Encyclopedia of African Religion

Encyclopedia of African Religion

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Molefi Kete Asante & Ama Mazama

  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
  • Publication Year: 2009 |
  • Online Publication Date: January 26, 2009 |
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412964623 |
  • Print ISBN: 9781412936361 |
  • Online ISBN: 9781412964623
  • View Hide Publication Details
    • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
    • Pub. Year: 2009 |
    • Online Pub. Date: January 26, 2009 |
    • DOI: 10.4135/9781412964623 |
    • Print ISBN: 9781412936361 |
    • Online ISBN: 9781412964623

Abstract

“Numerous titles focusing on particular beliefs in Africa exist, including Marcel Griaule’s Conversations with Ogotemmeli, but this one presents an unparallelled exploration of a multitude of cultures and experiences. It is both a gateway to deeper exploration and a penetrating resource on its own. This is bound to become the definitive scholarly resource on African religions.” — Library Journal, Starred Review. “Overall, because of its singular focus, reliability, and scope, this encyclopedia will prove invaluable where there is considerable interest in Africa or in different religious traditions.” — Library Journal. As the first comprehensive work to assemble ideas, concepts, discourses, and extensive essays in this vital area, the Encyclopedia of African Religion explores such topics as deities and divinities, the nature of humanity, the end ...

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Ancestral Figures
    • Communalism and Family
    • Concepts and Ideas
    • Deities and Divinities
    • Eternality
    • Nature
    • Personalities and Characters
    • Possessors of Divine Energy
    • Rituals and Ceremonies
    • Sacred Spaces and Objects
    • Societies
    • Symbols, Signs, and Sounds
    • Taboo and Ethics
    • Texts
    • Traditions
    • Values
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z


      • Loading...
    • Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      Editorial Board

      Editors

      Molefi Kete Asante Temple University

      Ama Mazama, Temple University

      Editorial Board

      Chinua Achebe, Bard College

      Kwame Gyekye, University of Ghana

      Maulana Karenga, California State University, Long Beach

      Marta Moreno Vega, Caribbean Cultural Center

      Isidore Okpewho, Binghamton University, State University of New York

      Kofi Asare Opoku, Lafayette College

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      The Reader's Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies entries into 16 general topical categories: Ancestral Figures; Communalism and Family; Concepts and Ideas; Deities and Divinities; Eternality; Nature; Personalities and Characters; Possessors of Divine Energy; Rituals and Ceremonies; Sacred Spaces and Objects; Societies; Symbols, Signs, and Sounds; Taboo and Ethics; Texts; Traditions; and Values. Entries may be listed under more than one topic.

      About the Editors

      Molefi Kete Asante is professor in the Department of African American Studies at Temple University. Dr. Asante has published 67 books; among the most recent are Afrocentric Manifesto (2008); The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony (2007); Cheikh Anta Diop: An Intellectual Portrait (2006); Spear Masters: An Introduction to African Religion (2006), coau-thored with Emeka Nwadiora; Handbook of Black Studies (2005), coedited with Maulana Karenga; Encyclopedia of Black Studies (2005), coedited with Ama Mazama; Race, Rhetoric, and Identity: The Architecton of Soul (2005); Erasing Racism: The Survival of the American Nation (2003); Ancient Egyptian Philosophers (2000); Scattered to the Wind (2002); Custom and Culture of Egypt (2002); and 100 Greatest African Americans (2003).

      He has recently been recognized as one of the most widely cited scholars. In the 1990s, he was recognized as one of the most influential leaders in American education. Dr. Asante completed his MA at Pepperdine and received his PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles, at the age of 26, and was appointed a full professor at the age of 30 at the State University of New York at Buffalo. At Temple University, he created the first PhD program in African American Studies in 1987. He has directed more than 140 PhD dissertations. He has written more than 300 articles for journals and magazines and is the founder of the theory of Afrocentricity.

      Dr. Asante was born in Valdosta, Georgia, in the United States, of Sudanese and Nigerian heritage, 1 of 16 children. He is a poet, dramatist, and painter. His work on African language, multiculturalism, and human culture and philosophy has been cited by journals such as the Africalogical Perspectives, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Journal of Black Studies, Journal of Communication, American Scholar, Daedalus, Western Journal of Black Studies, and Africaological Perspectives. The Utne Reader called him one of the “100 Leading Thinkers” in America. Dr. Asante has appeared on more than 50 TV programs. In 2002, he received the distinguished Douglas Ehninger Award for Rhetorical Scholarship from the National Communication Association. He regularly consults with the African Union. In 2004, he was asked to give one of the keynote addresses at the Conference of Intellectuals of Africa and the Diaspora in Dakar, Senegal. He was inducted into the Literary Hall of Fame for Writers of African Descent at the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago State University in 2004, and he is the recipient of more than 100 national and international awards, including three honorary degrees.

      Dr. Asante is the founding editor of the Journal of Black Studies (1969) and was the president of the civil rights organization, the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee chapter at UCLA, in the 1960s. In 1995, he was made a traditional king, Nana Okru Asante Peasah, Kyidomhene of Tafo, Akyem, Ghana.

      Ama Mazama is associate professor of African American Studies at Temple University. She was born and grew up in Guadeloupe, Eastern Caribbean. She received her PhD in Linguistics from the University of La Sorbonne, Paris, at the age of 26, with Highest Distinction. Before joining Temple, Dr. Mazama taught at the University of Texas, Austin, and Penn State, College Park, and was a visiting professor at Georgetown University and Howard University.

      She has published eight books in French or English, including The Afrocentric Paradigm (2003), L'Impératif Afrocentrique (2003), The Encyclopedia of Black Studies (2005) (coedited with Molefi Kete Asante), and Africa in the 21st Century: Toward a New Future (2007), as well as more than 60 articles in French and English in national and international journals. Dr. Mazama's early work was on the African roots of Caribbean creole languages.

      Dr. Mazama is the associate editor of the Journal of Black Studies, the top scholarly journal in Black Studies. In 2007, the National Council of Black Studies presented her with the Ana Julia Cooper and CLR James Award for her contributions to the advancement of the discipline of Black Studies.

      Dr. Mazama has lectured nationally, throughout the United States and internationally, in Paris, Vienna, London, Birmingham, South America, Benin, West Africa, Canada, and, of course, in the Caribbean, her place of origin. She is a highly sought after lecturer and workshop leader in the field of African and African American infusion in school curricula. An expert in linguistics and cultural theory, Dr. Mazama has been cited by numerous school districts for her work in Pan African culture.

      In 2002, she was initiated in Haiti to become a Mambo, that is, a Vodu priestess. Thus, Ama Mazama's knowledge of African religion is not only academic but also, and most important, stems from a lived experience. The mother of three, Dr. Mazama is committed to recording and transmitting knowledge of the African cultural traditions to present and future generations.

      Contributors

      Oluwatoyin Vincent Adepoju, University College, London

      Saheed Aderinto, University of Texas at Austin

      Afe Adogame University of Edinburgh

      Kwame Akonor Seton Hall University

      Edona M. Alexandria, Umayat Spriritual Education Circle

      Adisa A. Alkebulan, San Diego State University

      David Amponsah, Indiana University

      Elizabeth Andrade, Devry University

      Edward E. Andrews, University of New Hampshire

      M. K. Asante, Jr., Morgan State University

      Molefi Kete Asante Temple University

      Kwabena Faheem Ashanti, North Carolina State University

      Deji Ayegboyin, University of Ibadan

      Diedre L. Badejo Kent State University

      Katherine Olukemi Bankole West Virginia University

      Michael Antonio Barnett, Florida International University

      Moses Ohene Biney New York Theological Seminary

      Yaba Amgborale Blay Temple University

      Kwame Botwe-Asamoah University of Pittsburgh

      George Brandon, City University of New York

      Jovan A. Brown Temple University

      Nana Kwabena Brown, Nyama Institute

      Willie Cannon-Brown Peirce College

      Patricia E. Canson Medgar Evers College of City University of New York

      Ibo Changa Temple University

      Kefentse K. Chike, Michigan State University

      Vimbai Gukwe Chivaura, University of Zimbabwe

      Asia Austin Colter Temple University

      Malachi D. Crawford, University of Missouri

      Chikukuango Cuxima-zwa Brunei University-West London

      Kyrah Malika Daniels, Stanford University

      Leslie Desmangles Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut

      Kofi Kissi Dompere Howard University

      Paul H. L. Easterling, University of Houston

      Philip U. Effiong, University of Maryland University College

      Zetla K. Elvi, State University of New York

      Femi Euba, Louisiana State University

      Salim Faraji, California State University, Dominguez Hills

      Stephen C. Finley Rice University

      Justin Gammage Temple University

      Geoffrey Jahwara Giddings Antiocb College

      DeBorah Gilbert White, Union Institute

      Annette M. Gilzene Pepperdine University

      Bruce Grady, Shaw University

      Valerie I. Harrison Temple University

      Deonte James Hollowell Temple University

      Thomas Houessou-Adin, Philadelphia University/Episcopal Academy

      LaRese Hubbard, California State University, Long Beach

      Asar Sa Ra Imhotep, University of Houston

      Shaza Gamal Ismail, Helwan University

      Bayyinah S. Jeffries, Michigan State University

      Charles Jegede, University of Ibadan

      Maulana Karenga, California State University, Long Beach

      Kunbi Labeodan, University of Ibadan

      Elisa Larkin Nascimento IPEAFRO, Rio de Janeiro

      Shantrelle P. Lewis Tempie University

      Tracey Michael Lewis, African American Museum in Philadelphia

      Weckea D. Lilly Temple University

      Aloysius M. Lugira Boston College

      Garvey F. Lundy, University of Pennsylvania

      Denise Martin, University of Louisville

      Ama Mazama Temple University

      Andrew M. Mbuvi Shaw University Divinity School

      Serie McDougal III, San Francisco State University

      Claudine Michel, University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ana Monteiro-Ferreira Temple University

      Mussa S. Muneja, University of Botswana

      Godwin Uetuundja Murangi, University of Namibia

      LaAisha Murray Temple University

      Gwinyai P. Muzorewa Temple University

      Kimani S. K. Nehusi University of East London

      Emmanuel Kombem Ngwainmbi, Elizabeth City State University

      Mutombo Nkulu-N'Sengha, California State University, Northridge

      Vera DeMoultrie Nobles San Francisco State University

      Wade W Nobles San Francisco State University

      BioDun J. Ogundayo, University of Pittsburgh

      David O. Ogungbile, Obafemi Awolowo University

      S. K. Olajide, University of Ibadan

      Daniel Tetteh Osabu-Kle, Carleton University

      Marquita Pellerin Temple University

      Nashay M. Pendleton Temple University

      D. Zizwe Poe, Lincoln University

      Tiffany D. Pogue, Florida International University

      Pamela D. Reed, Virginia State University

      Monica L. Rhodes Temple University

      Ibram H. Rogers Temple University

      Laird Scranton Colgate University

      Jorge Serrano Temple University

      Tabona Magondo Shoko, University of Zimbabwe

      Mwalimu J. Shujaa Meager Ever s College

      Djibo Sobukwe Temple University

      Douglas Edwin Thomas Boricua College

      M. Tillotson, University of Houston

      Joel E. Tishken Columbus State University

      Brenda J. Washington Temple University

      Khonsura A. Wilson, California State University, Long Beach

      Tyrene K. Wright John Jay College, City University of New York

      Introduction

      The Encyclopedia of African Religion is the first comprehensive work to assemble ideas, concepts, discourses, and extensive essays on African religion. Over the years, there have been numerous encyclopedias on religion from other parts of the world, but African religion has often been relegated to “primitive religions,” “African mythologies,” or “tribal religions” sections of such works on religion. It is as if African religion is an afterthought in the eyes of the authors and editors of such volumes. Of course, these designations are clearly based on outmoded and problematic Western notions of Africa, and we have created this encyclopedia as a monument to the memory of those Africans who left us enough information from which to rediscover for the world the original beauty and majesty of African culture.

      There were two objectives in advancing this work to the public. First, we wanted to provide the primary material necessary for further research, analysis, and exposition of the concrete beliefs of African people. Second, we sought to elevate the discourse around African religion, suggesting by the presentation of nearly 500 entries that there was still much we did not know about African culture. Africa is the second largest continent in the world. Yet its intellectual and cultural contributions remain among the least understood if we take the written records about the continent and its people as sources of knowledge about the continent. There are still those whose knowledge of Africa is grounded in the perceptions and attitudes of missionaries, merchants, and marines who have occupied the continent through foreign religions, trade, or guns. The enormity of African contribution to ideas of religion, spirituality, and ethics has gone unappreciated by religious scholars, although at the beginning of human history, Africa makes its case for the origin of religion in an official, formal manner. It is our hope that the reflection on African religion occasioned by these entries will enhance our understanding of the African world and provide a new adventure for comparative studies.

      Unquestionably, a work as innovative and comprehensive as this encyclopedia makes its mark in the area of intellectual inquiry by staking out new areas of knowledge. It provides the reader with new metaphors, tropes, figures of speech, modes of reasoning, etymologies, analogies, and cosmogonies to satiate the intellect. Only in such an encyclopedia as this can one truly grasp the enormity of Africa's contribution to religious ideas. Thus, this work presents richly textured ideas of spirituality, ritual, and initiation while advancing new theological categories, cosmological narratives, and ways to conceptualize ethical behavior.

      Given that we viewed African religion as one religion and the African continent as a whole, we were inclined to introduce classical African religious ideas, from the beginning of Kernet to the arrival of Christianity and later Islam in Africa, as significant forerunners of much of continental African thought. The same appeal to ethics, based on righteous character; the same search for eternal life, found in living a life where good outweighs evil; and the same openness to ancestral spirits, kas, as remaining among the community of the living, creates an appreciation of the recurring cycle of humanity. Correspondences of language and concept as with Amen, Amani, and Intani, which are transgenerational and transcontinental, remain vibrant parts of the African legacy of religion. When the Akan use the words Kwame, Asare, and Nkwa, they recall the more ancient Amen, Ausar, and Ankb. Several books, starting with the older works of Eva Meyerowitz, have examined these correspondences. Of course, in more recent times, Afrocentric authors such as Mubabinge Bilolo, Chinweizu Chinweizu, and Théophile Obenga have identified other correspondences in the religious and philosophical traditions of Africa.

      The fact that Western or Islamic categories, which come much later than African religion, have often been employed in the discourse on African religion means that we have not yet established enough concrete data for asserting the African religion. Because of this reality, much of African religious thought has been distorted and confused as authors have tried to force newly discovered or uncovered or different concepts into old and familiar classes. Therefore, as editors, we have avoided ironclad classificatory schemes and sought entries that revealed as closely as possible the actualities of African societies. What we wanted the entries to reveal was the thinking of African people about religion from the earliest of times.

      The 20th-century Rediscovery of African Religion

      The extraordinary attention and widespread interest aroused by the publication of John Mbiti's African Religions and Philosophy thrust African religion into the modern discourse about ways that humans have experienced the sacred. Subsequent African authors such as Bolaji Idowu, Kofi Opoku Asare, Emeka Nwadiora, Ifa Karade, Wände Abimbola, and Laurent Magesa engaged the discussion on African religion with the idea of expanding and clarifying much of what was written by Mbiti in the 1960s and 1970s. Of course, in most cases, these writers were, like Mbiti, Christians or newly reconverted Africans who were attempting to explain African religion in the context of Christian theology. Mbiti, for example, had been an ordained Anglican priest who was eventually elevated to canon in 2005.

      Born in Kenya, Mbiti studied in Uganda and the United States before finally completing his doctorate at Cambridge. During his career, he taught religion in Africa and Europe and was the director of the World Council of Churches' Ecumenical Institute. Although it was his intention to challenge Western assumptions that African religion was demonic and anti-Christian, Mbiti's work, written from a Christian perspective, had the impact of catering to Western ideas about Africa. As a parish minister in Burgdorf, Switzerland, Mbiti continued to advance the idea that Christianity was more significant than African religion and never returned to the religion of his ancestors. Although this is not meant as a condemnation, it is nonetheless an awareness of the complexity and contradictions of Mbiti's approach to traditional African religion.

      Mbiti's African Religions and Philosophy remains a classic text in the historical sense, but it further complicates the discourse on African religion by insisting on a plurality of religions in Africa. A number of writers have contested this reading of African culture, claiming that the unity of African religion is uncontested by philosophy, practice, and ritual. Actually, Mbiti's original title to his book, African Religions and Philosophy, suggests his own ambivalence about the nature of this unity. “African religions” in his title is problematic, but “African philosophy” is not. One is an insistence on plurality, and the other is a statement of unity. In the Encyclopedia of African Religion, we have taken as a starting point the unity of African religion, although we are quite aware of the diversity of expressions of that religion, much like one would see in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, or other human religions.

      African religion dramatizes its unity in the universal appeal to the spirits that animate all of nature. Humans, stones, trees, animals, lakes, rivers, and mountains are conjoined in one grand movement toward the continuation of life. However, the entries that are included in our Encyclopedia have convinced us that the ideas of reciprocity, circularity, and continuity of the human community are essential elements in the discourse on African religion. At the core of this continuity is the belief that ancestors remain active in the community of the living. Almost all other actions on Earth are dependent on the eternal community that encompasses the unborn, the living, and the deceased.

      The Encyclopedia of African Religion articulates a philosophical approach to this topic that situates African transcendent expressions in a unitary sense. Fractured by numerous cultural and spiritual intrusions, African religion has withstood the worst of human brutality and cruelty against other humans with solemn resilience. There are some beliefs and aspects of life and knowledge that are consistent across the continent. For example, human beings originated on the continent of Africa, and the earliest human consciousness toward the awesomeness of nature and the mysteries of life and death was an African experience. In Africa, the world exists as a place full of energy, dynamism, and life, and the holding back of chaos by harmonizing the spirit world is the principal task of the human being in keeping with nature. In the African world, spirits exist. This is not a debatable issue in most African societies. The existence of spirits that are employed in the maintenance of balance and harmony represents the continuous search for equilibrium.

      The idea that a creator exists is also at the base of this African reality. In fact, African people have lived with the name of a Supreme Deity longer than any other people because the first humans who responded to the unknown with the announcement of awe originated on the African continent. This is not just true in the sense of oral tradition, but in historical time we know that the names of Bes, Ptah, Atum, Ra, Amen, Khnum, Set, Ausar, and Auset are among the oldest names for divinities in the world.

      Nothing in ancient African culture was more standard and more consistent than the belief in a First Ancestor. Whether one was in the Nile, Congo, or Niger valley, Africans accepted the idea of a Supreme Being or a First Ancestor. There is generally the belief that a Supreme Being or First Ancestor arrived with the first ancestor of a group of people in a region. Sometimes these two entities are the same being, and at other times they are separate. An Akan saying is “God is the Great Ancestor.” A woman dies and she is remembered for what she did on Earth, and the story is passed down from generation to generation; in the transmission, the story is embellished so that a current generation revels in the supernatural deeds done eons ago. She becomes the First Ancestor. We are in the province of mystery here because the numerous powers that may be called on to explain various phenomena will have their roots in the ancestral world.

      The African Supreme Being, however, rarely plays a role in the daily activities of the people. No one would even think of knowing this being or trying to know him or her as “a personal savior.” The Abrahamic deity of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is quite different from the African God of Yoruba, Zulu, and Gikuyu. Who could fathom the possibilities of the Creator being involved on a personal level with humans? How could one have a personal relationship with God? How could God be a dictator in human life? Thus, the myths, stories, legends, and narratives that are created by the various branches of Popular Traditional African Religion Everywhere (PTARE) are designed to approximate the nature of the God of Gods or, at least, to provide the necessary and attendant assistants in the process of maintaining ethics without the universe.

      What is believed intensely all over the continent of Africa is that the Supreme Being, who could be male, female, or both, created the universe, animals, and human beings, but soon retreated from any direct involvement in the affairs of humans. In some cases in Africa, the Supreme Being does not finish the creation; it is left to other deities to complete. Among the Yoruba, this delegation of creation appears when Olorun, the Owner of the Sky, the Supreme God, starts the creation of the universe and then leaves it to Obatala, a lesser deity, to complete the task. Among the Herero of Namibia, the Supreme God, Omukuru, the Great One, Njambi Kurunga, withdrew into the sky after creating lesser divinities and humans. There are neither temples nor shrines to the God of Gods among most people in Africa. In most cases, the lesser divinities are worshipped, revered, loved, and feared. Why should an Akan person fear Almighty God Nyankopon or the Yoruba people become frightened of Olorun or the Herero be scared of Omukuru?

