likely to either work or look for a job. Among Asian-American youth aged 20 to 24, labor force participation fell to 53.6 percent in 2010 from 59.7 percent in 2007. This decline is even greater than the decline experienced by Asian-American teenagers. However, there was a large increase in the proportion of Asians aged 20 to 24 remaining in school—60.1 percent in October 2010 compared to 54.2 percent in October 2007.8Declines in Asian-American labor force participation were much less for those aged 25 to 54, and the rate actually rose for those aged 55 and over. Among all Asian-Americans, 64.7 percent were in the labor force in 2010, down from 66.5 percent in 2007. A more substantial decline occurred among Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, whose labor force participation rate declined from 73.0 percent in 2007 to 68.4 percent in 2010

      6 Monthly seasonally adjusted data are not available for Asian men, women, and youth. As such, annual averages provide a more accurate picture of changes in unemployment for these groups over time.

      7 The labor force is made up of the employed and the unemployed. The remainder—those who have no job and are not looking for one—are counted as “not in the labor force.” Many who are not in the labor force are going to school or are retired. Family responsibilities keep others out of the labor force.

      8 October data are used here because that is the month when students are usually enrolled in school regardless of type of school or school calendar.

      Unemployment Variations by State

      Unemployment varies across the United States and the unemployment rate of Asians, like that of other groups, differs depending on the state in which they live. In 2010, Asians facing the highest unemployment rates were in Nevada (11.8 percent), Minnesota (11.7 percent), Ohio (11.6 percent), Alabama (11.5 percent), and Wisconsin (11.2 percent), while those facing the lowest rates are in South Carolina (0.9 percent), New Mexico (1.2 percent), Delaware (2.5 percent), and the District of Columbia (3.0 percent).

      The supplemental map at the end of this report highlights the states where the largest numbers of unemployed Asian-American workers reside. As one would expect, states with the largest Asian-American populations had large numbers of unemployed Asian-American workers. Overall in 2010, California (222,000), New York (34,000), Texas (30,000), Illinois (24,000), and Washington (22,000) had the most unemployed Asians. The unemployment rates in these states were: California (9.4 percent), New York (4.9 percent), Texas (5.5 percent), Illinois (8.3 percent), and Washington (7.8 percent).

      Asian-American Employment

      Employment rates of both white men and Asian-American men have declined similarly since the start of the recession in 2007 (Chart 5). And while employment rates have fallen more among men than among women since the recession began in 2007, the employment rates among Asian-American women have fallen more than the employment rates of white women. The proportion of all Asian-American women employed increased between 2007 and 2008, on average, before declining sharply after 2008. At the start of the recession, white and Asian-American women were almost as likely to be employed. However, in recent years employment has declined more for Asian-American women than for white women, in part because labor force participation among Asian-American women declined at twice the rate of white women between 2009 and 2010. As such, Asian-American women were less likely than white women to be employed in 2010.

      Chart 5: Percent Employed by Race and Sex Annual Averages, 2007–2010

      Among the various Asian ethnicity groups in 2010, people of Asian Indian descent were the most likely to be employed (64.7 percent) while people of Japanese descent were least likely to work (52.8 percent). Other Asian-American groups had employment rates between 55.4 percent and 60.5 percent: Filipino (61.5 percent), Vietnamese (60.5 percent), Chinese (59.6 percent), Other Asian (58.2 percent), and Korean (55.4 percent).

      In terms of industry, Asian-American employment declined most significantly in financial services, professional and business services, manufacturing and construction during the recession years from 2007 to 2009. Together, these industries accounted for nearly 300,000 jobs lost among Asian-American workers. In 2010, job losses either stabilized or slightly recovered in nearly all the major industries. Even during the recent recession, Asian-American workers experienced job gains in education and health services and the leisure and hospitality industries, as did white, black, and Hispanic workers.