      Only at the most critical moment when it seems the entire universe is topsy-turvy or the cosmos may fail will the African person appeal to the Creator God. Of course, this situation is not expected. It is probably best summed up by the behavior of the Ewe of southern Ghana, who do not invoke the name of Dzingbe, the Universal Father, unless there is a drought. With a drought comes the possibility that there will be no food, and if there is no food, there will be no life. It is a time of severe crisis. They might then say, “Universal Father, Dzingbe, who rules the sky, to whom we are grateful, mighty is the drought and we are suffering; let it rain, let the earth be refreshed, let the fields be resurrected and the people prosper!” Otherwise, they do not bother the awesome Dzingbe.

      Ancestors appear more important on a daily basis than the Supreme Deity. It is the ancestors who must be feared, who must be appeased, and to whom appeals must be directed; they are the ones who must be invoked and revered because they are the agents of transformation. In effect, the ancestors know the people; they have lived among them and have a keen insight into the nature of ordinary lives. A person's life can change drastically if he or she does not pay proper homage to the ancestors. Some ancestors, as we shall see, are more powerful than others, but all are essentially concerned about the well-being of the society.

      Is Egypt Part of Africa?

      There has been a tendency for Westerners to speak of Egyptian religion and African religion as if these were two separate entities. What this creates is a false dichotomy on the African continent, where Egypt is divorced from the rest of Africa or, to put it another way, Kernet is divorced from Nubia, as if there is neither contiguity nor continuity.

      What is clear from many of the authors who wrote entries for this Encyclopedia is that ancient Egyptian religion was African religion; one cannot isolate Egypt from Africa any more than one can isolate a Christian Rome from a Christian Britain. Two different nations that practice the same religion with different accents and inclinations can be found on every continent. Egypt, or Kernet as it was called in the ancient times, is an African nation in the sense that the continental memory and cultural products are similar to those found throughout the continent.

      Forty-two ethnic groups or political units called nomes existed in predynastic Kernet. Each nome possessed a name for the Supreme Deity. Every local deity was considered universal, omnipotent, ever-lasting, original, and a creator who made all things in the world. Ancient African sages could see from their own situations that humans lived in families, and there was no reason that the gods could not also have families. So the creator god in a local nome was given a family that included an intimate circle who intervened from time to time in the creation plan or in the organization of the world. A common family for the Supreme Deity consisted of a triad. In this pattern, there was a godfather, goddess mother, and godchild. The great religious seat of Waset had a triad of Amen, Mut, and Khonsu while at Men-nefer (Memphis) there was the triad of Ptah, Sekhmet, and Nefertum. The Council of Nicea in 325 AD spoke of the Christian triad as God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. The female entity found in African religion had been removed from what was later called the Christian Trinity. In terms of the female energy, Auset was replaced by Mary, who was not a deity, but a virgin.

      Clearly for us, this Encyclopedia of African Religion is focused on the totality of the African record without regard to region. Therefore, our headword list had to include concepts and entries that dealt with the religious thinking of ancient Kernet, as well as the Kikuyu, the Yoruba, and the Zulu. What is significant about this is that once a reader understands the mythological and philosophical foundations of African religion, the concepts are easy to access; it is like cracking a combination to a complex lock. Once it has been cracked, there is a new world awaiting the reader, who is able to peer through the metaphorical or mythical veils of African narratives.

      Polytheism or Monotheism?

      In the Encyclopedia of African Religion, our authors have shown that the question of monotheism or polytheism is not an African question. It is profoundly a Western question. Most Africans believe in a Supreme God who creates the universe or causes it to be created, although it is believed that this entity may remain distant because the Supreme Deity is not a manager, but a creator.

      Although there is a unity to African religion, there are many variations to the characteristics, rituals and ceremonies, and details of practice related to the Deity. For example, the Asante, an Akan-speaking people of Ghana, and the Yoruba people of Nigeria believe in one great God and are politically monarchical, but have no regular worship of the Almighty. Yet both the Gikuyu people of Kenya and the Ibo people of Nigeria are individualistic and believe in one great God, but the Gikuyu make sacrifices to Ngai, who remains distant but respected, where the Ibo's Supreme God, Cbukwu, is not regularly worshipped in any sense. Using the African system of understanding, the nature of being one cannot conclude that there is only one divinity. Neither can one conclude that there are many creator deities. At best, one must accept that the nature of the divinity is one, but the attributes of the one are found in the numerous manifestations of the one as the many. To say that the nature of the divinity is one is different from claiming that there is only one divinity, although in most African societies, there is only one aspect of the divinity that is responsible for creation. However, polytheism in the sense of several superdeities responsible for human society does not exist. Yet there is every reason to believe that there is a divinity, spirit, or ancestor that is capable of relating to every human activity.

      Even among the Gikuyu, when a taboo is broken or an injury is caused to someone by another person, one may appeal to the ancestors for the proper remedy. Ngai does not bother with the affairs of one person, but rather with the entire people, the whole ethnic group, and the entire nation. Thus, the Gikuyu are similar to other African people in terms of communion with the ancestors and ritual sacrifices. Nevertheless, the Gikuyu are not polytheistic.

      The names of the Supreme God are many. Among the Masai, like the Gikuyu, their neighbors, God is called Ngai. Among the Mende, the name Ngewo, which means existing from the beginning, also means Almighty. The Asante believe in Nyankopon, who may be female or male. The Ga people of Ghana use the name Nyonmo, who is the god of rain, but is also Almighty. The Yoruba of Nigeria speak of God as O lor un, owner of the sky. The Ngombe believe in a supreme spirit called Akongo, the beginner and the unending, Almighty and inexplicable. The Baganda use the name Katonda for Almighty God. Among the Kikuyu, God is referred to as Ngai, the creator. The Kikuyu also use the name Murungu, which means the one who lives in the four sacred mountains and is the possessor of the sky. About 25 other ethnic groups use the name Mulungu or Murungu for Almighty God. The Baila people call God Leza. In Tanzania and Congo, the name Leza is often used for the divinity, the supreme. The Sotho say that the Supreme God is Molimo, protector and father. To the Zulu, the Almighty is Nkulunkulu. The Efik or Ibibio people of Nigeria call the name of the Supreme God Abasi. But the Ijaw speak of Woyengi, the Mother Goddess, who created the universe and everything in it. Included as an appendix in the Encyclopedia of African Religion is a list of the names given by more than 200 African ethnic groups to God.

      Attributes of the Supreme Deity

      We have discovered that the attributes of God in Africa are quite numerous. Among the more popular attributes are the following: the moulder, the bringer of rain, the one who thunders from afar, the one who gives life, the who gives and destroys, the ancient of days, the one who humbles the great, the one who you meet everywhere, the one who brings sunshine, the one on whom we can lean and not fall, the one who is father of little babies, the high one up, the immense ocean whose circular headdress is the horizon, and the Universal Father-Mother.

      Unquestionably, however, the African idea of a creator God who brings justice to the Earth is the most consistent description of the Almighty. Among the Konso of Ethiopia, Waqa, the Supreme God, originated morality, social order, justice, and fertility. Waqa gave the breath of life to humans who had been formed, but could neither move nor speak. When Waqa's wife saw the state of humanity, she pleaded with him to do something about human immobility and lack of speech. Waqa then gave humans breath and humans began to speak and to move. Yet when humans die, they must give breath back to Waqa.

      The Akan Nyankopon had to deal with humans trying to reach God after he had retreated into a distant abode. A woman wanting to reach God had her children stack pounding mortars on each other until they almost reached God. They were one short of reaching God when the woman thought that the only way to succeed was to have one of the mortars taken from the bottom and put on the top to reach God. When this was tried, the whole thing crashed to the Earth. Since that time, no humans have been able to reach the distant abode of God.

      The Yoruba God name Olorun is derived from Orun, which means “heaven,” and Ol, the prefix for owner. The myths of Olorun are less anthropomorphic than other divinities. He is considered a cosmic force, ruler over all other gods. Controller of all life and natural forces, he is the Supreme Being to whom man, nature, and lesser gods answer. It is possible that one other god, Obatala (Great God) or Eleda (Creator), which is also another name for Olorun, existed before him in the Yoruba construction of their pantheon. However, Olorun created the Earth and gave it to Obatala to finish.

      Although seldom referred to in proverb and myths, Olorun is known by many names. Among them are Eleda—Creator; Alaye—living; Owner of life; Elemi—Owner of breath; Alagbara gbagbo—all powerful; Olodumare—almighty; Oluwa—Lord. The term Oluwa is used for other gods as well, but none are as depended on as Olorun. His importance is reflected in daily sayings such as Olorun Yioju ni re, “may God awake us well,” Bi florin ba she, “if God Goes it,” and isbe Olorun, “God has done it.” Despite his prevalence in the Yoruba daily life, there is no regular worship of Olorun. He is called on during times of great distress, when all other gods have failed.

      The Supreme God stands alone in the African tradition. As the most ancient Africans believed, the aim of humans was to maintain balance, order, and harmony to continue to beat back chaos. One sees this at the beginning of religious history in the relationship of the people of Egypt to their divinities. This is possible because the Supreme God also made possible lesser divinities whose job it was to assist humans in the maintenance of harmony. A Supreme Deity is the progenitor of all other deities. For example, Nyankopon, the truly great Nyame, is personified by the sun in the culture of the Akan, the dynamic center of the state as the sun is of the sky. He is the creator of all gods, and so many golden objects are symbolic of his radiance. The Queen Mother is the daughter of the moon, but only the Supreme Deity is said to be a progenitor of gods.

      A Vodun priest in Benin was once asked, “Where is the house of God?” to which he replied, “Here, all around us. God cannot live in a mere house made by men.” It was on the continent of Africa where humans first built temples hoping to house the spirit of God. But this was soon abandoned as the philosophical understanding increased to the point where priests recognized that the Supreme Deity could not live in a finite house. One could not build a house massive enough to contain the creator. Karnak temple in Egypt is the world's largest religious site. But after Karnak and Gebel Barkal, Africa built no religious structure as large ever again, and no other people have built anything as large as these two temples devoted to Amen.

      The spiritual African knows that the Supreme Deity cannot be contained. Thus, Lake Bosumtwe is a huge, perfect circle lake, but it does not hold the Supreme Deity. It is sacred, but even the lake cannot house the Great Nyankapon. Nzambi Mpungu, the Supreme Creator of the Bakongo people of the Congo, is invisible and omnipotent, but he cannot be contained. He intervenes in the creation of every person, indeed, in the creation of everything. Humans render him no worship because he has need of none and is inaccessible anyway. Therefore, Nzambi, the sovereign master, cannot be approached. Yet it is Nzambi who watches every human being and then takes him or her out of life into death. Families have small shrines in many societies, and the father, mother, or head of family may simply salute the Supreme Deity who created Heaven, the sun, and the Earth, but for strategic living in the community of humans, it is the lineage deity and kinship ancestors that are most important.

      The Mwari Triad of the Shona who live in the Belingwe region see the deity Mwari as the father, mother, and son. This deity is related to the legendary king, Soro-Re-Zhou, for whom a cave is named in the Matopo Hills of Zimbabwe.

      Given the numerous titles found just among the Shona people of Zimbabwe, it should come as no surprise to the reader that the complexity and diversity of the idea of God in African cultures are fundamentally philosophical issues. For example, one can see Mwari as the Supreme Being above all men and nature, Creator of good and evil, the Source of Life, who represents fertility and at the same time know, as most Africans know, that Mwari is not a daily guide for humanity.

      Other African people have shown that their names for the deity reflect their philosophy and way of life as well. For instance, the Xhosa of South Africa have given the Supreme Being many praise names, but, in effect, the Supreme Deity is a Creator God. The idea of praise names is found throughout the Nguni-speaking culture and the Xhosa to the deity as uMdali, uMenzi, uHlanga, iNkosi yezuluk, uMvelingquangi, and uNkulunkulu, which are also used by the Zulu and other people, but the terms used for Supreme Being, Qamata and Tbixo, are considered purely Xhosa terms.

      The Nuer of Sudan call the Supreme Deity by the name of Kwotb, or Spirit. Kwoth is the omnipresent creator of the universe. He is identified with the sky, which makes all that is above sacred. He is also called Kwot nhial, Spirit of the sky. The Nuer say he is like the wind, you cannot see him, yet he is everywhere. He reveals himself through natural wonders, such as rain, thunder, and lightning. He is addressed in prayers as Kwotb gbaua, “Spirit of the universe.” He created ritual and custom, providing some men with belief and others with nothing. Sustainer of life, he is called yan, a living being, whose yiegb is the breath that gives man life. Nuer believe Kwoth is their friend, whom they call on in times of sickness. He is their protector, often called guandong, ancestor, or grandfather. Kwoth can also be angry and is deemed distant because of his far-away presence in the sky. He participates in man's affairs, but does so through the aid of other spirits that haunt the gap between Heaven and Earth. Kwoth has the power to bring death and take and protect souls. When the Nuer die, they believe it is natural, but ultimately attribute it to Kwoth.

      The Nupe people of Nigeria believe the universe consists solely of God, the world, the sky, and the Earth. Natural phenomenon is said to be nya Soko, or “of God.” God is referred to as soko or Tsoci (Lord) and is lokpa, “far away.” Soko is omnipresent and appealed to in the language of their daily lives. Although always near, they do not know exactly where Soko is or what he looks like. Soko is omnipotent, omniscient, the only God, creator of all things, good and evil. They believe all life comes from him and, when not incarnate, exists in the sky with him. Soko brings about that which is desired to come. Conception, birth, and ritual ceremony are his gifts. To seek further understanding of him is moot because there is no further knowledge to be learned.

      All natural phenomena might be considered candidates for divinity. The so-called nature divinities appear in many varieties. These are mountains, rivers, and trees that represent certain powerful aspects of the supreme. For example, among the Asante of Ghana, the Tano River and Lake Bosumtwe are seen as divinities. Any natural phenomenon that has been consecrated by certain human achievements, actions, and experiences can become identified with the divine. Thus, the baobab trees that have protected travelers during particular dreadful droughts have become divinities. There are Ohum and Iroko trees, from which special signs have appeared to assist humans moving from one place to another. These, too, have become divinities. All living things have the potential of becoming consecrated as sacred. The gulf that exists between the secular and the sacred in the West does not appear in traditional African religion. When the waters of the Tano River do not seem to flow as they should, the drummer recites an ancient saying: Pure, pure Tano/If you have gone elsewhere, come/And we shall seek a path for you.

      Nature gods are more common in West Africa than in Southern Africa. The western part of the continent is immensely rich in rain forests and rivers. It might be that the people of that region have had to deal with more intense natural phenomena and therefore are more apt to recognize the power of the natural elements. There is, however, among the Zulu of southern Africa, a female deity known as Inkosazana who helps corn to grow. Inkosazana, although not strictly a natural deity, does perform like a natural deity because she assists in the harvest, and the community can appeal to her for this assistance. However, Inkosazana is not like a river or mountain that has been deified.

      Certain elegant trees such as the Iroko may have pots and leaf fences around them. Baobabs, the sacred trees of Senegal, remain a meeting place of the spirits, sometimes ritual sites of the priests and priestesses, despite the presence of Islam in the country. The forests are particularly full of spirits and divinities. But also in the deep bush are dangerous ghosts of men who have been lost, drowned, or burnt alive and have not received proper burial. Nonhuman spirits exist as well as totstes, dryads, juogi, and demons that prey on unsuspecting and unprotected people.

      Snake, tree, and river often figure together in some religious rites. Some ethnic groups in Benin believe that snakes are ancestors incarnate. Snake temples are found along the coast of Africa. Pythons are kept tame in temples, and people will bow to them, put dust on their heads, and salute them as fathers. The vilest crime is to kill a sacred python in some places.

      Africans accept that the most common experiences of human beings are with nature. Because nature interacts with humans on a daily basis, it is important to understand how nature figures in daily lives. All nature deities are useful in the recruitment of true believers.

      Deities are not inconsequential. They are able to bring about healing or destruction. Sometimes their potency is expressed in charms, medicines, and rites of secret societies. Any force that appears to have magical qualities that are inexplicable must be considered in the realm of the divine. These powers are often like energy, abstract, and invisible; results are visible. They tend to be amoral and forceful, simply manifesting themselves in the Earthly lives of humans.

      Indeed, the Earth is a living entity. The Ibo speak of Mother Earth, and the Akan say the Earth is Asase Yaa, Mother Earth. Among the Kru of Liberia, the Earth figures in all actions and can keep humans from seeing those who are taken out of the world, those who disappear or who are removed from the land of the living.

      According to the Kru, Sno-Nysoa, the Supreme God, gave each of his four sons a necklace of leopard teeth. He sent them to visit Earth, but they did not return. When he inquired of Earth, he was told that they had been encouraged to return, but would not. Each time Earth told them to return, they told Earth that their new home was so beautiful they had no desire to return. One day, Sno-Nysoa ran into his sons and told them, “You have made me sad because I am alone and would like for you to return.” They said, “But the new land is so interesting we cannot think of returning. There is so much food and Earth is very generous.”

      Sno-Nysoa grew upset with Earth and said to Earth, “I am going to get my sons back this very night. You will not rob me of my sons!” When the sons went to sleep, they slept soundly, and three of them woke up the next morning, but the eldest did not awake. Earth went to see Sno-Nysoa and asked him to explain his secret power over the eldest son. He noticed that the eldest son was alive. Earth wanted to know how Sno-Nysoa had got the eldest son to return. But Sno-Nysoa said to him, “Don't worry about my sons, when any one of them does not awake, just bury him.” In time, three of his sons slept the long sleep. One by one, they were found in the company of Sno-Nysoa. When Earth saw them, they were happy and quite pleased. When it was the turn of the fourth son, Earth decided that he would do everything he could to keep the fourth son, but in time, he also slept the long sleep. Earth then decided to go to Sno-Nysoa again to get his secret. However, on the way to Sno-Nysoa, Earth discovered that the ladder had been removed and he could not continue. To this day, no living person can see the abode of Sno-Nysoa. Now Sno-Nysoa could take people from the world, and the way to them remains barred because of the actions of Earth long ago.

      Altars are made for the lesser deities. How is an altar consecrated? On the advice of a diviner, a priest may consecrate himself to the service of the religion. A woman may find something sacred in her community and build an altar to a deity with the soil surrounding the place where the object was discovered. Elaborate ceremonies are created for the training of priests and priestesses. In some instances, it may take a person 20 years or more to learn all the rituals, ceremonies, and sacred texts necessary to become a priest.

      What does the popular expression mean that Africans are an incurably religious people? Is this a backdoor way of saying that Africans are superstitious? What is the meaning of superstition anyway? Are the things that we call superstitions realities for others and vice versa? Africans are not more religious than any other people; Africans have had a longer association with the supernatural because of the origin of humanity on the continent of Africa. This is not something special; it is simply a historical fact.

      Understanding the origins of African religion assists the reader in understanding the connectivity of the philosophical stream underlying all of the ideas in this Encyclopedia. This allows the reader to have some appreciation for the dissemination of religious ideas throughout the continent. Our aim in the encyclopedia is to have the reader ask, “What are the similarities, for instance, between the Nile Valley cultures and other African cultures?” Clearly, what is revealed in this work, written by scores of authors, is the idea that Africa is one, united, and spiritually related continen-tally. Although it remains true that Islam and Christianity have made significant inroads in Africa, the basic traditional values of the people are expressed in some of the most private occasions. Nevertheless, the elements of morality, ethical principles, and ancestor respect are seen throughout the continent as Africans rely on the ancient traditions of the ancestors.

      Connective and Related Links

      Eva Meyerowitz (1951) attempted to describe how the religious ideas of ancient Egypt were closely related to the Akan ideas in Ghana. Her work was groundbreaking, but found few followers at that time because of the more conventional Eurocentric interpretations of African culture. She argued that the similarities and correspondences between the ancient Egyptians and Akan people were so great that the relationship was clear. This line of reasoning should not have created a crisis in thinking in the West, but the rush to disbelief, as Basil Davidson calls it, introduced a disconnect in the thinking of European and American scholars about the connectivity and contiguity of ideas and cultures in Africa. They wanted an Africa that was separate, disparate, and isolated. Yet the overwhelming evidence of linguistics, anthropology, and cultural studies has shown that Africans have been migrating from one place to another for thousands of years. There is no secret to the interaction between cultures.

      What the authors of the Encyclopedia of African Religion have demonstrated is that the representations of deities in West Africa often share similarities with more ancient classical concepts. This was not intentional; it only occurred because as different scholars wrote entries for the encyclopedia the editors noticed the similarities from one culture to another. Consider the fact that in Benin, Mawu-Lisa of the Fon appear in representations as a joint deity with Lisa holding the Sun disk in his mouth and Mawu carrying the crescent moon. In various places in the Nile Valley, one could see representations of this symbolism, but it is not only a classical African form because we also see it in other regions of the continent.

      The Yoruba deity Sbango has river goddesses as wives. In many ways, this is like the Asante deity, River Tano, who has wives as well as siblings. We know also that pots of sacred water sit in the temples for beautiful Oshun. The sea deity, among the Yoruba, is Olokun, normally found in the bronzes of Ifè.

      Lake Bosumtwe in Ghana is a sacred lake; when the decaying matter explodes, the people believe the goddess is active. There are many sacred lakes in Africa; all are in some ways related to the Sacred Lake at the Temple of Karnak. In the country of Cameroon, for instance, Lake Bamblime is considered sacred.

      Any encyclopedia is incomplete almost as soon as it is published because ideas, concepts, and terms continue to enrich the particular discourse. This will be the case with our encyclopedia as well. However, because our intentions are to set the highest standards of scholarship and capture the most important aspects of traditional African religion, we seek to establish a baseline for future examinations of African religion. Thus, our encyclopedia is the best representation to date of the comprehensive nature of the African response to the sacred. As you read, you understand our initial reaction to the phenomenon of religion in Africa was to view it as one single phenomenon with numerous manifestations depending on the ethnic community. When our authors began to write and we reviewed the entries for facts, quality, and contribution, we were amazed to discover that the authors appeared to confirm what we had intimated in our original proposal to Sage Publications.

      The entries in this Encyclopedia of African Religion confirm the idea that religion is neither merely metaphysics nor simply morality. There is every reason to believe that the universe of African religious expression includes all that humans, in certain areas, know about how the world works, about what is necessary for humans to survive in community built in the midst of an environment that must constantly be coaxed to allow human settlement, and about what is known of the prospects of humans overcoming the conditions of humanity. Answering these questions and confronting these issues have occupied the minds of African sages longer than any others.

      Our objective has been to bring to the public a major reference work that would grow as scholars and laypeople alike use it to advance their own research and understand the core beliefs and rituals of African culture. Naturally, we have had to rely on many sources, references, and scholars who have demonstrated commitment to an authentic African voice. This is not a compara-tivist work because this is the first work of this type; however, comparison is now possible because of the existence of this Encyclopedia. It is to be expected that with the demonstration of the complexity, texture, and rhythms of the African religious tradition, future scholars will have a baseline from which to advance further research.

      In editing the encyclopedia, we constantly reminded ourselves and were reminded by the authors of these entries that human consciousness is not simply a matter of rational thought, but something deeply informed by myth and the mysteries of human life. Furthermore, language has always been the lever of myth, and our experiences with African languages and African myths convince us that there are thousands of ways of expressing the creation or establishing a proper ritual to recognize an ancestor. One escapes all mutilation of consciousness by appealing to these incredibly rich and varied entries on traditional African religion for a deeper, more profound understanding of African culture in general.

      Entry writers brought their own styles to the project. We have dealt with issues of language, for example, the idea of holocaust of African Enslavement, where the word holocaust has been seen as a word that refers only to the brutal experience of the Jews in World War II. In addition, we have had to deal with the issue of negative and pejorative terminologies such as sorcerer, witch, primitive, cult, and fetish. Given the impractical-ity of changing the entire reading public's image overnight, we have settled for the huge possibility that this encyclopedia can be used as a background text for cultural knowledge. Only then will we have established the key ideas and foun-dational thinking necessary for moving the discourse on African religion forward.

      We would like to acknowledge the tremendous assistance of Rolf Janke, acquisition editor, who expressed faith in our ability to bring this project to fruition from the beginning. In addition to Rolf, we appreciate the work of Yvette Pollastrini, developmental editor, and Leticia Gutierrez, systems coordinator, who made possible the smooth operation of the Sage SRT system and gave us encouragement and direction precisely when we needed it. Our work has been facilitated by Jacqueline Tasch, who has assisted with expert editing, and the guidance of Diana Axelsen. There is no way we could have completed this work without their constant attention to detail.

      When we embarked on this project, we were fortunate to have the blessings of some of the major scholars in the world of culture and religion. We thank Chinua Achebe, Africa's greatest novelist; Kwame Gyekye, one of Africa's leading philosophers; Maulana Karenga, the foremost African writer on ancient Egyptian religion; Marta Moreno Vega, scholar of African religion in the Americas; Isidore Okpewho, the eminent African scholar of myths and epics; and Kofi Asare Opoku, author of many books and articles on African religion and one of the leaders in the field of African proverbs, for lending their names and reputations to this Encyclopedia. They gave their suggestions, waited for our work patiently, and have become some of our best supporters. Each of them accepted our request to serve as board members of the project without hesitation.

      Finally, we dedicate this encyclopedia to our spouses, Ana and Garvey, and our children, Muswele, Tamu, Kiyaumuya, M. K., Jr., and Eka.

      Molefi Kete Asante, and Ama Mazama
    • Appendix: Names of God in Africa

      Appendix: Names of god in Africa

      The following list of the names of God in Africa was compiled by the scholar and author Dr. Emeka Nwadiora of Temple University. These names are collected from personal knowledge, literary references, and oral narratives. While quite extensive, this list is not exhaustive since there are names for the supreme deity in every African ethnic or linguistic community and there are more than 2,000 such groups on the continent. The reader should find this list impressive in its reach across the continent of Africa from north to south, east to west.

      Names of God Among Some Nigerian Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Ghanaian Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Kenyan Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Ugandan Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Cameroonian Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Ethiopian Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Sudanese Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some Congo Ethnicities
      Names of God Among Some South African Ethnicities

      Names of God Among Some Tanzanian Ethnicities

      Bibliography: African Religious Sources

      Bibliography: African religious sources

      Abimbola, W. Sixteen Great Poems of Ifa. Niamey: Unesco/Celhto, 1975.

      Abimbola, W. Ifa Divination Poetry. Ibadan: University of Ibadan, 1976.

      Abimbola, W. Ifa, an Exposition of Ifa Literary Corpus. Ibadan: Oxford University Press, 1978.

      Abimbola, W., and Ayorinde, J. A. Ifa as a Body of Knowledge and as an Academic Discipline. Lagos Notes no. 2 (1968), 30–40.

      Abimbola, W., and Hallen, B. Secrecy (“Awo”) and Objectivity in the Literature and Methodologie of Ifa Knowledge Systems. Proceedings of African Studies Association Annual Meeting (1978).

      Abrahams, R. G. Occasional Papers in African Traditional Religion and Philosophy. International Journal of African Historical Studies 7 (1974), 131–142.

      Abrahamson, H. The Origin of Death: Studies in African Mythology. Uppsala: Studia Ethnographica Uppsaliensia, 1951.

      Acheampong, S. O. Reconstructing the Structure of Akan Traditional Religion. Mission 2 (1995), 79–93.

      Achebe, C. “Chi in Igbo Cosmology.” In Achebe, C. (Ed.), Morning Yet on Creation Day. New York: Doubleday, 1976.

      Achebe, C. The World of the Ogbanje. Enugu: Fourth Dimension, 1986.

      Ackah, C. A. Akan Ethics: A Study of the Moral Ideas and the Moral Behaviour of the Akan Tribes of Ghana. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1988.

      Adam, J. Sagesse obamba (Haut-Ogooué). Muntu. Revue Scientifique et Culturelle di CICIBA no. 7 (1987), 109–119.

      Adamah, E. A. Langues Africaines et esthétique: Comment faire? Colloque sur Langues Africaines et philosophie, Cotonou (1985, December), 10–13.

      Adams, M. African Visual Arts From an Art Historical Perspective. African Studies Review 32 (1989), 55–103.

      Adams, R. F. G. Obari Okaime: A New African Language and Script. Africa 17, no. 1 (1947), 24–32.

      Adande, A. La tradition gnomique. Présence Africaine nos. 8–9 (1950), 323–332.

      Adande, A., and Verger, P. Un rite expiatoire: Oma. Notes Africaines no. 58 (1953), 41–46.

      Adande, A., and Verger, P. Fonctions et significations des masques en Afrique noire. Présence Africaine (1955, avril-juillet), 23–34.

      Adebajo, S. Kori—The Yoruba Deity of Children. Onta 21 (1989), 65–77.

      Adegbite, A. The Drum and Its Role in Yoruba Religion. Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 15–26.

      Adelowo, E. D. A Comparative Study of Creation Stories in Yoruba Religion, Islam and Judaeo-Christianity. African Theological Journal 15 (1986), 29–53.

      Ademuwagu, Z. A. Alafia. The Yoruba Concept of Health: Implication for Health Education. International Journal of Health Education (Geneva) 21, no. 2 (1978), 15–28.

      Adenbigbe, G., and Ayebgboyin, D. (Eds.). Religion, Medicine and Healing. Lagos, Nigeria: NASRED, 1995.

      Adeolu Adegbola, E. A. Le fondement théologique de la morale: Pour une éthique du dynamisme, in Pour une théologie Africaine. Yaounde (1969), 163–189.

      Adesanya, A. Yoruba Metaphysical Thinking. Odù 5 (1958), 36–41.

      Adewale, S. A. The Significance of Traditional Religion in Yoruba Traditional Society. Orita 15 (1983), 3–15.

      Adewale, S. The Cultic Use of Water Among the Yoruba. Orita 18 (1986), 28–39.

      Adewale, S. Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion. Orita 20 (1988), 91–106.

      Adewale, S. Crime and African Traditional Religion. Orita 26, nos. 1–2 (1994), 54–66.

      Adewale, S., and Zempléni, A. Le bâton de l'aveugle: Divination, maladie et pouvoir chez les Moundang du Tchad. Paris: Hermann. Anzieu D, 1972.

      Adewale, S. La mort est le masque du roi: La royauté sacrée chez les Moundang du Tchad. Paris: Hermann. Anzieu D, 1982.

      Adewale, S. Essai sur la signification des relations de dépendance personnelle dans l'ancien système politique de Mundang du Tchad. Cahiers d'Ètudes Africaines 9 (1969), 441–460.

      Adewale, S., and Adoukounou, B. Four une problématique anthropologique et religieuse de la mort dans la pensée adja-fon: La mort dans la vie Africaine. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1979.

      Adande, A. Jalons pour une théologie Africaine: Essai d'une herméneutique chrétienne du Vodum dahoméen, 2 t. Paris: Lethielleux; Namur: Sycomore, 1980.

      Agblemagnon, F. N'Sougan. Du ‘temps’ dans la culture Ewé. Présence Africaine nos. 14–15 (1957), 222–232.

      Agblemagnon, F. Personne, tradition et culture en Afrique Noire. Aspects de la culture noire (1958), 22–30.

      Agblemagnon, F. L'Afrique noire: La métaphysique, l'éthique, l'évolution actuelle. Comprendre nos. 21–22 (1960), 74–82.

      Agblemagnon, F. Totalités et systèmes dans les sociétés d'Afrique Noire. Présence Africaine no. 41 (1962), 13–22.

      Agblemagnon, F. L'Afrique noire et l'Europe face à face: Dialogue d'Africains et Européens sur la présente crise mondiale de civilisation. Présence Africaine 24 (1971), 157–163.

      Agossou, J. M. Culture et Religion traditionnelle en Afrique Noire. Savanes Forêts (1979), 99–117.

      Agudze-Vioka, Bernard. De la conception de la vie et de la mort chez les Ewe. Bulletin Enseignement Supérieur (Benin, Rome) 6 (1968), 121–128.

      Agblemagnon, F. A propos du Colloque sur les religions traditionnelles comme source de valeurs (16–22, aoÛt 1970, Poto-Novo, Dahomey). Présence Africaine no. 74 (1970), 90–93.

      Agblemagnon, F. Concerning Traditional African Religion as a Source of Civilisation Values. Présence Africaine no. 74 (1970), 94–97.

      Agblemagnon, F. La divinité Legba et la dynamique du panthéon vodoun au Dan-Home. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 7 (1970), 89–96.

      Agblemagnon, F. La phase de la Négritude. Présence Africaine no. 80 (1971), 33–48.

      Agblemagnon, F. Tradition orale et structure de pensée: Essai de méthodologie. Cultures, Cahiers d'histoire mondiale 14 (1972), 269–297.

      Agblemagnon, F. Les dimensions spirituelles: Religions traditionelles Africaines. Présence Africaine 117/118 (1981), 138–148.

      Aguilar, M. The Eagle as Messenger, Pilgrim and Voice: Divinatory Processes Among the Waso Boorana of Kenya. Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (1996), 56–72.

      Aja, E. The Power of the “Word” in Traditional African (Igbo) Metaphysics: A Pramatic Perspective. Cont Phil World 14, no. 4 (1992), 1–4.

      Aja, E. Time and Space in African (Igbo) Thought. Phil Cont World 1, no. 1 (1994), 1–8.

      Aja, E. Crime and Punishment: An Indigenous African Experience. Journal Value Inq. 31, no. 3 (1997), 353–368.

      Ajayi, B. The Derivation of Omo Odù in the Ifa Literary Corpus. Orita 24 (1992), 1–11.

      Akesson, S. K. The Akan Concept of the Soul. Africa Affairs 61 (1965), 280–291.

      Akiiki, A. B. T Byaruhanga, The Philosophy and Theology of Time in Africa: The Bantu Case. Afer 22 (1980), 357–369.

      Akoi, P. Religion in African Social Heritage. Rome: Urban University, 1970.

      Alapini, J. Les noix sacrées: Etude complete de Fa-Ahidégoun génie de la sagesse et de la divination au Dahomey. Monte-Carlo: Ed. Regain, 1950.

      Albert, E. M. Une étude de valeur en Burundi. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 2 (1960), 148–160.

      Ally, J. A. La mort chez les Bakusu. La voix du Congolais 5, no. 34 (1949), 20.

      Amankulor, J. N. Ekpe Festivals as Religious Ritual and Dance Drama. Ikenga 1, no. 2 (1972), 37–47.

      Amon D'aby, F. J. Croyances religieuses et coutumes juridiques des Agni de la Côte d'Ivoire. Paris: Ed. Larose, 1960.

      Anastase, F. Le nom et ses implications dans la culture bantoue. Servir 22, no. 4 (1961), 120–135.

      Anastase, F., and Augustin, F. Noms propres relatifs à Imana. Servir 22 (1961), 238–245.

      Anaya-Noa, L., and Atangana, S. La sagesse Béti dans le chant des oiseaux. Abbia no. 8 (1965), 97–141.

      Andersson, E. La notion de Dieu chez quelques tribus Congo-Camerounaises. Journal of Religion in Africa 2 (1969), 96–112.

      Andersson, E. The Concept of Justice and Morality Among the Bakuta in the Congo-Brazzaville. Etbnos 37 (1972), 5–39.

      Andoh, A. K., and Sichern, K. Astrological Symbols & African Gods. College Park, GA: North Scale Institute Publishing, 1995.

      Annyereh, L. Marriage Among the Konkomba. The Northern Review 8 (1989), 13–17.

      Anquetil, J. L'artisanat créateur (Afrique Noire). Paris: Dessain et Tours, ACCT, 1984.

      Antubam, K. Ghana's Heritage of Culture. Leipzig: Koehler and Amelang, 1963.

      Anyanwu, H. O. Why the Igbos Abandoned Their Gods. Africa Theological Journal 14 (1985), 91–99.

      Anyanwu, K. C. African Religion as an Experienced Reality. Thought and Practice 2, no. 2 (1975), 149–157.

      Anyanwu, K. The African World-view and Theory of Knowledge. In Ruch, E. A., & Anyanwu, K. C. (Eds.), African Philosophy. Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1981, 77–99.

      Anyanwu, K. African Religious Experience. In Ruch, E. A., & Anyanwu, K. C. (Eds.), African Philosophy. Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1981, 161–176.

      Anyanwu, K. Artistic and Aesthetic Experience. In Ruch, E. A., & Anyanwu, K. C. (Eds.), African Philosophy. Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1981, 270–282.

      Anyanwu, K. African Political Doctrine. In Ruch, E. A., & Anyanwu, K. C. (Eds.), African Philosophy. Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1981, 369–384.

      Anyanwu, K. The Idea of Art in African Thought. In Floistad, Guttorm (Ed.), Contemporary Philosophy, A New Survey. Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1987, 235–260.

      Anyanwu, K. Sound as Ultimate Reality and Meaning: The Mode of Knowing Reality in African Thought. Ultimate Reality and Meaning 10 (1987), 29–38.

      Aramazani Birusha, A. Conceptualisation du manger dans le champ notionnel de la sexualité en langue bavu. Bulletin d'information du CELTA, Lubumbashi 17 (1975), 3–27.

      Arazu, P. The Moral Implications of “Ogbu-Eki,” in the “Ozo” Phenomenon in Igbo Culture. Diss. Theol. Romae, Pont. Univ. Lat., Academia Alfonsiana, 1972.

      Ardener, E. Coastal Bantu of the Cameroons. London: Oxford University Press, 1956.

      Argyle, W J. The Fon of Benin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.

      Arinze, A. Sacrifice in Ibo Religion. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1970.

      Armstrong, R. G. African Religion and Cultural Renewal. Onta 9 (1975), 109–132.

      Arnaud, M. Mythologie et folklore sur le Haut- Zambèse. Présence Africaine no. 2 (1948), 244–266.

      Arnott, K. African Myths and Legends. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

      Arnoux, R. P. Le culte de la société secrète des Imandwa au Ruanda. Anthropos (1919–1913), 213–230.

      Asante, Molefi. Kernet, Afrocentricity and Knowledge. Trenton, NT: Africa World Press, 1990.

      Asante, Molefi. The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.

      Asante, Molefi. The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices From Imhotep to Akhenaten. Chicago: African American Images, 2000.

      Asante, Molefi., and Abarry, A. African Intellectual Heritage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

      Asante, Molefi., and Nwadiora, E. Spear Masters: An Introduction to African Religion. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2006.

      Ashton, E. H. Medicine, Magic and Sorcery Among the Southern Sotho. Cape Town: University of Cape Town, 1943.

      Asmus, G. Die Zulu. Essen: Essenerverlagsanstalt, 1939.

      Assane, S. La philosophie morale des Wolof. Dakar: Ed. Sankoré, 1978.

      Atangana, B. Le Sacré dans l'Afrique Traditionnelle. Bulletin du Cercle St Jean-Baptiste (1964), 363–374.

      Aujas, L. Les rites du sacrifice à Madagascar. Tananarive: Mémoires de l'Académie malgache, fase. 2, 1927.

      Awak'ayon, C. Anta Diop et l'origine nègre de la civilisation égyptienne. Zaïre-Afrique no. 117 (1977), 419–432.

      Awino, J. O. Towards an Analytical African Theology: The Luo Concept of God as a Case in Point. Afer 36 (1994), 171–180.

      Awolalu, J. O. Aiyélâla—A Guardian of Social Morality. Orita 2 (1968), 79–90.

      Awolalu, J. The African View of Man. Onta 6 (1972), 108–116.

      Awolalu, J. Yoruba Sacrificial Practice. Journal of Religion in Africa 5 (1973), 81–93.

      Awolalu, J. Sin and Its Removal in African Traditional Religion. Onta 10 (1979), 3–22.

      Awolalu, J. The Concept of Death and Hereafter. West African Religion 18 (1979), 57–69.

      Awolalu, J. Continuity and Discontinuity in African Religion: The Yoruba Experience. Orita 13 (1981), 3–20.

      Awolalu, J. Scape-Goatism in Yoruba Religion. Orita 19 (1987), 3–9.

      Ayorinde, Ch. J. A., and Abimbola, A. Ifa as a Body of Knowledge. Lagos Notes no. 2 (1969), 63–68.

      Azombo-Menda, S. Analyse structurale de la chanson Pahouine. Camelang no. 4 (1975), 3–8.

      Ba, A. H., Cardaire, M., and Bokar, T. Le sage de Bandiagara. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1957.

      Ba, A. Sur l'animisme. Présence Africaine (1959), 24–25.

      Ba, A., and Dieterlen, G. Texte initiatique des pasteurs Peul. Paris-La Haye: Mouton, 1961.