      As Table 2 shows, the professional, scientific and technical service industry is expected to grow the fastest (3.0 percent annually) and 2.6 million additional jobs are projected for 2018 compared to 2008. In 2010, 7.8 percent of jobs in this industry went to Asian-American workers, making them well represented in this high-growth industry, compared to their overall representation in the labor force. Asians are similarly well represented in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) occupations—accounting for nine percent or more of jobs—in math and science related occupations, such as computer and mathematical occupations (16.1 percent), life, physical, and social science occupations (10.8 percent), and architecture and engineering occupations (9.0 percent). If trends continue as expected, Asian-American workers are in a strong position to take advantage of projected growth in these good, high-wage careers.

      Table 2: Industries with largest expected employment growth, BLS Employment Projections 2008–2018

      However, it should be noted that Asian workers are under-represented in education and construction careers. While this may have insulated them from the major job losses in those industries experienced during the 2007–2009 recession, it also prevents them from benefiting from the fast rate of employment growth projected in these industries through the end of this decade.

      Occupational Safety and Health

      As is true for employment, education, and income information, Asian-Americans are an internally diverse group with respect to occupational safety and health outcomes. Specific job categories in which different ethnic groups predominate are more likely to be exposed to extremely high rates of fatal traumatic injuries (e.g., small, late-night retail workers, taxi drivers, commercial fishers), to non-fatal traumatic injuries (restaurant workers, hotel housekeeping workers, home care, nursing), or to chemical exposures (dry cleaning operators, nail salon workers).

      According to data for 2009, a total of 141 Asian-American and 7 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander workers died on the job.9 For Asians, assaults and violent acts— including violence by other persons, self-inflicted injuries, and attacks by animals —were the type of fatal event with the highest percentage of fatal work injuries (48 percent). The second highest percentage of fatal occupational injuries to Asians (26 percent) resulted from transportation incidents—including incidents on highways and non-highways, as well as those involving air, rail, and water transportation. Compared published counts of with workers of other races, a lower percentage of fatal work injuries to Asian-American workers resulted from work related trauma, including contact with objects and equipment, and exposure to harmful substances and environments. In 2009, Asian-American workers and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander workers accounted for 1.4 percent of all non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work, with 14,160 and 3,700 incidents, respectively, out of a total of 1,238,490.10 This is similar to the proportion of total incidents from 2008, when Asians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders respectively accounted for 16,260 and 3,540 non-fatal injuries and illnesses out of a total of 1,355,820.11 In 2009, the private sector industry with the most non-fatal injuries or illnesses for Asian-American workers was health care and social assistance (2,910 incidents), followed by manufacturing (1,990), and accommodation and food services (1,970). Health care and social assistance (670 incidents); other services (460 incidents) - a broad category including services such as industry and machine repair; religious, grant making and advocacy; dry-cleaning and laundry services; and retail trade (400 incidents) were among industries with a high number of injuries and illnesses for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander workers.

      Looking Forward

      While Asian-American workers have fared relatively well compared to other racial or ethnic groups, it is important to ensure that all workers have access and opportunities to seek the jobs they want and that they are protected while on the job. The Department of Labor is working alongside other agencies in the Obama Administration to address the challenges in the labor market facing Asian-American and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) workers, including:

      Reaching AAPI Workers: Secretary Solis hosted a roundtable discussion in May 2010 to discuss the challenges faced by AAPI workers, especially those in high-risk and low-wage industries, such as taxi driving, domestic work, and garment production. AAPI community and labor leaders were invited to discuss workplace safety and health, wage issues, and unique barriers faced by AAPI women workers. Recently, the Secretary met with Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian workers and fishermen in the Gulf Coast region.

      Connecting AAPIs to the Public Workforce System: The Department promotes policies that ensure meaningful access to services in One-Stop Career Centers by all individuals, including those with limited English proficiency. The Department has in place guidance and resources for state workforce agencies, local workforce areas, and One-Stop Career Centers to serve customers with diverse ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. During calendar year 2010, the Department's Wagner-Peyser (Employment Service) program served 649,000 AAPIs at One-Stop Career Centers, roughly three percent of total participants.