      Ba, A. Aspects de la civilisation africaine (Personne, culture, religion). Paris: Présence Africaine, 1972.

      Ba, A. La notion de personne en Afrique noire. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1973.

      Baaren, Th. P. van. Menschen wie wir: Religion und Kult der schriftlosen. Völker: Gütersloh, 1964.

      Babalolo, E. O. The Reality of African Traditional Religion: A Yoruba Case Study. The Nigerian Journal of Theology 6 (1991), 50–63.

      Babalolo, E. O. The Significance of Yoruba Songs in the Study of African Traditional Religion: The Owo Experience. The Living Word 98 (1992), 452–462.

      Babalolo, S. A. The Content and Form of Yoruba Ijala. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

      Bachelard, G. L'Eau et les Rêves. Paris: Brodard & Taupin, 1943.

      Badiambile Bakenga, B. Communication orale et pensée philosophique africaine. Colloque sur Langues africaines et philosophie, Cotonou (1985, December), 10–13.

      Badiambile Bakenga, B. La forza vitale nell'etica negro-africana (The Vital Force in Black African Ethics). Kos 9, no. 93 (1993), 46–48.

      Baeta, C. G. Les fondements éthiques et spirituels de l'humanisme animiste (a paper read at the Colloquium on “The Contributions of Animism, Islam and Christianity to the Cultural Expression of the African Personality.” Abidjan, Ivory Coast, April 5–12, 1961.

      Bahoken, J.-C. La notion de ‘bedimo’ chez les Bantu du Cameroun. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 31 (1961), 91–96.

      Bahoken, J.-C. Clairières métaphysiques africaines: Essai sur la philosophie et la religion chez les Bantu du Sud-Cameroun. Paris: Présence africaine, 1967.

      Bakabulindi, J. The Traditional Wisdom of the Bagauda Concerning Moral Behavior. In Byaruhange-Akiiki, A. B. (Ed.), Occasional Papers in African Traditional Religion and Philosophy (vol. 17). Kampala: Makerere University Press, 1974.

      Balandier, G., and Maquet, J. (Eds.). Dictionnaire des civilisations africaines. Paris: Hazan, 1968.

      Balegamire Bazilashe, C. R. Lyangombe, mythe et rites, Bukavu. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 13, no. 25 (1979), 153–156.

      Balegamire Bazilashe, C. R. Lyangombe, and Rusimbuka, J. M. N. (Eds.). Langue et culture en Afrique: Le cas des Bahavu du Zaïre. Mélanges à la mémoire d'Aramazani Birusha A (1943–1987) (Points de repères 2). Kinshasa-Louvain-la-Neuve: Nouvelles Rationalités Africaines, 1990.

      Balogun, O. Forme et expression dans les arts africains. In Introduction à la culture africaine (coll. 10/18). Paris: Union générale d'Edition, UNESCO, 1977.

      Balu, B., and Faik-Nzuji Madiya, C. Les secrets de la parole sculptée: Lecture d'un Taapa, couvercle à proverbes des Bawoyo (Zaïre/Angola). Bulletin du Ciltade 10 spécial (1986).

      Bamba, N. K. Culture, authenticité et arts plastiques zaïrois. Manuscrit inédit, collection Propos sur l'art AICA/Zaïre, 1978.

      Bamunoba, Y. K., and Adoukonou, B. La mort dans la vie africaine. Paris: Présence Africaine, UNESCO, 1979.

      Bapolisi, B. P. La mort dans les proverbes des Bahavu. In Balegamire, Bazilashe, and Rusimbuka, J. M. Ngoboka (Eds.), Langue et culture en Afrique (Points de repère 2). Kinshasa-Ottignies: Nouvelles Rationalités Africaines, 1991, 87–100.

      Barnard, A. Structure and Fluidity in Khoisan Religious Ideas. Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 216–236.

      Barnes, H. Survival After Death Among the Ba-Bemba of North-Eastern Rhodesia. Man 26 (1922), 41–42.

      Barnes, S. T. (Ed.). Africa's Ogun: Old World and New. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

      Baron, R. Recherches philosophiques sur la langue Ouolof. Paris: Dondey Dupré, 1829.

      Barone, O. R. Lega Culture: Art, Initiation and Moral Philosophy Among a Central African People. Social Education 39 (1975), 114–132.

      Barra, G. 1,000 Gikuyu Proverbs. London: Heinemann, 1960.

      Barret, D. B. (Ed.). African Initiatives in Religion. Nairobi: East African Publishing, 1971.

      Bartels, L. Oromo Religion, Mythes and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1983.

      Bartle, P. The Universe Has Three Souls: Notes on Translating Akan Culture. Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 85–114.

      Bascom, W. Yoruba Concepts of Soul. In Wallace, A. F. C. (Ed.), Men and Cultures. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960, 131–157.

      Bascom, W. Yoruba Concepts of the Soul. In Fifth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnological Sciences. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960, 401–410.

      Bascom, W. Ifa Divination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

      Basden, G. T Among the Ibos of Nigeria. London: Seeley, 1931 (repr. 1966).

      Basden, G. T Niger Ibos. London: Seeley, 1938 (repr. 1966).

      Baselle, B.'O. Le mariage chez les Mongo de Boende. Mémoire de licence, Fac. de théol. protestante de Kinshasa, 1979.

      Basiba, L. N. V. Contribution à l'étude des valeurs de l'art négro-africain: L'exemple de la plastique traditionnelle bakongo (Bas-Zaïre). Effort d'elucidation. Mémoire de licence en philosophie, Lubumbashi, Fac. des Lettres, 1977.

      Bastide, R. Le Candomblé de Bahia (rite Nagô). Paris: Mouton, 1958.

      Bastide, R. Réflexions sans titre autour d'une des formes de la spiritualité africaine. Présence Africaine nos. 17–18 (1958), 9–16.

      Bastide, R. Religions africaines et structures de civilisation. Présence Africaine no. 66 (1968), 98–111.

      Bastide, R. L'Expression de la Prière chez les Peuples sans Ecriture. La Maison-Dieu 109 (1972), 98–112.

      Bastide, R. Le principe d'individuation: Contribution à une philosophie africaine. In Dieterlen, G. (Ed.), La notion de personne en Afrique noire. Paris: Ed. de le Recherche Scinetifique, 1973, 33–43.

      Bastien, C. Folies, mythes et magies d'Afrique noire. Propos des guérisseurs du Mali. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1988.

      Bastin, M. L. Entités spirituelles des Tshokwe (Angola). Quaderni Poro 5 (1988), 9–61.

      Batsikama, B. M. A propos de “La cosmogonie- Kongo.” Cultures au Zaïre et en Afrique no. 4 (1974), 239–264.

      Baumann, H. Das Tier als Alter Ego in Afrika: Zur Frage des afrikanischen Individualtotemismus. Paideuma 5 (1954), 167–188.

      Baumann, H. Schöpfung und Urzeit des Menschen im Mythus der afrikanischen Völker. Berlin: Reimer, 1964.

      Baumann, H. Die Wiedergeburtsideen in Afrika und ihre kulturhistorische Wertung. In Zahan, D. (Ed.), Réincarnation et vie mystique en Afrique Noire (1965), Colloque de Strasbourg (16–18 mai 1963). Travaux du Centre d'Ètudes supérieures spécialisée d'histoire des religions de Strasbourg, 31–49.

      Baumann, H. (Ed.). Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionnelen Kulturen I. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1975.

      Baumann, H., Thumwald, R., and Westermann, D. Völkerkunde von Afrika. Essen: Essenerverlagsanstalt, 1940.

      Baumann, H., and Westermann, D. Les Peuples et les Civilisations de l'Afrique. Paris: Payot, 1962.

      Bayakissa, J.-C. L'imaginaire du masque africain. Cahiers congolais de l'imaginaire 1 (janv. 1988), 4–11.

      Bayiga, A. L'homme qui voit la nuit et l'existence de Basa, Essai sur un aspect de l'existentialisme africain. Thèse de doctorat Se. Relig., Strasbourg, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1966.

      Baziota, A. F. Analogie et symbolisme du proverbe. Pour servir 1, no. 1 (1957), 13–15.

      Beattie, J. On the Nyoro Concept of Mahano. African Studies 19 (1960), 145–150.

      Beattie, J. Understanding Traditional African Religion: A Comment on Horton. Second Order 2, no. 2 (1973), 3–11.

      Beattie, J, and Middleton, J. (Eds.). Spirit Mediumship and Society in Africa. New York: Africana, 1969.

      Beck, H. Beitrag der Ontologie zu einer sinnvollen und friedlichen Ordnung der Völker. Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsforschung 23 (1979), 85–91.

      Becken, H. Sounds of the Double-Headed Drums. Mission Studies 12 (1995), 226–246.

      Beidelman, T. O. The Blood Covenant and the Concept of Blood in Ukaguru. Africa 33 (1963), 321–342.

      Beidelman, T. O. Kaguru Time Reckoning: An Aspect of the Cosmology of an East African People. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 19 (1963), 9–20.

      Beidelman, T. O. A Kaguru Version of the Sons of Noah: A Study in the Inculcation of the Idea of Racial Superiority. Cahiers d'Ètudes Africaines no. 3 (1963), 474–490.

      Beidelman, T. O. Pig (“guluwe”): An Essay on Ngulu Sexual Symbolism and Ceremony. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 20 (1964), 359–392.

      Beidelman, T. O. Three Tales of the Living and the Dead; The Ideology of Kaguru Ancestral Propitiation. Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute 94 (1964), 109–137.

      Beidelman, T. O. Notes on Boy's Initiation Among the Ngulu of East Africa. Man 65 (1965), 143–147.

      Beidelman, T. O. The Ox and Nuer Sacrifice: Some Freudian Hypotheses About Nuer Symbolism. Man 1, no. 4 (1966), 453–467.

      Beidelman, T. O. “Utani”: Some Kaguru Notions of Death, Sexuality and Affinity. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 22 (1966), 354–380.

      Beidelman, T. O. Swazi Royal Ritual. Africa 36 (1966), 373–405.

      Beidelman, T. O. Some Nuer Notions of Nakedness, Nudity, and Sexuality. Africa 38 (1968), 113–132.

      Beidelman, T. O. Some Hypotheses Regarding Nilo-Hamitic Symbolism: Baraguyu Folklore. Anthropological Quarterly 41 (1968), 78–98.

      Beidelman, T. O. Myth, Legend and Oral History: A Kangura Traditional Text. Anthropos 65 (1970), 74–97.

      Beidelman, T. O. Dual Symbolic Classification Among the Kanguru. In Needham, R. (Ed.), Right and Left. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973, 128–166.

      Beidelman, T. O. Names and Naming. Journal of Anthropological Research 30 (1974), 281–292.

      Beidelman, T. O. African Religions and Philosophy. Africa 46, no. 4 (1977), 413–414.

      Beidelman, T. O. Women and Men in Two East African Societies. In Karp, I., and Bird, C. S. (Eds.), Explorations in African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980, 143–164.

      Beidelman, T. O. Moral Imagination in Kaguru Modes of Thought (African Systems of Thought). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

      Beier, U. The Origin of Life and Death: African Creation Myths (African Writers Series 23). London: Heinemann, 1966.

      Beidelman, T. O. Yoruba Beaded Crowns: Sacred Regalia of the Olokuku of Okuku. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

      Bekombo, M. Note sur le temps, Conception et attitudes chez les Dwala. L'ethnographie 60–61 (1966–1967), 60–64.

      Bellman, B. L. The Language of Secrecy: Symbols and Metaphors in Foro Ritual. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

      Beltrame, G. 17 Fiume Bianco e i Dinka. Verona: Instituto Veneto di Scienzo, Lettere ed Arti; (livelli, 1881.

      Belves, F. F. C. Kikuyu Religion. African Affairs (1953), 202–246.

      Ben-Jochannan, Y. The African Origin of Major Western Religions. New York: Alkebulan Books, 1971.

      Benwenyi Kweshi, O. Le Dieu de nos Ancêtres. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 137–151.

      Berger, R. Is Traditional Religion Still Relevant? Onta 3 (1969), 15–26.

      Berglund, A. I. Zulu Thought Patterns and Symbolism. London: Hurst, 1976.

      Bergounioux, F. M., and Goetz, J. Frimitive and Prehistoric Religions (C. R. Busby, Trans.). New York: Hawthorn Books, 1966.

      Berilengar, A. L'initiation traditionnelle, un processus d'intégration sociale: L'expérience des Murum au Tchad. Telema 17 (1991), 65–70.

      Bernardi, B. The Mugwe, A Failing Prophet. Oxford: Oxford University Press for International African Institute, 1958.

      Bertho, J. La science du destin au Dahomay. Africa 9 (1936), 359–378.

      Biebuyck, D. De hond bïg de Nyanga. Rituel en Sociologie, Mémoires Académiques des Sciences Coloniales, t. Vili, fase. 3, Bruxelles, 1956.

      Biebuyck, D. (Ed.). Tradition and Creativity in Tribal Art. Berkeley: California University Press, 1969.

      Biebuyck, D. Lega Culture: Art, Initiation, and Moral Philosophy Among a Central African People. London: University of California Press, 1973.

      Bilolo, M. Die Begriffe Heilger Geist und Dreifaltigkeit Gottes angesichts der afrikanischen religiösen Überlieferung. Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 68 (1984), 1–23.

      Bilolo, M. Les cosmo-théologies philosophiques de l'Egypte antique: Problématique, prémisses herméneutiques et problèmes majeurs. Kinshasa-Libreville-Munich: Publications Universitaires Africaines, 1986.

      Bilolo, M. Les cosmo-théologies philosophiques d'Héliopolis et d'Hermopolis: Essai de thématisation et de systématisation. Kinshasa-Libreville-Munich: Publications Universitaires Africaines, 1986.

      Bilolo, M. Les tâches laissées par Cheikh Anta Diop. Nouvelles Rationalités Africaines no. 3 (1986), 429–468.

      Bimwenyi, O. Le muntu, à la lumière des ses croyances en l'au-delà. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 65–74.

      Bimwenyi, O. Le Dieu de nos ancêtres. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 137–151.

      Binsbergen, W., van. Four-Tablet Divination as Trans-regional Medical Technology in Southern Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa 25 (1995), 114–140.

      Binsbergen, W., van. (Eds.). Theoretical Explorations in African Religion. London: Kegan Paul International, 1985.

      Bittremieux, L. La Société secrète des Bahimba au Mayombe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947.

      Blakely, T D., van Beek, W. E. A., and Thomson, D. L. (Eds.). Religion in Africa: Experience and Expression. London: James Currey, 1994.

      Bleyler, K.-E. Religion und Gesellschaft in Schwarzafrika. Sozial-religiöse Bewegungen und koloniale Situation. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1981.

      Blier, S. P. King Glele of Danhomè: Divination Portraits of a Lion King and Man of Iron (Part I). African Arts 23, no. 4 (1990), 42–53, 93–94.

      Blier, S. P. King Glele of Danhomè: Dynasty and Destiny (Part II). African Arts 24, no. 1 (1991), 44–53, 101–103.

      Blier, S. P. Truth and Seeing: Magic, Custom, and Fetish in Art History. In Mudimbe, V. Y., Gates, R. H., and O'Barr, J. (Eds.), Africa and the Disciplines: The Contributions of Research in Africa to the Social Sciences and Humanities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, 139–166.

      Blohm, W. Die Nyamwezi (3 vols.). Hamburg: Friederichsen, 1931–1933.

      Blyden, E. W. African Life and Customs. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1994 (first published in 1908).

      Bobo, J.-F. La prière négro-africaine. Revue de spiritualité africaine 1 (1995), 63–70.

      Boccassino, R. La Mitologia degli Acioli sull'Essere Supremo. Anthropos (1938), 59–106.

      Bochet, G. Le masques sénoufo, de la forme à la signification. Bull If an 27 (1965), 637–677.

      Boeck, F. de. Healing From the Margin: Symbolic and Diachronie Study of Inter-cultural Therapeutic and Divinatory Roles Among a Luund and Chokwe. In van Binsbergen, W., and Schilder, K. (Eds.), Ethnicity in Africa. London: Kegan Paul, 1993.

      Boelaert, E. De Elima der Nkudo. Congo 1 (1936), 42–52.

      Boelaert, E. De Elima der Nkudo. L'ontologie bantoue selon M. Possoz. Lovania no. 11 (1947), 113–117.

      Boelaert, E. De Elima der Nkudo. De dood bij de Nkundo. Annalen (Borgerhout) 68 (1957), 154–155.

      Boelaert, E. De Elima der Nkudo. La mort chez les Nkundo. Annales (Borgerhout) 69 (1958), 155–156.

      Boer, H. R. Time as an Aspect of Traditional African Eschatology. Reformed Review 39 (1986), 199–205.

      Bohannan, L., and Bohannan, P. The Tiv of Central Nigeria (Ethnographic Survey of Africa). London: International African Institute, 1953.

      Bohannan, P. Concepts of Time Among the Tiv of Nigeria. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 9 (1953), 251–262.

      Bohannan, P. Concepts of Time Among the Tiv of Nigeria. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 9 (1953), 251–262.

      Bohannan, P. Justice and Judgement Among the Tiv. New York: Oxford University Press, 1957.

      Bokanga Itindi, C. R., and Djomo, L. La dynamique de la personne dans la religion et culture tetela (Kinshasa, 1988). Revue Africaine de Théologie 13 (1989), 274–276.

      Bombute w'Ekoliaka, B. La notion de la parole chez les Mongo dans la circonscription de Bolenge, zone de Monkoto. Mémoire de licence en Théologie protestante, Kinshasa, 1975.

      Bombwe, G. Some Traditional Prayers of the Luguru. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 253–258.

      Bongango, K. L'étude des tabous chez les Mongo de Basankusu. Mémoire de licence, Théologie et Sciences Humaines, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1977.

      Bongne, J. Adultery Rite of Purification Among the Dagaaba. The Northern Review 8 (1989), 1–12.

      Bongo-Pasi, M. S. C. R., and Hebga, M. Sorcellerie, chimère dangereuse …? Cahiers zaïrois de Recherche psi 4, no. 2 (1982), 139–144.

      Bongo-Pasi, M. S. C. R., and Omvem, O. E. Considérations sur quelques croyances traditionnelles relatives à la survie. Anthropos 80, nos. 4–6 (1985), 535–543.

      Boni, N. Fondements traditionnels et modernes des pouvoirs en Afrique. Paris: Visages d'Afrique, 1969.

      Bontinck, F. Aux origines de la philosophie bantoue: La correspondance Tempels-Hulstaert (1944–1948). Traduite du néerlandais et annotée (Bibliothèque du CERA). Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1985.

      Booth, J. Africa for the Africans. Blantyre, Nyasaland: Mission Books, 1897.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. The Spiritual Héritage of the Bantu. Religion in Life New York (1944), 508–515.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. African Religions and Philosophy. International Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1971), 266.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. Time and Change in African Traditional Thought. Journal of Religion in Africa 7 (1975), 81–91.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. Civil Religion in Traditional Africa. Africa Today 23/24 (1976), 56–66.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. An Approach to African Religions. In Booth, N. S. (Ed.), African Religions: A Symposium. New York: Nok Publishers, 1977, 1–11.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. God and the Gods in West Africa. In Booth, N. S. (Ed.), African Religions: A Symposium. New York: Nok Publishers, 1977, 159–181.

      Booth, N. S., Jr. Tradition and Community in African Religion. Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978),81–94.

      Bosch, P. Les Banyamwezi-Peuple de l'Afrique Orientale. Münster: Anthropos Bibliothek, 1930.

      Boubakar, L. L'homme dans les sociétés Ouolof et Toucouleur du Sénégal. Présence Africaine no. 61 (1967).

      Boubou, H. Enquête sur les Fondaments et la Genèse de l'Unité Africaine. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1966.

      Boulaga, F. E. La Crise du Muntu, Authenticité Africaine et Philosophie. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1977.

      Boulanger, R. L'Africain et le monde créé. Problèmes sociaux congolais, CEPSI nos. 92–93 (1971),77–96.

      Bourdillon, M. F. Some Aspects of the Religion of the Eastern Korekore. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford, 1971.

      Bourdillon, M. F. The Cults of Dzivaguru and Karuva Amongst the North-East Shona Peoples. In Schoffeleers, J. M. (Ed.), Guardians of the Land: Essays on Central African Territorial Cults. Zimbabwe, Mambo Press, 1979.

      Bourdillon, M. F. Religion and Ethics in Korekore Society. Journal of Religion in Africa 10 (1979), 81–94.

      Bourdillon, M. F. Fredom and Constraint Among Shona Spirit Mediums. In Davis, J. (Ed.), Religious Organization and Religious Experience (ASA Monograph.). London, Academic Press, 1982, 191–194.

      Bourdonnec, P. Proverbes et sagesse des Noirs. Lovania 17, no. 53 (1959), 19–34.

      Bourgeois, A. Mukoko Ngoombu: Divination Paraphernalia of the Yaka. African Arts 15 (1983), 56–59, 80.

      Bourgeois, R. Banyarwanda et Barundi, t. Ill: Religion et magie. Bruxelles: Mémoire in-8 de l'Académie Royale des sciences coloniales, 1956.

      Boutillier, J. L. Le temps et la gestion du temps chez les Koulango de Nassian. Cahiers de l'ORSTOM, Série Sciences Humaines 5, no. 3 (1968), 39–62.

      Boyaka, P. Njakombo Mbombiana; la conception de la divinité chez les Nkundo. Strasbourg: Mémoire de licence en Théol., 1967.

      Boyer, P. Le statut des forgerons et ses justifications symboliques. Africa 53, no. 1 (1983), 45–63.

      Brandon, G. Santeria Front Africa to the New World: The Dead Sell Memories. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

      Brauer, E. Züge aus der Religion der Herero. Leipzig: R. Voightlandersverlag, 1925.

      Brausch, G. E. J. B. Le justice coutumière chez les Bakwa Luntu. African Studies l, no. 4 (1942),235–242.

      Brausch, G. E. J. B. Quelques aspects psychologiques de l'organisation sociale nkuTshu. Problèmes d'Afrique Centrale 5, no. 5 (1952), 3–10.

      Breivik, N. O. Afrikanske religioner i lys av afrikansk tolkning. Norsk Tidsskrift for Misjon 42 (1988), 137–154.

      Breivik, N. O. Fedrene' i tra-disjonelle afrikanske religioner: Periferi eller sentrum? Norsk Tidsskrift for Misjon 45 (1991), 203–215.

      Breivik, N. O. Gudstroen i tradisjonelle religioner i Ost-Afrika. Norsk Tidsskrift for Misjon 49 (1995),227–236.

      Brinton, D. G. The Religion of Primitive Peoples. New York: Putnam and Sons, 1897.

      Brokerhoff, P. Pensées de Nègres sur la mort. Annnales (Borgerhout) (1929), 172–176.

      Brookman-Amissah, J. The Vocation of Traditional Priests in Akan Society. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1989), 87–99.

      Bryant, A. T The Zulu Cult of the Dead. Man 17 (1917), 140–145.

      Bryant, M. D. African Wisdom and the Recovery of the Earth. Onta 27 (1995), 49–58.

      Buakasa, T. Philosophie et religion bantoues. Femme, Vie, Monde no. 19 (1964), 9–11.

      Buakasa, T. Notes sur le kindoki chez les Kongo. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968),153–169.

      Buakasa, T. Le discours de la “kindoki” ou “sorcellerie.” Cahiers des Religions Africaines 6 (1972), 5–67.

      Buakasa, T. Kongo du Zaïre. Kinshasa-Bruxelles: UNAZA, 1972.

      Buakasa, T. Le projet des rites de reconciliation. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1974),187–207.

      Buakasa, T., and Didillon, H. Un rituel traditionnel africain contre la stérilité. Génitif 2, no. 6 (1980), 25–36.

      Buakasa, T. Lieux des masques, A propos de Mudiji, Formes et fonctions symboliques. Revue philosophique de Kinshasa 1, no. 1 (1983),141–146.

      Bücher, H. Spirits and Power, an Analysis of Shona Cosmology. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1980.

      Bucumi, J. Imâna: Some Names of God in the Kirundi Language. International Philosophical Quarterly 4 (1964), 394–418.

      Bujo, B. Kultur und Christentum in Afrika. Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 32 (1976),212–216.

      Bujo, B. Nos ancêtres, ces saints inconnus. Bulletin de Théologie Africaine 1 (1979), 165–178.

      Bukasa, T. K. M. L'impact de la religion africaine sur l'Afrique d'aujourd'hui, latence et patience. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 38 (1978), 114–123.

      Bumbakini, E. La nature de la faute morale en culture négro-africaine: Etude analytique et critique. Usawa no. 2 (1987), 63–70.

      Bumbakini, E. Analyse des actes de langage rituel africain: Essai de méthodologie. Mémoire DES, Philosophie et Religions Africaines, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1988.

      Bupe, K. Réflexion théologique sur la part de Dieu dans le problème du mal selon la conception des Bantu. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, bachelier en théol., Lubumbashi, 1974.

      Bureau, R. Ethnosociologie religieuse des Douala. Yaounde: University of Yaounde, 1964.

      Bureau, R. La religion d'Eboga. Thèse de doctorat d'Etat, Lettres. Paris-V (René Descartes), 1972.

      Bureau, R. The Village and the Cattle Camp: Aspects of Atuot Religion. In Karp, I., and Bird, C. S. (Eds.), Explorations in African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana Universerty Press, 1980, 268–297.

      Bureau, R. God's Ants. A Study of Atuot Religion. St. Augustin: Studia Instituti Antropos 37, 1981.

      Bureau, R. The Divination of Atuot Philosophy. Journal of Religion in Africa 13, no. 1 (1982), 1–10.

      Bureau, R. La mort, les morts et les ancêtres dans les sociétés africaines. Studia missionalia 31 (1982),211–221.

      Bürkle, H. Das überzeitliche Korporative in afrikanischen Stammesreligionen. Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Religionswissenschaft 60 (1976), 3–15.

      Burnett, G. W. Kamuyu wa Kang'ethe, Wilderness and the Bantu Mind. Environmental Ethics (Denton) 16, no. 2 (1994), 145–164.

      Burton, W. F. P. L'âme luba: La religion de l'homme noir. Bulletin Juridique Indigène 7 (1939), 38–55.

      Burton, W. F. P. L'âme luba. Elisabethville: Ed. Revue juridique du Congo belge, 1939.

      Burton, W. F. P. L'âme noire (sociologie et magie). Bulletin Juridique Indigène 8 (1940), 193–198.

      Burume, L. The Position of the Chief in the Modern Political System of Ashanti. London: Oxford University Press, 1951.

      Burume, L. African World View. Présence Africaine no. 4 (1965), 16–23.

      Burume, L. Le cérémonieal du mariage, acte socio-religieux, chez les Bashi. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 301–314.

      Butturini, G. Interlocuteurs et contenus du dialogue avec les Religions Traditionnelles Africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 26 (1974), 122–136.

      Butturini, G. De la participation des Religions Traditionnelles Africaines au dialogue interreligieux: Possibilités et limites. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 30 (1975), 298–310.

      Butturini, G. Religioni tradizionali nell'Africa odierna. Credere Oggi 1 (1981), 87–96.

      Bwanga, w. M. La langue comme responsable d'une vision du monde? Essai sur la localisation spatio-temporelle en Ungala. Nouvelles Rationalités Africaines no. 12 (1988), 544–565.

      Bwanga, Z. Vie consacrée et spiritualité en Afrique. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 17, nos. 33–34 (1983), 281–291.

      Bwetubela, M. La mort et ses conséquences dans la mentalité Nianga. Dimensions Africaines (1970, nov.-déc), 8–12.

      Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A. B. T. Occasional Papers in African Traditional Religion and Philosophy. Kampala: Makerere Universerty Press, 1971–1974.

      Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A. B. T. The Philosophy and Theology of Time in Africa: The Bantu Case. Afer 22 (1980),357–369.

      Byaruhanga-Akiiki, A. B. T. The Philosophy of the Roots in Africa. International Society of Etaphysics, Conference on Truth and the Nature of Society, Nairobi, Aug. 14–17, 1981.

      Caeneghem, R. van. Het Godsbegrip bij de Baluba. Bruxelles: Kon Belg Kolon Instituut, 1952.

      Caeneghem, R. van. La Notion de Dieu chez les Baluba du Rasai. Bruxelles: Académie Royale des Sciences Goloniales, 1956.

      Caillavet, O. L'ontologie et la langue naturelle-philosophie bantoue. Etudes Orientales (Paris) no. 4 (1989), 67–73.

      Calame-Griaule, G. The Spiritual and Social Role of Women in Traditional Sudanese Society. Diogenes 37 (1962), 75–87.

      Calame-Griaule, G. Ethnologie et langage, la parole chez les Dogon. Paris: Gallimard, 1965.

      Calame-Griaule, G. (Ed.). Le thème de l'arbre dans les contes africaines. Paris: Gallimard, 1969.

      Calame-Griaule, G. Le miel des relations humaines. Cahiers de Littérature Orale; Substances symboliques no. 18 (1985), 65–85.

      Callaway, C. The Religious System of the Amazulu. London: Trubner and Company, 1870.

      Callaway, C. Divining by Familiar Spirits Among the Amazulu. In William, A. L., and Vogt, E. Z. (Eds.), Reader in Comparative Religion. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 1965, 340–344.

      Capron, J. Univers religieux et cohesion interne dans les communautés villageoises Bwa traditionnelles. In Fortes, M., and Dieterlen, G. (Eds.), African Systems of Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965, 291–313.

      Capron, J. Dieu et dieux des Bwa. In Kaplan, F, and Vieillard-Baron, J.-L. (Eds.), Introduction à la philosophie de la religion. Paris: Cerf, 1989, 151–165.

      Capron, J. A Critique of John S. Mbiti's Traditional African Ontology. Quest 7, no. 1 (1993), 78–91.

      Carey, M. Myths and Legends of Africa. London: Hamlyn and Melbourne, 1970.

      Carney, J. Onyame: Concepts of the Supreme Being in Akan Proverbs and Folktales. Worldmission (New York) 22, no. 2 (1971), 42–49.

      Carothers, J. C. The African Mind in Health and Disease: A Study in Ethnopsychiatry. Geneva: WHO monograph series, 17, 1953.

      Carothers, J. C. Further Thoughts on the African Mind. East African Medical Journal (Nairobi) 37 (1960),458–463.

      Cartry, M. Etude ethno-linguistique des catégories liées à la notion de personne chez les populations “voltaïques.” Notes et documents voltaïques 1 (1967), 18–21.

      Casalis, E. Les Bassoutos. Paris: Librairie de Ch. Meyruies et Cie, 1933.

      Cauvin, J. Pensée imageante: L'exemple des proverbes. Savannes-Forêts no. 12 (s.d.), 1–43.

      Cauvin, J. La référence à l'au-delà dans la vie quotidienne. In L'expérience religieuse africaine et les relations interpersonnelles: Actes du Colloque international d'Abidjan (16–20 sept. 1980), n° spécial de Savannes-Forêts (1982),287–337.

      Caverhill, N. Recueil de textes africains: An Anthology of Modem African Writing in French. London: Hutchinson Eductional, 1967.

      Cayzac, J. La religion de Kikuyu (Afrique orientale). Anthropos 5 (1910), 309–319.

      Champagne, E. Les Noirs d'Afrique, leurs croyances religieuses. Bulletin des Missions 12 (1932–1933), 197–211.

      Chaplin, J. H. Suicide in Nothern Rhodesia. African Studies 20 (1961), 145–174.

      Charevskara, B. Le général et le particulier dans les religions autochtones de l'Afrique au Sud du Sahara. In Korostovstev, M. A. (Ed.), Essays on African Culture (L. M. Ozerooa, Trans.). Moscow: Nauka Publlishing House, 1966, 62–71.

      Chegwe, A. O. Re-incarnation: A Socio-religious Phenomenon Among the Ibo-Speaking Riverines of the Lower Niger. Cahier des Religions Africaines, 1973, 113–135.

      Chevallier, J.-Y. L'anthropologie moderne, la philosophie africaine et la métaphysique. In Metafisica e scienze dell'uomo, I. Atti del VII Congresso internacional. Centro internazionale di studi e di relazioni culturali (Bergamo, 4–9 settembre 1980), A cura di B. D'amore-A. Ales Bello, Roma: Ed. Bona, 1982, 677–681.

      Chevallier-Tripod, R. La notion de la culpabilité individuelle chez les peuples bantous. Thèse, Fac. théol. de l'Eglise libre du Canton de Vaud, Lausanne, 1941.

      Chidester, D. Religions of South Africa. LaVergne, TN: Ingram Book Company, 1996.

      Chima, A. Dialogue With Traditional Religions in Malawi. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28–29 (1975),122–131.

      Christaller, J. G. A Collection of 3,600 Tshi (Twi) Proverbs. Basel: Basel Mission, 1879.

      Chukwuelobe, M. C. Language and Igbo Philosophy: Towards an Igbo Phenomenology of Language. Philosophy Today 39, no. 1 (1995),25–30.

      Chukwukere, B. I. Individualism in an Aspect of Igbo Religion. Kroniek van Afrika 2 (1971),106–112.

      Chukwukere, B. I. Chi in Igbo Religion and Thought: The God in Every Man. Anthropos Freiburg 78, nos. 3–4 (1983), 519–534.

      Claridge, J. C. Wild Bush Tribes of Tropical Africa. London: Seeley, 1922.

      Clarke, E. The Sociological Significance of Ancestor Worship in Ashante. Africa 3 (1930), 3–8.

      Classe, L. P. The Supreme Being Among the Baryarwanda of Ruanda. Primitive Man 2, nos. 3–4 (1929), 56–57.

      Cocquyt, A. Proverbes des Ntomba e Njale. Aequatoria 16 (1953), 147–152.

      Cole, H. Art Is a Verb in Iboland. African Arts 3, no. 1 (1969), 34–39.

      Colin, P. Aspects de l'âme malgache. Paris: Ed. de l'Orante, 1959.

      Couard, J. De vrouw in het gevoelsleven van de Bantu. Band 14 (1955), 326–329.

      Collden, L. The Traditional Religion of the Sakata. Uppsala: University of Uppsala Press, 1971.

      Collden, L. Les Baluba (Congo belge), avec une préface de Cyr. Van Overbergh (2 vols.). Bruxelles: Dewit, 1913.

      Colle, A. La notion de Dieu chez les Bashi. Congo 2 (1925), 37–41.

      Colle, A. La notion de l'âme désincarnée chez les Bashi. Congo 1 (1929), 583–597.

      Colson, E. Marriage and the Family Among the Plateau Tonga of Northern Rhodesia. Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1958.

      Colson, E. The Plateau Tonga of Northern Rhodesia. Social and Religious Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1960.

      Colson, E. Ancestral and Spirits Structure Among the Plateau Tonga. In William, A. L., & Evon, Z. V (Eds.), Reader in Comparative Religion. New York, 1965, 437–441.

      Comaroff, J. J., and Roberts, S. Rules and Process: The Cultural Logic of Dispute in an African Context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

      Comoe-Krou, B. Ces morts qui ne veulent pas mourir. Le Korè (1976, janv-mars),156–171.

      Cordemans, E. L. La vie esthétique chez les Mbelo et les Okongo du District du Lac Leopold IL Les arts et métiers indigènes dans la Province de Léopoldville no. 2 (1937), 3–7.

      Cornet, J. Art de l'Afrique noire. Bruxelles: Arcade, 1971.

      Correia, P. I. A. L'animisme Ibo et les divinités de la Nigeria. Anthropos 16–17 (1921–1922),360–366.

      Cornet, J. Un totem Nigerian. Anthropos 16–17 (1921–1922), 960–965.

      Cornet, J. Le sens moral chez les Ibos de la Nigeria. Anthropos 18–19 (1923), 880–889.

      Cornet, J. Vocables philosophiques et religieux des peuples Ibo. Bibliotheca ethnologica linguistica africana l (1925), 104–113.

      Cory, H. African Figurines. London: Faber, 1956.

      Coulon, C. Prophets of God or of History? Muslim Messianic Movements and Anti-colonialism in Senegal. In Binsbergen, W van, and Schoffeleers, M. (Eds.), Theoretical Explorations in African Religion. London, 1985, 346–366.

      Courlander, H. Tales of Yoruba Gods and Heroes. New York, 1973.

      Crine-Mavar, B. Les temps de la cosmogonie lunda. Cahiers zaïrois de la recherche et du développement 18, no. 1 (1974), 65–87.

      Crowe, D. The Geometry of African Art: Bakuba Art. Journal of Geometry 1, no. 2 (1971), 16–29.

      Crowley, D. Lega Culture-Art, Initiation and Moral Philosophy Among a Central African People. Journal of American Folklore 88 (1975), 435–443.

      Dadié, B. Légendes africaines et poèmes. Paris: Seghers, 1966.

      Dalmais, P. L'Èglise et les Religions Traditionnelles au Tchad. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 44 (1980), 237–248.

      Daly, J. Notes on penance and reconciliation in an African Culture. In Evangelizzazione e Culture III (Atti del congresso internazionale scientifico di missiologia, Roma, 5–12 Ottobre 1975), Rome: Pontificai Urbanian University, 1976, 69–75.

      Dama-Ntsoha. La technique de la conception de la vie chez les Malgaches révélée par leurs proverbes. Tananarive, imp. Volamahitsy, 1953.

      Dama-Ntsoha. Die Religionen Afrikas. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1963. Translated into French: Les Religions de l'Afrique. Paris: Payot, 1964.

      Dama-Ntsoha. A Tentative Philological Typology of Some African High Deities. Journal of Religion in Africa 2 (1969), 81–95.

      Dammann, E. Missionarische Berichte zu den Religionen Schwarzafrikas. In Triebel, J. (Ed.), Der Missionar als Forscher: Beiträge christlicher Missionare zur Erforschung fremder Kulturen und Religionen. Missionswissenschaftliche Forschungen, hrsg. von der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Missionswissenschaft, Band 21, Gütersloh, 1988, 17–35.

      Daneel, M. L. The God of the Matopo Hills: An Essay on the Mwari Cult in Rhodesia. Paris, Mouton, 1970.

      Danoz, A. Etica africana bantu: Notas para su definición. Moralia 4 (1982), 401–420.

      Danquah, J. B. Akan Laws and Customs. London: Routledge, 1928.

      Danquah, J. B. Akan Doctrine of God. London: Frank Cass, 1968.

      Da Silva, G. Formules de salutations Yoruba ou Nago en usage au Dahomey. Etudes dahoméennes 13 (1969), 27–33.

      Da Silva, G. Les rites funéraires et l'expression de la mort au Bas-Dahomey (Fon, Mahi-Agoulinov, Gun et Nago). Mémoire de Maîtrise, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 6e sect., 1971.

      Dauphin-Tinturier, A. M. Communication et tradition dans l'univers bemba (Zambie). Genève Afrique 27, no. 1 (1989), 89–106.

      Davidson, B. The Africans: An Entry to Cultural History. London: Longmans, 1969.

      Davidson, J. The Doctrine of God in the Life of the Ngombe, Belgian Congo. In Smith, E. W. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House Press, 1950, 162–179.

      Davis-Roberts, C. Mungu na Mitishambe: Illness and Medicine Among the Batabwa of Zaire. Unpublished doctoral disseration. University of Chicago, Department of Anthropology, 1980.

      Davis-Roberts, C. Kutambuwa Ugonjwua: Concepts of Illness and Tansformation Among the Tabwa. Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981), 309–316.

      Davitti, M. La morte nelle culture tradizionali dell'Africa Occidentale. Missione Oggi 6 (1984),23–26.

      Deacken, M. Ethique et morale chez les Ngwèmyènè du Gabon à travers leur littérature orale: Réflexions sur les fondements éthiques et moraux tels qu'ils sont conçus dans la littérature orale ngwèmyènè. Thèse de doct. 3 e cycle; France: Université de Paris-Val-de-Marne, 1985.

      Debeas Horrero, J. L. La natural y lo sobernatural en algunos pueblos Torubas y Bantues. Africa (Madrid) 24, no. 35 (1972), 177–180.

      De Beaucorps, R. La propriété chez les Basono de la Luniungu et de la Gobari. Bulletin Juridique Indigène 11 (1943), 1–10.

      De Brandt, L. Het heelal van den Muluba: Verteilingen van de Baluba's. Congo 2, no. 1 (1921), 249–268; 3, no. 2 (1922), 50–64.

      De Brandt, L. La mort et les coutumes funéraires à Madagascar. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose Ellis, William, 1964.

      De Brandt, L. La divination malgache par le sikidy. Paris: Centre Universitaire des Langues, 1970.