      Improving Employment Opportunities for AAPI Adults: The Department has several programs connecting AAPI and other adults to employment and training services. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs served roughly 90,300 AAPI participants during calendar year 2010, and nearly 60,000 AAPIs exited these programs from October 2009 through September 2010. As of March 31, 2011, 5,723 AAPIs have been served by the Department's Community Based Job Training grants, 3,492 AAPIs have been served through the Department's High Growth Job Training Initiative, and 1,601 AAPIs have been served through the Department's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) High Growth and Emerging Industry grants.

      Improving Employment Opportunities for AAPI: The Department is investing in employment opportunities for AAPI youth. During the summer months (May - September) of 2009 and 2010, 6,848 Asians were served using Recovery Act funds. As of December 2010, 10,783 of youth served by the Recovery Act's Workforce Investment Act Youth funds were AAPIs. In addition, programs such as the Department's Job Corps and YouthBuild programs are intended to provide job training and educational opportunities for low-in come or at-risk youth ages 16 to 24, including AAPI youth. Job Corps assists youth across the United States, including its territories. The Hawaii Job Corps Center and its Maui satellite center, for example, currently receive students from U.S. territories in the Pacific where AAPIs comprise a majority or plurality of the local population. AAPIs comprised 77 percent of students enrolled at the Hawaii Job Corps Center in PY 2009. Restoring Worker Protection Agencies' Staffing Levels: The Department made significant progress in restoring worker protection agencies' staffing back to 2001 levels, including hiring 710 enforcement personnel. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hired over 100 investigators and Wage and Hour Division (WHD) hired 300 new investigators. This increase in investigators helps to empower workers with information about their rights and enforcing the laws that were written to provide standards in the labor market that our nation has agreed are important to protect workers and provide fairness between employers and employees. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) enforces the civil rights of those employed by federal contractors and subcontractors in more than 200,000 establishments with contracts amounting to approximately $700 billion. OFCCP has hired nearly 200 new compliance officers to increase its ability to investigate and resolve cases and its materials are available in a number of Asian-American languages. This year the OFCCP celebrates the 45th anniversary of Executive Order 11246 which requires those who do business with the U.S. government — both contractors and subcontractors — to ensure equal opportunity for all job seekers and wage earners.

      10 Race or ethnic origin was not reported for 37 percent of the cases in 2009.

      11 Race or ethnic origin was not reported for 36.3 percent of the cases in 2008.

      Increasing Education and Outreach: In April 2010, the Department launched the “We Can Help” nationwide campaign, an effort spearheaded by the Department's Wage and Hour Division. This campaign connects America's most vulnerable and low-wage workers with the broad array of services offered by the Department. The WHD reached out to AAPI advocacy groups and has translated materials and public service announcements into Chinese, Hmong, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, and Tagalog. These materials, in combination with the nearly 70 previous WHD publications already translated into Asian-American languages, are designed to ensure that workers understand the law and know where to go for help. For example, in New York, the WHD has worked to provide a direct telephone line to assist Chinese-speaking workers in industries with a history of paying low-wages. In addition, the Department's Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA) educates workers about their health insurance and pension benefits. EBSA Benefits Advisors have provided technical guidance and assistance in Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Korean, Thai, Hindi, Tagalog, Lao, Khmer (Cambodian), and Bengali. The Department's Occupational Safety and Health Administration has also launched a robust outreach and education campaign to the AAPI community that includes newly translated material in Asian-American languages, hosting (along with the Department's Wage and Hour Division and the Office of Federal Contract Compliance) an AAPI Worker Protection Summit in July 2011 and providing grant funds to organizations to provide health and safety information to workers and employers in the AAPI community.