      De Cleene, N. La notion de propriété chez quelques peuplades matrilinéales du Congo belge. Africa 16 (1946), 23–28.

      De Clercq, A. Lubavolkeren in den spiegel van hun spreuken. Onze Kongo 2 (1911–12), 1–18.

      Decocker, M. Oorzakelijkheid en moraalbeschouwingen in de Ngbakaverhalen. Zaïre 4 (1950), 39–50.

      Decocker, M. Le “Nom” dans le milieu Africain. Orientations pastorales 69 (1960), 21–30.

      Defour, G. 5,000 proverbes africains pour la loi des hommes nouveaux. Bukavu: Bandari, 1990.

      Defour, G. Eléments d'identification de 400 plantes médicinales et vétérinaires du Bushi. Bukavu: Bandan, 1995, 2 T.

      Defour, G. Un chemin d'initiation. Bukavu: Bandari, 1999.

      Defour, G. Andragogie. Bukabu: Bandari, 2000.

      Defour, G. Foi et culture. Bukavu (R.D. Congo): Editions Bandari, 2002.

      Degenaar, J. Understanding Myth as Understanding. South African Journal of Philosophy 2 (1983), 58–71.

      De Heusch, L. Essais sur le symbolisme de l'inceste royale en Afrique. Bruxelles: Editions Institut, Solvay, 1958.

      De Heusch, L. Le Rwanda et la civilisation interlacustre: Etudes d'anthropologie structurale et historique. Bruxelles: Institut de Sociologie, ULB, 1966.

      De Heusch, L. Le cru et le cuit dans le domaine bantou. Présence Africaine no. 67 (1968), 33–48.

      De Heusch, L. Le renard et le philosophe. L'homme 8, no. 1 (1968), 70–79.

      De Heusch, L. Pour une approche structuraliste de la pensée magico-religieuse bantoue. Echanges et communications, Mélanges: Offerts à Lévi-Strauss. Paris: Mouton, 1970, vol. 2, 801–817.

      De Heusch, L. Pourquoi l'épouser? et autres essais. Paris: Gallimard, 1971.

      De Heusch, L. Le roi ivre ou l'origine de l'état: Mythes et rites bantous. Paris: Gallimard, 1972.

      De Heusch, L. Le sorcier, le père Tempels et les jumeaux mal venus. La notion de personne en Afrique noire. Pans: CNRS, 1973, 231–242.

      De Heusch, L. Heat, Physiology, and Cosmogony: Rites de Passage Among the Tonga. In Karp, I., and Bird, C. S. (Eds.), Explorations in African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana Universerty Press, 1980, 27–43.

      De Heusch, L. The Drunken King, or, The Origin of the State. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

      De Heusch, L. Sacrifice in Africa: A structured Approach. Manchester: Manchester Universerty Press; Bloomington: Indiana Universerty Press, 1985.

      De Heusch, L. Le temps des rites. Redécouvrir le Temps 1–2 (1988), 123–140.

      De Heusch, L. Les systèmes de pensée magico-religieuse bantous. Encyclopédie philosophique universelle, I: L'univers philosophique. Paris: PUF, 1989, 1482–1490.

      De Heusch, L. Nkumu ou nkumi: La sacralisation du pouvoir chez les Mongo. Systèmes de pensée en Afrique Noire no. 10 (1990), 169–188.

      De Jonghe, E. Note relative à l'ouvrage du R. P. Tempels intitulé: “La philosophie bantoue.” Bulletin des Séances de l'Insttut. Royal Colonial Belge 17, no. 2 (1946), 510–511.

      Delafosse, M. Les noirs de l'Afrique. Paris: Payot, 1921.

      Delafosse, M. L'âme nègre. Paris: Payot, 1922.

      Delafosse, M. Les civilisations négro-africaines. Paris: Librairie Stock, 1925.

      Delafosse, M. Les nègres. Paris: Rieder, 1927.

      Delhaise, C. Les idées religieuses et philosophiques des Warega. Mouvement Géographique 29 (1909), 340–342.

      Delhaise, C. Les Warega (Congo belge), Avec une préface de Cyr. Van. Bruxelles: A. De Wit, 1909.

      Delille, A., and Burssens, A. Tshokwe-teksten. Kongo-Overzee 2 (1935–1936), 41–60.

      De Mahieu, W. Le temps dans la culture komo. Africa 43 (1973), 2–17.

      De Mahieu, W. Le temps dans la culture komo. La dimension totalisante de la thérapie africaine. Raison ardente no. 24 (1986), 63–82.

      Demaison, A. Diaeli, Le livre de la sagesse noire. Paris: Ed. d'art, H. Piazza, 1931.

      Depienne, X. Essai sur la notion de Dieu et le problème de la mort selon la tradition des Anciens du Bas-Zaïre et de Bandundu. Unpublished manuscript, Kangu, 1972.

      Der, B. G. God and Sacrifice in the Traditional Religions of the Kasena and Dagaba of Northern Ghana. Journal of Religion in Africa 11 (1980),172–187.

      Deren, M. The Divine Horsemen: The Voodoo Gods of Haiti. New York: Delta Publishing Company, 1972.

      De Saint Moulin, L. La perception du mal à Kinshasa et dans quelques localités du Zaïre. Revue Africaine de Théologie 19 (1995), 53–92.

      Deschamps, H. Les Religions de l'Afrique Noire. Paris: Èditions du las Presses Universitaires de France, 1963.

      Desmangles, L. 1994. Faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

      De Sousberghe, L. Le suicide chez les Bapende. Bulletin IRCB 25, no. 1 (1954), 372–378.

      De Sousberghe, L. L'étude du droit coutumier indigène, Méthode et obstacles. Zaïre 9 (1955), 339–358.

      De Souza, G. La conception de la “vie” chez les Fon. Cotonou, Université du Bénin, 1975, Thèse, 3e cycle en 1972.

      De Souza, I. Religion africaine et structures politiques. L'expérience religieuse africaine et les relations interpersonnelles. Actes du Colloque international d'Abidjan (16–20 sept. 1980), n° spécial de Savannes-Forêts, 1982, 47–73.

      De Surgy, A. La géomancie et le culte d'Afa chez les Evhé du littoral. Paris: Publications orientalistes de France, 1981.

      De Surgy, A. Par quelle voie et dans quelle mesure les Mwaba du Togo estiment-ils être mis en demeure d'exercer leur liberté? Droit et Cultures (Nanterre) no. 5 (1983), 71–86.

      De Surgy, A. Le système religieux des Evhé (Connaissance des hommes). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1988.

      De Surgy, A. Le deuil du conjoint en pays évhé (Togo/Ghana). Systèmes de pensée en Afrique noire 9 (1986 publié en 1989), 105–133.

      Devisch, R. Articulation du sens et interaction par les symboles rituels. Actes de la 14e conférence internationale de sociologie, Strasbourg, 1977, 73–77.

      Devisch, R. La mort et la dialectique des limites dans une société d'Afrique Centrale. Archivio di filosofia nos. 1–3 (1981), 503–527.

      Devisch, R. Perspectives on Divination in Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. In van Binsbergen, W., and Schoffeleers, M. (Eds.), Theoretical Explorations in African Religion. London/Boston: Kegan Paul, 1985.

      Devisch, R. La sacré et le symbolisme du corps dans une culture de l'Afrique Centrale: Quelques axes de recherche. Archivio di filosofia 54 (1986),565–586.

      Devisch, R. From Equal to Better: Investing the Chief Among the Northern Yaka of Zaïre. Africa 58 (1988), 261–290.

      Devisch, R. Mediumistic Divination Among the Northern Yaka of Zaïre: Etiology and Ways of Knowing. In M. Peek (Ed.), African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991, 112–132.

      Devisch, R. Weaving the Threads of Life: The Khita Gyn-Eco Logical Healing Cult Among the Yaka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

      D'hertefelt, M., and Coupez, A. La royauté sacrée de l'ancien Rwanda, texte, traducrion et commentaire de son rituel. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 1964.

      Dickson, K., and Ellingworth, P. (Eds.). Biblical Revelation and African Beliefs. London: Lutterworth, 1969.

      Diddy, B. F. L'initiation ou ‘mort-renaissance’ chez les Sara-Kaba du Tchad. Telema 21 (1995),29–36.

      Diddy, B. F. Les Ames des Dogon. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, 1941.

      Dieterlen, G. Essai sur la religion Bambara. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1951.

      Dieterlen, G. Textes sacrés d'Afrique noire. Paris: Gallimard, 1965.

      Dieterlen, G., and Cisse, Y. Les fondements de la société d'initiation du Konto. Paris: Mouton, 1970.

      Dim Delobsom, A. A. Les secrets des sorciers noirs. Paris: Nourry, 1934.

      Dime, C. A. Divination: The penumbra of African traditional religion. Onta 14 (1982), 90–107.

      Diouf, L. Religions Traditionnelles et Christianisme au Sénégal. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue 28–29 (1975), 40–65.

      Dittmer, K. Die Methoden des Wahrsagens im Ober-Volta-Gebiet und seine Beziehung zur Jägerkultur. Baessler-Archiv 6 (1958), 1–60.

      Dittmer, K. Die sakralen Häuptlinge der Gurunsi im Obervolta-Gebiet. Hamburg: Cram, De Gruyter und Co, 1961.

      Dopamu, A. Health and Healing With Traditional African Religious Context. Orita 17 (1985),66–80.

      Dopamu, A. Traditional Values: A Means to Self-Reliance. Orita 25 (1993), 12–21.

      Douglas M. Magic and Miracle. In Douglas, M. (Ed.), Purity and Danger. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

      Douglas M. Primitive Worlds. In Douglas, M. (Ed.), Purity and Danger. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

      Douglas M. (Ed.). Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations. London: Tavistock, 1970.

      Douglas M. Natural Symbols. New York: Tavistock Publications, 1973.

      Downes, R. M. Tiv Religion. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1971.

      Drieberg, J. H. The Secular Aspect of Ancestor-Worship in Africa. Journal of Royal African Society 35, no. 138 (1936), 334–348.

      Dubois, R. Olombelona: Essai sur l'existence personnelle et collective à Madagascar. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1978.

      Dupire, M. Les “tombes de chiens”: Mythologies de la mort en pays Sere (Sénégal). Journal of Religion in Africa 15 (1985), 201–215.

      Dupré, W. Religion in Primitive Cultures: A Study in Ethnophilosophy. Paris: Mouton, 1975.

      Duvieusart, L. Réactions et suggestions à propos du phénomène “sorcellerie.” Telema 10 (1984), 45–52.

      Echekwube, A. O. The Question of Reincarnation in African Religion: A Re-appraisal. Orita 19 (1987), 10–26.

      Echekwube, A. O. The Historical-Philosophical Background of African Traditional Religion. Orita 23 (1991),1–14.

      Echeruo, M. J. C. Literature, Religion and Cultural Renewal. West African Religion 16 (1975), 13–21.

      Egbo, E. P. Conflict Between Traditional Religion and Christianity in Igbo, South-Eastern Nigeria. West African Religion 10 (1971), 1–17.

      Egbo, E. P. The Beginning of the End of Traditional Religion in Igboland. Civilisations 21 (1971), 1–12.

      Ejizu, C. Continuity and Discontinuity in African Traditional Religion: The Case of the Igbo of Nigeria. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1984),197–214.

      Ejizu, C. Endurance of Conviction: The Persistence of the Traditional World-View in Igbo Christian Converts. Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft A3 (1987), 124–135.

      Ejizu, C. Oral Sources in the Study of African Indigenous Religion. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1989), 37–47.

      Ejizu, C. Human Rights in African Indigenous Religion. Bulletin of Ecumenical Theology 4 (1991), 31–45.

      Ejizu, C. African Traditional Religious Ritual and Symbols. Fro Dialogo 87 (1994), 243–258.

      Ekechukwu, A. The Problem of Suffering in Igbo Traditional Religion. African Ecclesial Review 24 (1982), 81–89.

      Ekechukwu, A. Philosophy and African Traditional Religious Values. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1989), 17–35.

      Ekechukwu, A. Consecration in Igbo Traditional Religion. Nsukka: Jet Publishers, 1990.

      Ellis, A. B. The Yoruba-Speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast of West Africa: Their Religion, Manners, Customs, Laws and Language. Oosterhout: N.B., 1970.

      Elungu, P. E. Religions Africaines et Philosophie. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 11 (1977),91–102.

      Erny, P. L'enfant et son milieu en Afrique Noire. Paris: Petite Bibliothèque Payot, 1972.

      Eschlimann, J.-P. Naître sur La Terre Africaine. Abidjan: Inades Editions, 1982.

      Estrade, J.-M. On Culte de Possession à Madagascar, La Tromba. Paris: Ed. Anthropos. Molet, 1977.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Social Character of Bridewealth With Special Reference to the Azande. Man 23 (1934), 172–175.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Some Aspects of Marriage and the Family Among the Nuer. Livingstone, Zambia: The Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, 1945.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963.

      Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Theories of Primitive Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965.

      Everbroeck, N. van. Religie en Magie onder de Basakata. Bruxelles: L'Institut Royal Colonial Beige, 1952.

      Ezeanya, S. N. The Osu (Cult-Slave) System in Igboland. Journal of Religion in Africa 1 (1967),35–45.

      Ezeanya, S. N. Women in African Traditional Religion. Orita 10 (1976), 105–121.

      Ezeanya, S. N. The Contribution of African Traditional Religion to National Building. Nigerian Dialogue 3 (1979),13–19.

      Ezekwugo, C. U. M. Chi, the True God in Igbo Religion. Kerala, India: Pontifical Institute of Philosophy and Theology, 1987.

      Fainzang, S. L'intérieur des choses: Maladie, divination et reproduction sociale chez les Bisa du Burkina. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1986.

      Fallers, L. A. Some Determinants of Marriage Stability in Busoga: A Reformulation of Gluckman's Hypothesis. Africa 27 (1957),106–121.

      Fernandez, J. W. Bwiti: An Ethnography of Religious Imagination in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

      Fernandez, J. W Search for Security. London: Faber and Faber, 1960.

      Field, M. J. Religion and Medicine of Ga People. London: Oxford University Press, 1961 (repr.).

      Fisher, R. B. West African Religious Traditions: Focus on the Akan of Ghana. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1998.

      Förde, D. (Ed.). African Worlds: Studies in the Cosmological Ideas and Social Values of African Peoples. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.

      Förde, D., & Jones, G. I. The Ibo-Speaking and Ibibio-Speaking Peoples of S.E. Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.

      Förde, D., and Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950.

      Förde, D. Marriage and Family Among the Yako of Southeastern Nigeria. London: Oxford University Press, 1951.

      Fortes, M. The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensi. London: Oxford University Press, 1945.

      Förde, D. The Web of Kinship Among the Tallensi. London: Oxford University Press, 1949.

      Förde, D. Oedipus and Job in West African Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

      Förde, D. Religion, Morality and the Person: Essays on Tallensi Religion (Goody, J., Ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

      Förde, D., and Dieterlen, G. (Eds.). African Systems of Thought. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

      Fraenkel, M. Tribe and Class in Monrovia. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.

      Frank, B. Permitted and Prohibited Wealth: Commodity-Possessing Spirits, Economic Morals, and the Goddess Marni Wata in West Africa. Ethnology 34 (1995), 331–346.

      Friedrich, A. Afrikanische Priestertümer-VorStudien zu einer Untersuchung. Studien zur Kulturkunde, Bd. 6. Stuttgart: Frobenius-Institut, 1939.

      Froelich, J. C. Animismes: Les religions païennes de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Paris: Editions de l'Orante, 1964.

      Fry, P. Spirits of Protest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

      Gaba, C. Prayer in Anlo Religion. Orita 2 (1968),71–78.

      Gaba, C. The Idea of a Supreme Being Among the Anlo People of Ghana. Journal of Religion in Africa 2 (1969), 64–79.

      Gaba, C. An African People's (Anlo) Concept of the Soul. Ghana Bulletin of Theology (Legon), 3, no. 10 (1971), 1–8.

      Gaba, C. Scriptures of an African People: Ritual Utterances of the Anlo. New York: NOK, 1973.

      Gable, E. Women, Ancestors, and Alterity Among the Manjaco of Guinea-Bissau. Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (1996), 104–121.

      Gachiri, E. W Myth on Origins and Other Truths. Afer 31 (1989), 108–120.

      Gadi, B. Les paradigmes “nature” et “culture” dans le rite Kikumbi chez les Kongo. Mémoire de licence en Philosophie et Religions Africaines, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1980.

      Gadoki, M. Une conception Muntu du monde: Le phénomène de ndoki situé dans on contexte. Dimension Africaine 13 (1969), 137–153.

      Gadoki-A-Gukalumuga, N. La croyance en la magie et sorcellerie chez les Pende. Dissertation de licence en Pédagogie, UNAZA, Kisangani, 1972.

      Gaiya, M. A. B. The Inter-play Between Religion and Culture in African Traditional Religions. Jos Studies 4 (1994), 1–18.

      Galdermans, G. J. La justice chez les Bakumu. Bulletin Juridique Indigene 2 (1924), 155–158.

      Gambembo, D. Le mukongo et le monde qui l'entourait, Cosmogonie-kôngo par A. Fu-Kiau. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 3 (1969),314–318.

      Ganay, S. de. Aspects de Mythologie et de Symbolique bambara. Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique 2 (1949), 56–71.

      Gansemans, J. La musique et son rôle dans la vie sociale et rituelle luba: Art religieux africain, in N° spécial de. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 16, nos. 31–32 (1982), 181–234.

      Gantin, B. The Universal Values of African Traditional Religions. Omnis Terra 30 (1996),197–202.

      Gapi, F. M. Les Religions Traditionnelles et le Dialogue Interreligieux. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 82 (1993),70–76.

      Gasarabwe, E. Aspects de l'univers mystique des Rwandais au temps de la royauté Nyiginya: Le partage de l'espace. Thèse, 3e cycle, Ethnologie de l'Afrique noire. Paris: FTSH, EPHE, 6e sect., 1971.

      Gasser, J. The Mask as the Troughway to the Beyond: A Philisophical Analysis of a Basic Way of Thinking. Ultimate Reality and Meaning 8, no. 1 (1985), 24–39.

      Gatheru, G. M. Child of Two Worlds: London: Routledge, 1964.

      Gauthier, J.-G. Les chemins du mythe: Essai sur le Savoir et la Religion des Fait du Nord Cameroun. Paris: Èditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1988.

      Gbadegesin, S. African Philosophy: Traditional Yoruba Philosophy and Contemporary African Realities (American University Studies: Philosophy) Ser. V, Vol. 134. New York: Lang, 1992.

      Gbotche, A. B. Le Destin dans la divination: Exemple du “FA.” Mémoire de maîtrise, Univ. Nat. du Bénin, 1981.

      Gehman, R. African Religion Lives. Evangelical Missions Quarterly 27 (1991), 350–353.

      Gelfand, M. Medicine and Magic of the Masbona. Johannesburg, 1956 (No publisher).

      Gelfand, M. Shona Religion. Capetown: Juta Press, 1962.

      Gelfand, M. African Background: The Traditional Culture of the Shona-Speaking People, With a Chapter by the Rev. Father M. Hannan. Cape Town: Juta and C°, 1965.

      Gelfand, M. The Mhondoro Cult of the Shona-Speaking People of Southern Rhodesia. In Fortes, M., and Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (Eds.), African Systems of Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965, 341–350.

      Gelfand, M. The Spiritual Beliefs of the Shona. Gweru, South Africa: Mambo Press, 1977.

      Geluwe, H. van. Les Mamvu-Mangutu et Balese-Mvuba. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1957.

      Genest, S. Savoir traditionnel chez les forgerons Mafa. Revue Canadienne des Ètudes Africaines 8 (1974).

      Gennep, A. van. The Rites of Passage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960.

      Giddy, P. African Traditional Thought and Growth in Personal Unity. International Philosophical Quarters 42, no. 3 (2002), 315–327.

      Gill, J. W. Hausa Speech, Its Wit and Wisdom. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 1 (1917–1920), 30–46.

      Gilles de Pelichy, A. Prières païennes d'Afrique Noire. Rythmes du Monde (Bruges) (1959),1–24.

      Githige, R. M. African Traditional Religion Today: Its Prospects for the Future: A Review of Scholarly Opinions. A Journal of African Studies in Religion 1 (1980), 1–7.

      Gleason, J. Orisha, the Gods of Yorubaland. New York: Atheneum, 1973.

      Glenday, D. K. Acholi Ancestor-Veneration and the Communion of Saints. Afer 18 (1976), 224–232.