      Worker Protection and Gulf Coast Oil Spill Cleanup: The Department's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) staff deployed throughout the Gulf coast to monitor the safety and health of oil spill cleanup workers, including auditing training sessions, conducting air monitoring for hazardous chemicals and evaluating data from BP, the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. They made over 4,260 visits to ensure that BP and its contractors meet its obligations to protect all workers involved in the shoreline cleanup. OSHA also published worker safety educational materials in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese and distributed tens of thousands of copies to employees involved with the oil spill cleanup along the Gulf Coast. The materials supplement the required training that employees must receive before they can engage in cleanup activities. WHD has also mobilized its workforce to address concerns related to volunteering, training time, and other compensation-related issues and has arranged to meet with workers and their advocates to ensure that those working in the area understand their rights and the remedies available to them in exercising those rights.

      Asian-American Unemployment (2010 Annual Averages)

      The Asian Population: 2010: 2010 Census Briefs

      By Elizabeth M. Hoeffel, Sonya Rastogi, Myoung Ouk Kim, and Hasan Shahid

      Starting in 1997, OMB required federal agencies to use a minimum of five race categories: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. For respondents unable to identify with any of these five race categories, OMB approved the Census Bureau's inclusion of a sixth category—Some Other Race—on the Census 2000 and 2010 Census questionnaires. The 1997 OMB standards also allowed for respondents to identify with more than one race. The definition of the Asian racial category used in the 2010 Census is presented in the text box on this page.

      Data on race have been collected since the first U.S. decennial census in 1790, but no distinction was made for people of Asian descent. In 1860, the first Asian response category (“Chinese”) was added to the question on race in California only and in other states beginning in 1870. A second Asian response category (“Japanese”) was included for the first time

      Definition of Asian Used in the 2010 Census

      According to OMB, “Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

      The Asian population includes people who indicated their race(s) as “Asian” or reported entries such as “Asian Indian,” “Chinese,” “Filipino,” “Korean,” “Japanese,” and “Vietnamese” or provided other detailed Asian responses.

      in the 1870 Census in California only and in other states starting in 1890. Additional Asian response categories were collected intermittently in the question on race over the course of seven censuses, from the 1920 Census to the 1980 Census. The use of six detailed Asian response categories in the decennial census question on race has remained unchanged since the 1980 Census (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese).

      Beginning with the 1910 Census, reports of detailed Asian groups that did not have separate response categories in the race question were tabulated from a general “Other” write-in area. In the 1990 Census, a write-in area was introduced that was solely dedicated to the reporting of detailed Asian groups or detailed Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander groups that did not have a separate response category. A shared write-in area for reports of detailed Asian groups or detailed Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander groups that did not have specific response categories in the race question continued for Census 2000 and the 2010 Census.6

      In Census 2000, for the first time, individuals were presented with the option to self-identify with more than one race, and this continued with the 2010 Census, as prescribed by OMB. There are 57 possible multiple-race combinations involving the five OMB race categories and Some Other Race.7

      The 2010 Census question on race included 15 separate response categories and three areas where respondents could write in detailed information about their race (see Figure I).8 The response categories and write-in answers can be combined to create the five minimum OMB race categories plus Some Other Race. In addition to White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Some Other Race, 7 of the 15 response categories are Asian groups, and 4 are Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander groups.9 The 7 Asian response categories are Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian.

      4The 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity, issued by OMB, is available at <http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards.

      5The OMB requires federal agencies to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino. Hispanic origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race. “Hispanic or Latino” refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.

      6For information about comparability of 2010 Census data with race and Hispanic origin to data collected in previous censuses, see the 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94–171) Summary FileTechnical Documentation at <http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/doc/pl94-171.pdf.

      7The 2010 Census provides information on the population reporting more than one race, as well as detailed race combinations (e.g., Asian and White; Asian and White and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander). In this report, the multiple-race categories are denoted with the conjunction and in bold and italicized print to indicate the separate race groups that constitute the particular combination.