      Glenday, D. K. God Spoke to Our Wise Men—Dialogue With African Traditional Religions. Worldmission 27 (1976), 8–14.

      Gluckman, M. Mortuary Customs and the Belief in the Survival After Death Among South Eastern Bantu. Bantu Studies 11 (1937), 117–136.

      Godian, N. Actualité de la croyance à des agents mystiques maléfiques en Afrique Centrale. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 261–310.

      Goody, J. Death, Property and the Ancestors. London: Tavistock, 1962.

      Gravrand, H. Visage africain de l'Èglise. Paris: Editions de l'Orante, 1962.

      Gravrand, H. Towards a Dialogue With the African Religions. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 3 (1966), 137–147.

      Gravrand, H. Les religions africaines traditionnelles comme source de civilisation spirituelle. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 153–174.

      Gray, E. Some Proverbs of the Nyanja People. African Studies 3 (1944), 101–128.

      Green, R. M. Religion and Morality in the African Traditional Setting. Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 1–23.

      Greene, S. E. Religion, History and the Supreme Gods of Africa: A Contribution to the Debate. Journal of Religion in Africa 26 (1996),122–138.

      Gregorius, P. Het leven is heilig: Een functionele analyse van de levensopvatting van de Bantoe-volken. Het missiewerk 46 (1967), 149–163.

      Greschat, H.-J. Understanding African Religion. Onta 2 (1968), 59–70.

      Greschat, H.-J. Afrikanische Gnosis [Yehwe-Kult in den Küstengebieten SO-Ghanas]. In Preißler, H., and Seiwert, H. (Eds.), Gnosisforschung und Religionsgeschichte (Marburg) (1994), 95–103.

      Grevisse, F. Les Basanga. Lovania no. 6 (1945),16–29.

      Grevisse, F. Notes ethnographiques relatives à quelques populations autochtones du Haut-Katanga industriel. Bulletin CEPSI no. 32 (1956),65–207.

      Griaule, M. La personnalité chez les Dogon (Soudan français). Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique 37, nos. 9–12 (1940),468–475.

      Griaule, M. Arts de l'Afrique noire. Paris: Ed. du chêne, 1947.

      Griaule, M. La descente du troisième verbe chez les Dogons du Soudan. Psyché nos. 13–14 (1947),1333–1346.

      Griaule, M. Le mythe de l'organisation du monde chez les Dogons du Soudan. Psyché (Paris) 2 (1947),443–453.

      Griaule, M. Nouvelles recherches sur la notion de personne chez les Dogons (Soudan français). Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique (1947), 425–431.

      Griaule, M. L'alliance cathartique. Africa 16 (1948),242–258.

      Griaule, M. L'arche du monde chez les populations nigériennes. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 18 (1948), 117–126.

      Griaule, M. Dieu d'eau, Entretiens avec Ogotemmêli. Paris: Editons du Chêne, 1948.

      Griaule, M. La vie intérieure chez les Noirs. Le Nif (Pans) 38 (1948), 74–77.

      Griaule, M. L'image du monde au Soudan. Journal of Soc. Africanistes 19 (1949), 81–87.

      Griaule, M. Témoignages sur le “Philosophie bantoue” du Père Tempels. Présence africaine no. 7 (1949), 256–260.

      Griaule, M. Philosophie et religion des Noirs. Présence Africaine nos. 8–9 (1950), 307–312.

      Griaule, M. Les symboles et les arts africains. Présence Africaine nos. 10–11 (1951), 12–24.

      Griaule, M. L'homme se divise de en vingt-deux parties disent les Dogons. Explorations Outre-mer (Pans) (1952), 111–125.

      Griaule, M. Réflexions sur les symboles soudanais. Cahiers internationaux de sociologie 13 (1952), 8–30.

      Griaule, M. Le savoir des Dogon. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 22 (1952), 27–42.

      Griaule, M. The Dogon, in African Worlds. London: Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press, 1954.

      Griaule, M. Dieu et l'eau. Paris: Editions du Chêne, 1956.

      Griaule, M. The Idea of Person Among the Dogo. Culture (1960), 265–370.

      Griaule, M. Philosophie et religion des Noirs. Présence africaine nos. 8–9 (1964), 307–322.

      Griaule, M. Conversations With Ogotemmêli: An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas, with an Introduction by Germaine Dieterlen. London: Oxford University Press for International African Institute, 1965.

      Griaule, M., and Dieterlen, G. La mort chez les Kouroumba. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 12 (1942), 9–24.

      Griaule, M., and Dieterlen, G. La conception du monde et de la matière au Soudan. Atomes (Pans) no. 47 (1950), 50–52.

      Griaule, M., and Dieterlen, G. The Dogon. In Forde, C. D. (Ed.), African Worlds: Studies in the Cosmological Ideas and Social Values of African Peoples. London: Oxford University Press, 1963, 83–110.

      Griaule, M., and Tabiana, J. Proverbes Abyssins. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 42 (1972),55–88.

      Grootaert, J. Bantu-Logica. Band 5 (1946), 124–131, 264–273, 301–308, 349–354.

      Grootaert, J. Leben, Tod und Jenseits in den Glaubensvorstellungen der Nzima. In Zahan, D. (Ed.), Réincarnation et vie mystique en Afrique Noire. Colloque de Strasbourg (16–18 mai 1963). Travaux du Centre d'Ètudes supérieures spécialisée d'histoire des religions de Strasbourg, 1965, 69–85.

      Grottanelli, V. L. Gods and Morality in Nzema Polytheism. Ethnology (Pittsburg) 8 (1969),370–405.

      Guariglia, G. L'arte dell'Africa Nera e il suo messaggio. Fede e Civiltà no. 8 (1966), 1–128.

      Guariglia, G. Chi-uku (L'Etre supreme), le culte des esprits et des ancêtres, et le sacrifice expiatoire chez les Igbos du Sud-Est Nigeria, Colloque Ethique chrétienne et valeurs africaines. Kinshasa, Faculté de Théologie Catholique (9–12 avril 1969). Unpublished manuscript, 59–61.

      Guariglia, G. L'Etre Suprême, le Culte des Ancêtres chez les Igbo. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970),229–250.

      Gudijiga, C. Quelques thèmes de contes africains. Documents pour l'action 4, no. 24 (1964),360–368.

      Gudijiga, C. L'enfant dans la pensée traditionnelle de l'Afrique: Présentation de l'ouvrage de Pierre Erny. Congo-Afrique no. 40 (1969), 517–526.

      Guenum, A. L'Afrique face au problème de la conception. Afrique Documents nos. 94–95 (1968), 317–327.

      Guerrier, E. Essai sur la cosmogonie des Dogon. Paris: Laffont, 1975.

      Guillebaud, R. The Idea of God in Ruanda-Urundi. In Smith, E. W. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House, 1950, 180–200.

      Gusimana, B. L'homme selon la philosophie pende. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968),65–72.

      Gusimana, B. Nzambi selon la philosophie pende. Cahiers des Religions Africaines no. 40 (1970),31–40.

      Gusimana, B. L'homme et l'unité de la race humaine: L'origine de l'homme et l'unité de la race humaine selon la philosophie pende basée sur la légende de “gawiganzanga.” Revue du Clergé Africain 26 (1971), 169–180.

      Gutmann, B. Dichten und Denken der Dschagga-Neger. Leipzig: Lutheran Missions, 1909.

      Gwembe, E. P. La piété envers les ancêtres dans la religion africaine. Telema 21 (1995), 53–60.

      Gwembe, E. P. African Religions and Philosophy. Second Order 4, no. 1 (1975), 86–94.

      Gwembe, E. P. Akan Language and the Materialist Thesis: A Short Essay on the Relation Between Philosophy and Language. Studies in Language 1, no. 2 (1977), 237–244.

      Gwembe, E. P. The Akan Concept of a Person. International Philosophical Quarterly 18 (1978),278–287.

      Gwembe, E. P. The Akan Concept of a Person. In Wright, R. A. (Ed.), African Philosophy: An Introduction. New York: University Press of America, 1984, 3rd ed., 199–212.

      Gwembe, E. P. An Essay on African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conceptual Scheme. New York, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

      Gwembe, E. P. Person and Community in African Thought. In Kimmerle, H. (Ed.), We and Body: First Joint Symposium of Philosophers From Africa and From the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Atlantic Highlands, Grüner, 1989, 31–40.

      Gyekye, K. African Cultural Values: An Introduction. Accra: Sankofa Publication, 1996.

      Hadfield, H. Traits of Divine Kingship in Africa. London: Watts & Co., 1949.

      Hagendorens, J. La parenté, l'alliance, la succession chez les tetela. Pastoralia (Wezembeek-Oppem) 4, no. 2 (1970), 102–106.

      Hahn, T. Tsui-Goab, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi. London: Trijbner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 1881.

      Hailey, T T S. The Anatomy of Tango Religion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1947.

      Hallen, B., and Sodipo, J. O. Knowledge, Belief and Witchcraft: Analytic Experiments in African Philosophy. With a new foreword by W V. O. Quine and a new afterword by Barry Hallen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997. (Original publication 1986)

      Hallen, B., and Sodipo, J. O. The House of the “INU”: Keys to the Structure of a Yoruba Theory of the Self. Quest 8, no. 1 (1994), 2–23.

      Hama, B. Essai d'analyse de l'éducation africaine. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1968.

      Hama, B. L'essence du verbe (Cultures africaines). Nyamey: Celtho, 1988.

      Hambly, W. D. Serpent Worship in Africa. Chicago: Field Museum of Natiral History, 1931.

      Hambly, W. D. The Ovimbundu of Angola. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1934.

      Hambly, W. D. Some Bhaga Religious Categories. African Studies 19 (1960), 1–13.

      Hambly, W. D. Rituals and Medicines: Indigenous Healing in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ad. Donker, 1989.

      Harjula, R. God and Sun in the Meru-Thought. Helsinki: Missiologian ja Ekumeniikan Seura, 1969.

      Harjula, R. Ancestral Spirits as Helpers Among the Meru of Tanzania. Temenos 14 (1978), 53–78.

      Harris, E. Black Identity and the Ancient Egyptians. Studia Africana (1977), 192–203.

      Harris, E. The Idea of God Among the Mende. In Smith, E. W. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh Hause, 1950, 277–297.

      Harris, W T., and Sawyerr, H. The Springs of Mende Belief and Conduct. Freetown: Sierra Leone University Press, 1968.

      Hart, W A. A West African Masquerade in 1815. Journal of Religion in Africa 23 (1993),136–146.

      Hauenstein, A. Considération sur le vase sacré Ombia yohasa de la résidence royale de Civonga de la tribu des Hanya. Anthropos 62 (1967),907–936.

      Hauenstein, A. Quelques formes de divination parmis [sic!] les Wobé et les Guère de Côte d'Ivoire. Anthropos 71 (1976), 474–496.

      Hauenstein, A. Le culte des “mahamba” chez les Tchokwe. Bulletin annuel du Musée d'ethnographie de la ville de Genève 30 (1987), 97–115.

      Hayley, T. T. S. The Anatomy of Lango Religion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1947.

      Hazan, F. (Ed.). Dictionnaire des Civilisations Africaines. Paris: Union Générale d'éditions, 1968.

      Hazel, R. Le pacte du sang au Dahomey. Paris: Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, 1937.

      Hazel, R. L'âme du Dahoméen animiste révélée par sa religion. Présence Africaine nos. 14–15 (1957), 124–139.

      Hazel, R. Symbolisme latéral et schemes ternaires: Essai sur le système idéologique des Masai d'Afrique Orientale. Canadian Journal of African Studies (Montreal) 12, no. 1 (1978),83–116.

      Healey, J. G. I Point Out to You the Stars: Communications Research on African Proverbs. Communicatio Socialis Yearbook 5 (1986),20–33.

      Hebert, J., and Guilhem, M. Notion et Culte de dieu chez les Toussian. Anthropos (1967),139–164.

      Hebga, M. Penance and Reconciliation in African Culture. African Ecclesial Review 25 (1983),347–355.

      Heinz, H. J. Elements of the Bushmen Religious Beliefs. Anthropos (1975), 17–41.

      Henry, J. Le culte des esprits chez les Bambara. Anthropos 3 (1908), 702–707.

      Henry, J. L'âme d'un peuple africain: Les Bambara, leur vie psychique, éthique, sociale, religieuse. Pans: Picard, 1910.

      Herskovits, M. J. Dahomean Narrative. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1958.

      Herskovits, M. J. Dahomey: An Ancient West African Kingdom (2 vols.). Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1967. (1st ed. 1938)

      Hetzler, F. M. Ethiopian Cultural Heritage: Art and Philosophy. In Negussay, A., and Sumner, C. (Eds.), Books for Life. Addis Ababa: Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, 1991, 29–43.

      Heusch, L. De. Le Symbolisme de l'inceste royal en Afrique. Bruxelles: Université Libre de Bruxelles: Institut de Sociologie Solvay, 1958.

      Heusch, L. De. Le sacrifice dans les religions africaines. Paris: Gallimard, 1986.

      Heusch, L. De. Myth as Reality. Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 200–215.

      Hexam, I. Lord of the Sky-King of the Earth: Zulu Traditional Religion and Belief in the Sky God. Studies in Religion 10 (1981), 273–286.

      Hexam, I. Texts on Zulu Religion. New York: Edwin Meilen Press, 1987.

      Hickey, R. Ministry in African Traditional Religion. The Outlook 18 (1982), 19–26.

      Hickey, R. Authentic African Religion. Afer 27 (1985), 216–224.

      Hickey, R. The Decline of African Traditional Religion. The Outlook 20 (1986), 36–41.

      Himmelheber, H. Le système de la religion des Dan. Rencontres Internationales de Bouaké: Les Religions Africaine Traditionnelles (1965),75–85.

      Hirschberg, W. Der Gottesname Nyambi. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 88 (1963), 163–179.

      Hobly, C. W. Bantu Beliefs and Magic. London: H. F. and G. Witherby, 1938.

      Hochegger, H. Die Vorstellungen van “Seele” und Totengeist bei Afrikanischen Völker. Anthropos 60 (1965), 273–329.

      Hochegger, H. La notion de l'Etre Suprême chez les Yansi. Publications Ceeba 1, no. 2 (1968), 77–82.

      Hochegger, H. Conceptions de la mort, rites de sépulture et deuil chez les Nsala-Mbanda (Yansi). Publications Ceeba 1, no. 3 (1969), 45–51.

      Hochegger, H. Dieu, idoles et sorcellerie. In Colloque, Ethique chrétienne et valeurs africaines. Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1969, 63–75.

      Hochegger, H. Les “âmes” de l'homme et la conception de l'esprit de mort dans la pensé occidentale et africaine. Publications Ceeba 1, no. 3 (1969),118–124.

      Hochegger, H. La mort et le culte des morts chez les populations d'expression teke: Réalités sociales ou religieuses. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 4 (1970), 75–87.

      Hochegger, H. Allons, tuons la mort! Mythes sakata. Publications Ceeba 2, no. 13 (1974).

      Hochegger, H. Normes et Pratique Sociales chez Buma. Bandundu: Editions Ceeba, 1975.

      Hochegger, H. Le langage gestuel en Afrique centrale. Bandundu: CEEBA, 1978.

      Hochegger, H. Le langage des gestes rituels, t. I-II. Bandundu: CEEBA, 1981.

      Hochegger, H. (Ed.). Dictionnaire des Rites (vols. 1 & 2). Bandundu: Edtions Ceeba, 1984.

      Hochegger, H. La communication non verbale dans la culture zaïroise. Philosophie et communication sociale en Afrique, 3e Séminaire scientifique de philosophie, 1987. (Recherches Philosophiques Africaines, 17) Kinshasa, Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1989, 177–189.

      Hochegger, H. Le langage symbolique des rites zaïrois: Expériencce de terrain. Revue Africaines des Sciences de la Mission 1, no. 1 (1994), 357–365.

      Hodgson, J. The God and the Xhosa: A Study of the Origins and Development of the Traditional Concepts of the Supreme Being. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1982.

      Hofstra, S. Personality and Differentiation in the Political Life of the Mendi. Africa 10 (1937),436–457.

      Hofstra, S. The Ancestral Spirits of the Mendi. Archiv für Ethnographie 39 (1940), 177–196.

      Hofstra, S. The Belief Among the Mendi in Nonancestral Spirits. Archiv für Ethnographie 40 (1942), 175–182.

      Höh, F. Bantu-Philosophie: Philosophie? Grundsätzliche Ueberlegungen und Folgerungen aus Anlass einers Buches. International Afrikaforum no. 2 (1966), 358–362.

      Holas, B. Les masques Kono, Haute-Guinée française: Leur rôle dans la vie religieuse et politique. Paris: Geuthner, 1953.

      Holas, B. Fondements spirituels de la vie sociale sénoufo. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 26 (1956), 9–32.

      Holas, B. Le Toura, Esquisse d'une civilisation montagnarde de Côte-d'Ivoire. Paris: PUF, 1962.

      Holas, B. Mythologies of the World's Origin in Africa. Diogenes no. 48 (1964), 105–124.

      Holas, B. Eléments du système spirituel bête. Présence Africaine no. 53 (1965), 136–148.

      Holas, B. Arts traditionnels d'Afrique. Paris: Hatier, 1967.

      Holas, B. Aux sources de la tradition orale: Figures et l'imagination mystique krou. L'Afrique Littéraire et Artistique no. 1 (1968), 48–53.

      Holas, B. Les dieux d'Afrique noire. Paris: Geuthner, 1968.

      Holas, B. L'image du mâle au centre de la vie spirituelle krou (Côte d'Ivoire). Culture et Développement 1 (1968), 69–82.

      Holas, B. L'image du monde bété. Paris: PUF, 1968.

      Holas, B. Proverbe, expression de la sagesse populaire bété (Côte d'Ivoire). Notes Africaines no. 119 (1968), 83–88.

      Holas, B. The Sacred in Social Life: The Senufo Example. Diogenes no. 61 (1968), 114–131.

      Holas, B. La pensée africaine, textes choisis, 1949–1969. Pans: Geuthner, 1972.

      Holas, B. Civilisations et arts de l'Ouest Africain. Pans: PUF, 1976.

      Hopgood, C. R. Conceptions of God Amongst the Tonga of Nothern Rhodesia (Zambia). In Smith, A. W. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House Press, 1950, 61–75.

      Horton, R. God, Man and the Land in a Northern Ibo Village Group. Africa 26 (1956), 17–28.

      Horton, R. Destiny and the Unconscious in West Africa. Africa 31 (1961), 110–116.

      Horton, R. The Kalahari World View: An Outline and Interpretation. Africa 32 (1962), 197–219.

      Horton, R. Ritual Man in Africa. Africa 34 (1964),85–104.

      Horton, R. Conference: “The High God in Africa.” Odù 2, no. 2 (1966), 87–95.

      Horton, R. African Traditional Thought and Western Science. Africa 37 (1967), 50–71, 155–187.

      Horton, R. Philosophy and African Studies. In Brokensha, D., and Crowder, M. (Eds.), Africa in the Wider World. New York: Pergamon Press, 1967, 261–291.

      Horton, R. African Traditional Thought and Western Science. In Wilson, B. R. (Ed.), Rationality. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1970, 130–171.

      Horton, R. African Conversion. Africa 41, no. 2 (1971), 85–108.

      Horton, R. Spiritual Beings and Elementary Particles: A Reply to Mr Pratt. Second Order 1 (1972),21–33.

      Horton, R. Paradox and Explanation: A Reply to Mr. Skorupski. Philosophy of Social Sciences 3 (1973), 231–233.

      Horton, R. Levy-Bruhl Among the Scientists: A Reply to Mr. Skorupski. Second Order 2, no. 1 (1973),14–30.

      Horton, R. Lévy-Bruhl, Durkheim and the Scientific Revolution. In Horton, R., and Finnegan, R. (Eds.), Modes of Thought: Essays in Western and Non-Western Societies. London: Faber and Faber, 1974.

      Horton, R. On the Rationality of Conversion. Africa 45 (1975), 219–235, 373–399.

      Horton, R. Understanding Traditional African Religion: A Reply to Professor Beattie. Second Order 5, no. 1 (1976), 3–29.

      Horton, R. Traditional Thought and the Emerging African Philosophy Department: A Comment on the Current Debate. Second Order 6, no. 1 (1977), 64–80.