      8There were two changes to the question on race for the 2010 Census. First, the wording of the race question was changed from “What is this person's race? Mark $$ one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be” in 2000 to “What is this person's race? Mark $$ one or more boxes” for 2010. Second, in 2010, examples were added to the “Other Asian” response category (Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on) and the “Other Pacific Islander” response category (Fijian, Tongan, and so on). In 2000, no examples were given in the race question.

      For a complete explanation of the race categories used in the 2010 Census, see the 2010 Census Brief, Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010.10

      Race Alone, Race in Combination, and Race Alone-or-in-Combination Concepts

      This report presents data for the Asian population and focuses on results for three major conceptual groups.

      First, people who responded to the question on race by indicating only one race are referred to as the race alone population, or the group who reported only one race. For example, respondents who reported a single detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” or “Korean,” would be included in the Asian alone population. Respondents who reported more than one detailed Asian group, such as “Asian Indian” and “Korean” would also be included in the Asian alone population. This is because the detailed groups in the example combination are part of the larger Asian race category. The Asian alone population can be viewed as the minimum number of people reporting Asian.

      Second, individuals who chose more than one of the six race categories are referred to as the race in combination population, or as the group who reported more than one race. For example, respondents who reported they were Asian and White or reported they were Asian and White and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander would be included in the Asian in combination population. This population is also referred to as the multiple-race Asian population.

      Third, the maximum number of people reporting Asian is reflected in the Asian alone-or-in-combination population. One way to define the Asian population is to combine those respondents who reported Asian alone with those who reported Asian in combination with one or more other races. The addition of these two groups creates the Asian alone-or-in-combination population. Another way to think of the Asian alone-or-in-combination population is the total number of people who reported Asian, whether or not they reported any other race(s).

      Throughout the report, the discussion of the Asian population includes results for each of these groups and highlights the diversity within the entire Asian population.11

      The Asian Population: A Snapshot

      The 2010 Census showed that the U.S. population on April 1, 2010, was 308.7 million. Out of the total U.S. population, 14.7 million people, or 4.8 percent, were Asian alone (see Table 1). In addition, 2.6 million people, or another 0.9 percent, reported Asian in combination with one or more other races.12 Together, these two groups totaled 17.3 million people. Thus, 5.6 percent of all people in the United States identified as Asian, either alone or in combination with one or more other races.

      The Asian Population Increased More Than Four Times Faster Than the Total U.S. Population.

      The total U.S. population grew by 9.7 percent, from 281.4 million in 2000 to 308.7 million in 2010 (see Table 1). In comparison, the Asian alone population increased more than four times faster than the total U.S. population, growing by 43 percent from 10.2 million to 14.7 million.13, 14

      The Asian alone-or-in-combination population experienced slightly more growth than the Asian alone population, growing by 46 percent from 11.9 million in 2000 to 17.3 million in 2010. In fact, the Asian population grew at a faster rate than all race groups in the country.15

      9The race categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and are not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race question include race and national origin or sociocultural groups.

      10Humes, K., N. Jones, and R. Ramirez. 2011. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010, U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Briefs, C2010BR-02, available at <http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf.

      11As a matter of policy, the Census Bureau does not advocate the use of the alone population over the alone-or-in-combination population or vice versa. The use of the alone population in sections of this report does not imply that it is a preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The same is true for sections of this report that focus on the alone-or-in-combination population. Data on race from the 2010 Census can be presented and discussed in a variety of ways.

      12For the purposes of this report, the terms “reported,” “identified,” and “classified” are used interchangeably to refer to the response provided by respondents as well as responses assigned during the editing and imputation process.

      13Percentages shown in text generally are rounded to the nearest integer, while those shown in tables and figures are shown with decimals. All rounding is based on unrounded calculations. Thus, due to rounding, some percentages shown in tables and figures ending in “5” may round either up or down. For example, unrounded numbers of 14.49 and 14.51 would both be shown as 14.5 in a table, but would be cited in the text as 14 and 15, respectively.

      14The observed changes in the race counts between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census could be attributed to a number of factors. Demographic change since 2000, which includes births and deaths in a geographic area and migration in and out of a geographic area, will have an impact on the resulting 2010 Census counts. Additionally, some changes in the race question's wording and format since Census 2000 could have influenced reporting patterns in the 2010 Census.

      Table 1. Asian Population: 2000 and 2010

      Photo Credits

      VOLUME 1 Flickr: 24 (Brian Jeffery Beggerly), 65 (Paul Sableman), 323 (Ray Smith), 341 (Christopher Macsurak); 373 (Tim Biley), 386 (midorisyu), 397 (kennejima), 412 (Tareq Salahuddin), 476 (Aaron Fulkerson); Library of Congress: 38 (Carol M. Highsmith), 149, 207, 215, 217, 231, 330, 389, 404, 416, 449; National Archives and Records Administration: 26, 102; National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute/Rhoda Baer: 9, 271, 301; National Park Service: 276; © Jeff Sheng: 288; U.S. Air Force: 108 (Randi Flaugh); U.S. Census Bureau: 178; U.S. Department of Agriculture: 471 (Bob Nichols); U.S. Department of Commerce: 3; U.S. Marshals: 400 (Shane T. McCoy); U.S. Navy: 138 (Joseph Caballero), 154 (Carl R. Begy), 314 (John P. Curtis); U.S. Senate: 306; White House: 162 (Pete Souza); Wikimedia Commons: 19 (Genevieve), 27 (Brendon Connelly), 34 (Hichi), 44 (Ragesoss), 51 (Oso), 56 (See-ming Lee/SML Photography), 75 (Nancy Wong), 82 (Daryl Davis), 92 (Omar Omar), 114 (Christopher Prentiss Michel), 134 (thepanamerican), 145 (Georgegreat), 157 (Nightscream), 169 (Sam Sith), 184 (Monogram Pictures), 197 (John Stephen Dwyer), 202 (Lia Chang), 247 (Jramsey1), 282 (Elvert Barnes), 292 (Nancy Wong), 346 (Anyo Niminus); 356 (Natsirtj), 365, 421 (Firdaus Latif), 425 (Charlie Nguyen), 429 (Overpass Light Brigade), 435 (Daniel Ramirez), 443 (Hawai‘i State Archives), 465 (David Berkowitz).

      VOLUME 2 Federal Emergency Management Agency: 930 (Mike Moore); Flickr: 599 (Emily Cavalier), 633 (Jack Rosenfeld), 922 (Marc Tarlock); Hawai‘i State Archives: 487; Library of Congress: 535, 547, 574, 712, 734, 740, 752, 771, 919, 971; National Archives and Records Administration: 706, 775, 936; National Public Radio: 660; Smithsonian Institution: 798 (Margarete Beutler); U.S. Air Force: 951 (Michael B. Keller); U.S. Congress: 895; U.S. Customs and Border Patrol: 721; U.S. Department of Labor: 956; U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: 495; U.S. Marine Corps: 623; U.S. Navy: 521 (Chad J. McNeeley), 678 (Jenniffer Rivera), 726 (John Grandin), 804 (Michael Hight), 876 (Phil Beaufort); Wikimedia Commons: 510 (Carlo Benini), 513 (Gage Skidmore), 528 (David Shankbone), 555 (RIBarraza), 560, 566 (Erik Harmon), 570 (Sue Kim), 587, 608, 611 (chensiyuan), 646 (Sharon Styer), 651 (Patrick Kwan), 656 (Ian Traqueña/Redcosmonaut), 664 (Yoseikan), 691 (Lane G), 792 (Dana Payne), 816 (Bittercup), 819 (Chick Bowen), 836 (Canadian Film Centre), 839 (http://rubengarciajrphotography.com), 857 (Jorge Royan), 863, 881 (Joshua Henson), 886 (Gage Skidmore), 913 (Jonathan McIntosh), 964, 979 (Gage Skidmore).

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