      Horton, R. Patterns of Thought in Africa and the West: Essays on Magic, Religion and Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

      Horton, R., and Finnegan, R. (Eds.). Essays on Thinking in Western and Non-Western Societies. London: Faber and Faber, 1973.

      Horton, R., and Finnegan, R. (Eds.). Modes of Thought: Essays in Western and Non-Western Societies. London: Faber and Faber, 1973; New York: Humanities Press, 1974.

      Horton, W R. G. God, Man and the Land in a Northern Ibo Village-Groep. Africa 23 (1956),17–28.

      Houis, M. La nature de l'homme en Afrique: Correspondance et message. Notes Africaines (1961), 112–118.

      Houis, M. Les noms individuels chez les Mosi. Dakar: IFAN, 1963.

      Houis, M. Approche et oralité. Afrique et Parole no. 26 (1969), 4–21.

      Howlett, J. L'identité culturelle en question et les langues maternelles ou la parole voile. Présence Africaine nos. 99–100 (1976), 224–239.

      Hromnik, C. A. Recent Models of the African Iron Age and the Cattle-Related Evidence. Diogenes no. 135 (1986), 131–139.

      Huber, H. Tod und Leben-Weltanschauliche Problematik bei Adangme- und Ewe-Gruppen am Unteren Volta. In Zahan, D. (Ed.), Réincarnation et vie mystique en Afrique Noire. Colloque de Strasbourg (16–18 mai 1963). Travaux du Centre d'Ètudes supérieures spécialisée d'histoire des religions de Strasbourg, 1965, 87–99.

      Huber, H. L'Existence Humaine en face du Sacré. Antbropos, 1973, 377–441.

      Hulstaert, G. Les idées religieuses des Nkundo. Congo no. 2 (1936), 1–26.

      Hulstaert, G. Coutumes funéraires des Nkundo. Antbropos 32 (1937), 502–527, 729–742.

      Hulstaert, G. Les sanctions coutumières contre l'adultère chez les Nkundo. Bruxelles. Bulletin des Séances IRCB, 1938.

      Hulstaert, G. Morale indigène. Aequatoria 4 (1941), 119–120.

      Hulstaert, G. A propos de l'adultère. Aequatoria 6 (1943), 51–53.

      Hulstaert, G. Politesse mongo. Aequatoria 8 (1945),103–110.

      Hulstaert, G. Valeurs culturelles. Aequatoria 15 (1952), 146–147.

      Hulstaert, G. Le Dieu des Mongo. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1978), 23–24, 33–84.

      Hulstaert, G., Rechts-Praakfabels van de Nkundo. Tervuren: Commissie voor Afrikaanse taalkunde, 1954.

      Hulstaert, G., and de Rop, A. Das Rechtsempfinden der Kongolesen Dargestellt in Tierfabeln. Monatshefte 71 (1962), 132–133.

      Hulstaert, G., and Verhaegen, P. De psychologie van de Afrikaanse Zwarte. Aequatoria 22 (1959), 115.

      Hulstaert, G. Losâko, la salutation solennelle des Nkondó. Bruxelles: ARSC (Mor. Poi. Mém. XX, 1), 1959.

      Hulstaert, G. La notion bantoue de Dieu. Revue du Clergé Africain 23 (1968), 184–188.

      Hulstaert, G. Le temps pour les Mongo. Bulletin des Séances de l'ARSOM no. 2 (1969), 227–235.

      Hulstaert, G. Sagesse populaire mongo. Bulletin Séances ARSOM no. 4 (1972), 506–525.

      Hulstaert, G. La société politique Nkundo. Etudes Zaïroises INEP 2 (1974), 85–107.

      Humblot, J. Du nom chez les Malinké des rives du Milo et du Niandan. Bulletin du Comité d'Ètudes Historiques et Scientifiques (1919),7–23.

      Huot, L. L'âme noire. Mercure de France 1 (Sept. 1921), 299–351.

      Hurault, J. La structure sociale Bamiléké. Paris: La Haye, Mouton, 1962.

      Hurbon, L. Dieu dans le Vaudou haïtien. Préf. Geneviève Calame-Griaule. Paris: Payot, 1972.

      Hurel, E. Religion et vie domestique des Bakerewe. Anthropos 6 (1911), 62–94, 276–301.

      Idoniboye, D. E. The concept of “Spirit” in African Metaphysics. Second Order 2, no. 1 (1973),83–89.

      Idowu, E. B. Olodumare, God in Yoruba Belief. London: Longmans, 1962; New York: Praeger, 1963.

      Idowu, E. B. The Study of Religion With Special Reference to African Traditional Religion. Ribbert Journal 66 (1968), 89–94.

      Idowu, E. B. African Traditional Religion: A Definition. London: SCM Press, 1973.

      Ifesieh, E. I. Ilo Mmuo bei den Igbo. Journal: Mitteeilungsblat der Ö esterreich sehen Benediktiner Kongregation, NR, II (Dec. 1974),651–657.

      Ifesieh, E. I. The Concept of Chineke as Reflected in Igbo Names and Proverbs (A Case Study). Communio Viatorum 26 (1983), 109–127.

      Ifesieh, E. I. Vatican II and Traditional Religion. Afer 25 (1983), 230–236.

      Ifesieh, E. I. Igbo Traditional Religion: A Cultural Means of Cultivating Discipline. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1985), 235–247.

      Ifesieh, E. I. The Three Basic Aspects of Sacred Meal Tradition in Igbo Religious Culture: A Case Study. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1988),7–16.

      Ifie, J. E. Death and After-Life in Ezon Religion: The Evidence of Kumbuowei Clan. Orita 19 (1987), 73–89.

      Ifie, J. E. Marriage With the Gods in Nigerian and Greek Myths. Orita 27 (1995), 61–77.

      Ilesami, T. M. Ofo: A Religious and Political Symbol. Nigerian Magazine (September 1964),243–245.

      Ilesami, T. M. Worship in Igbo Traditional Religion. Numen 20 (1973), 230–238.

      Ilesami, T. M. The Traditional Theologians and the Practice of Orisa Religion in Yorubaland. Journal of Religion in Africa 21 (1991),216–226.

      Ilesami, T. M. The Ingenuity of Yoruba Women in Worship of Orinlase in Ilawe-Ekiti. Orisa 28 (1996), 1–10.

      Iniesta, F. L'univers africain: Approche historique des cultures noires. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1995.

      Irung, T. M. La description ndawienne de la pensée africaine face au développement de l'Africain. In Nyasani, J. M. (Ed.), Philosophical Focus on Culture and Traditional Thought Systems in Development. Nairobi: Konrad Adenauer Foudation, 1995, 226–235.

      Isaya, M. N. Les canons de l'esthétique lega. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 24 (1991), 123–144.

      Ishola, A. A. Ancestors and Saints: African Understanding of Ancestors in Relation to Christian Saints, With Particular Reference to the Yoruba of Nigeria. Euntes Docete 36 (1983), 257–281.

      Isichei, A. C. African Patterns of Thought. The African Review 1, no. 1 (1971), 148–154.

      Isichei, A. C. Sex in Traditional Asaba. Cahiers d'Ètudes Africaines 13 (1973), 682–699.

      Isichei, A. C. Two Perspectives to the Past: History and Myth. Second Order 4, no. 2 (1975), 11.

      Istas, M. La première caractéristique du mariage traditionnel, in Inculturation et libération en Afrique aujourd'hui. Mélanges Mulago, Revue Africaine de Théologie 14, nos. 27–28 (1990), 165–181.

      Ittmann, J. Das Leben eines Kosi-Kindes in den ersten zwei Wochen. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 20 (1929–1930), 256–282.

      Ittmann, J. Bestattungsbräuche und Totenfeste bei den Bakwiri. Zeitschrift für Eigeborenen-Sprachen 77 (1952), 214–226.

      Ittmann, J. Mond und Monate im vorderen Kamerun. Anthropos 48 (1953), 389–395.

      Ittmann, J. Volkskundliche und religiöse Begriffe im nördlichen Waldland von Kamerun. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1953.

      Ittmann, J. Orakelwesen im Kameruner Waldland. Anthropos 55 (1960), 114–134.

      Iwuagwu, A. O. Chukwu: Towards a Definition of Igbo Traditional Religion. West African Religion 16 (1975), 26–34.

      Jackson, H. M. G. Notes on the Marriage Laws of the Amandebele, With Endogamous and Exogamous Bars to Marriage. Nada 9 (1966), 73–74.

      Jackson, H. M. G. Allegories of the Wilderness: Ethics and Ambiguity in Kuranko Narratives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

      Jacob, J.-P. Le sens des limites: Maladies, sorcellerie, religion et pouvoir chez les Winye, Gourounsi du Burkina Faso. Grandson: Imprimerie Cavin, 1988 (Thèse, Faculté des Lettres, Université de Neuchâtel).

      Jacobs, J., Omeonga, B., and Kitete, G. Notre univers: Essai de cosmologie tetela. Aequatoria 23 (1960), 81–99.

      Jacobs, J., Omeonga, B., and Kitete, G. Elementen van de kosmologie van de Tetela (Democratische Republieh Congo) en van de andere bevolkingsgroepen. Overdruk uit Koninklijke Académie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen, Mededelingen der Zittingen 46, no. 4 (2000), 457–472.

      Jacobson-Widding, A. Red-White-Black as a Mode of Thought: A Study of Triadic Classiffication of Colours in the Ritual Symbolism and Cognitive Thought of the Peoples of the Lower Congo (Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology, 1). Stockholm: Almquist and Wikseu, 1979.

      Jacobson-Widding, A., and van Beek, W (Eds.). The Creative Communion: African Folk Models of Fertility and the Regeneration of Life. Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala, 1990.

      Jafta, L. D. The One, the Other, the Divine, the Many in Zulu Traditional Religion of Southern Africa. Dialogue and Alliance 6 (1992), 79–90.

      Jahn, J. Muntu, an Outline of Neo-African Culture. London: Faber and Faber, 1958.

      Jahn, J. Umrisse der neoafrikanischen Kultur. Köln: E. Diederichs Verlag, 1958.

      Jahn, J. An Outline of New African Culture. New York: Grove Press, 1961.

      Jahn, J. L'homme africain et la culture néoafricaine, traduit de l'allemand par Brian de Martinoir. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1961.

      Jahn, J. Authenticité et vie nationale: La religion et les arts à Oshogbo. Jiwe no. 4 (1976), 29–32.

      Jakwa, G. D. Religion de Nyambé et civilisation politique Africaine. Les Religions Africaines Comme Source (1972), 256–286.

      James, G. G. Stolen Legacy: The Greeks Were Not the Authors of Greek Philosophy but the People of North Africa, Commonly Called the Egyptians (Introduction by Asa G. Hilliard, Julian Richardson Associates). San Francisco: Press of San Anselmo, 1988 (Repr.).

      Janssen, H. Tradition und Krise der Jugendinitiation in Afrika. Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft und Reli-gionswissenschaft 64 (1980), 81–92.

      Janssens, A. P. Het ontstaan der dingen in de folklore der Bantu's. Congo 5, no. 1 (1924), 667–692.

      Janzen, J. M. Vers une phénoménologie de la guérison en Afrique Centrale. Etudes Congolaises 12 (1969), 97–114.

      Janzen, J. M. The Tradition of Renewal in Kongo Religion. In Booth, N. S. (Ed.), African Religions: A Symposium. New York: Nok, 1977, 69–115.

      Janzen, J. M. The Quest for Therapy in Lower Zaïre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

      Janzen, J. M. Lemba 1650–1930. New York, London: Garland, 1982.

      Janzen, J. M. “Doing Ngoma”: A Dominant Trope in African Religion and Healing. Journal of Religion in Africa 21 (1991), 290–308.

      Janzen, J. M. Self-Presentation and Common Cultural Structures in Ngoma Rituals of Southern Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa 25 (1995),141–162.

      Janzen, J. M., and Macgaffey, W. An Anthropology of Kongo Religion: Primary Texts From Lower Zaïre. Lawrence: University of Kansas Publications. Anthropoly no. 5 (1974).

      Jaulin, R. La civilité chez les Sara. Encyclopédie Mensuelle d'Outre-mer no. 80 (1957), 173–176.

      Jaulin, R. La civilité chez les Sara. Encyclopédie Mensuelle d'Outre-mer no. 80 (1957), 173–176.

      Jaulin, R. La mort Sara: L'ordre de la vie ou la pensée de la mort au Tchad. Paris: Pion, 1967. Paris: Union générale d'éditions, 1971.

      Jedrej, M. C. La mort Sara: L'ordre de la vie ou la pensée de la mort au Tchad. Paris: Pion, 1967. Paris: Union générale d'éditions, 1971.

      Jedrej, M. C. Medicine, Fetish and Secret Society in West African Cultures. Africa 46 (1976), 247f.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. The Divine Umundri King. Africa 3 (1935), 346–354.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. Circumcision: Its Diffusion From Egypt Among the Bantu. Criteria 1 (1949), 73–84.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. The Degeneration of the Ofo Anam. Nigerian Field 21 (1956), 173–177.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. The Cult of Twins Among Some African Tribes. South African Journal of Sciences 59 (1963), 97–101.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. Ikenga, the Ram-Headed God. African Studies 13 (1965), 40f.

      Jeffreys, M. D. W. A triad of Gods in Africa. Anthropos 67 (1972), 723–735.

      Jenod, H. Sens moral chez les Bantous. Congo 8, no. 1 (1927), 106–111. Extrait de Intern. Rev. of Missions (1927), janv.

      Jensen, K. E. Woman-Marriage, With Special Reference to the Lovedu—Its Significance for the Definition of Marriage. Africa 44 (1974), 11–37.

      Jewsiewicki, B. (Ed.). Naître et mourir au Zaïre: Un demi-siècle d'histoire au quotidien. Paris: Karthala, 1993.

      Johanssen, E. Mysterien eines Bantu-Volkes. Leipzig: Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1925.

      Johnson, D. H. On Disciples and Magicians: The Diversification of Divinity Among the Nuer During the Colonial Era. Journal of Religion in Africa 22 (1992), 2–22.

      Johnson, R. La conception de travail dans le milieu traditionnel africain. Rythmes du monde 16 (1968), 42–45.

      Joset, P. E. Les sociétés secrètes des hommes-léopards en Afrique Noires. Paris: Payot, 1955.

      Junod, H. J. Les conceptions physiologiques des Bantous Sud-africains et leurs tabous. Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie 1, nos. 5–7 (1910), 126–169.

      Junod, H. J. Moeurs et coutumes de Bantous (2 vols.). Paris: Payot, 1936.

      Junod, H. J. Essai sur les notions fondamentales de la pensée africaine-bantoue. Genève-Afrique 7 (1968), 83–90.

      Junod, H. J. Essai sur les notions fondamentales de la pensée africaine bantoue. Congrès international des Africanistes, Dakar, 1967. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1972, 315–325.

      Kabasele, L. Notions du mal chez les Luba-bantu. Hier et Aujourd'hui 14, no. 3 (1970), 156–157.

      Kabasele, L. Rites pratiques et croyances relatifs à l'enfance chez les Basanga du Shaba. Zaïre-Afrique 3, no. 79 (1973), 543–556; no. 80, 607–624.

      Kabasele, L. Propos sur la logique bantu. Extraits d'un mémoire de maîtrise soutenu à l'Université de Dakar en juillet, 1976.

      Kabasele, L. Symbolismes religieux et symboles nouveaux. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 26 (1986),3–17.

      Kabule-Dumba, C. Essai sur le thème de la mort dans la tradition et la littérature orale luba. Mémoire diplôme de l'EPHE, Paris, 6e sect., 1971.

      Kabule-Dumba, C. Naître et mourir: La dynamique de la vie chez les Bantu du Zaïre. Thèse de doctorat en philosophie et pédagogie, Université catholique de Paris, 1972.

      Kabwe, M. De l'idée du “Kheper” être/exister/devenir dans la philosophie egypto-pharaonique antique. Mémoire de Licence, Faculté de philosophie, Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, 1992.

      Kagame, A. Inganji Karinga (The Victorious Drums). Kabgayi: Editions Morales, 1943.

      Kagame, A. Le Rwanda et son roi. Aequatoria 8 (1945), 41–58.

      Kagame, A. Isoko y'amajyambere (Sources of Progress). Kabgayi: Editions Morales, 1949–1951.

      Kagame, A. Bref aperçu sur la poésie dynastique du Rwanda. Bruxelles: Editions universaires, 1950.

      Kagame, A. Le code des institutions politiques au Rwanda précolonial. Bruxelles: IRCB, 1952.

      Kagame, A. La divine pastorale. Bruxelles: Editions du Marais, 1952.

      Kagame, A. Umulirimbyi wa Nyili-ibiremwa. Butare: Astnda, 1952–1953.

      Kagame, A. Les organisations socio-familiales de l'ancien Rwanda. Bruxelles: ARSC, 1954.

      Kagame, A. La naissance de l'Univers (Deuxième veillée de “La divine pastorale”). Bruxelles: Editions du Marais, 1955.

      Kagame, A. La philosophie bantu-rwandaise de l'être. Extraits (ARSC, Classe des Sciences morales et politiques., N.S, VI, 1). Bruxelles: ARSC, 1955.

      Kagame, A. La philosophie bantu-rwandaise de l'être (ARSC, Classe des Sciences morales et politiques, N.S., XII, 1). Bruxelles: ARSC, 1956.

      Kagame, A. La Philosophie Bantou-Rwandaise de l'Etre. Bruxelles: Académie des Sciences Coloniales, 1956.

      Kagame, A. Le sacré païen, le sacré chrétien. Aspects de la culture noire. Paris: Présence africaine, 1958, 126–145.

      Kagame, A. La notion de génération appliquée à l'histoire du Rwanda. Bruxelles: ARSC, 1959.

      Kagame, A. L'histoire des armées-bovines de l'ancien Rwanda. Bruxelles: ARSC, 1961.

      Kagame, A. Les milices du Rwanda précolonial. Bruxelles: ARSC, 1963.

      Kagame, A. La place de Dieu et de l'homme dans la religion des Bantu. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968), 213–222; 3 (1969), 5–11.

      Kagame, A. Le fondement ultime de la morale bantu. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 9 (1969), 231–236.

      Kagame, A. Introduction aux grands genres lyriques de l'ancien Rwanda. Butare: Editions universitaires du Rwanda, 1970.

      Kagame, A. Un abgrégé de l'ethno-histoire du Rwanda. Butare: Editions University, 1972.

      Kagame, A. Un abrégé de l'histoire du Rwanda, de 1855 à 1972. Butare: Editions University, 1975.

      Kagame, A. La philosophie bantu comparée. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1976.

      Kagame, A. L'historicité de lyangombe, chef des Immandwa. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 10, no. 19 (1976), 5–18.

      Kajiga, B. Langue et culture des Bantu. Présence Africaine no. 94 (1975), 31–33.

      Kajiga, G. Untu: Patrimoine culturel des peuples de l'Afrique subsaharienne. Kinshasa: Ministère de la culture et du tourisme, 1968.

      Kalilombe, P. A. The Salvific Value of African Religions. Afer 21 (1979), 143–157.

      Kalmogo, G. M. A. De la religion chez les Moose. Savanes et Forets 1 (1979), 43–80.

      Kalmogo, G. M. A. L'individu, le nom et l'appartenance à une famille religieuse. In L'expérience religieuse africaine et les relations interpersonnelles. Actes du Colloque international d'Abidjan (16–20 sept. 1980), n° spécial de Savannes-Forêts (1982), 421–440.

      Kalu, O. U. Gods in Retreat: Models of Religious Change in Africa. Nigerian Journal of Humanities 1 (1974), 42–53.

      Kamainda, T. Djigi et le Balambo. Présence Africaine nos. 34–35 (1960–1961), 73–78.

      Kamano, B. F. G. Naître et renaître en pays Kissi. Telema 59–60 (1989), 31–37.

      Kamugisha, J. Symbols and Change in Beliefs: An Inquest Into Makonde Initiation Rites. Pastoral Orientation Service 5 (1983), 21–32.

      Kamuyu, W.-K. The Death of God and the African Religion: An African Viewpoint. Journal of Dhama 10 (1985), 379–391.

      Kangdim, J. S. S. The Relationship Between the High God and the Divinities of the Angas People in Plateau State (Nigeria). TCNN Research Bulletin 9 (1981), 17–25.

      Kapenzi, G. Shona and Navaho. Missiology 2 (1974), 489–495.

      Karenga, M. Selections From the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient Egypt. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press, 1984.

      Karenga, M. Odù Ifâ: The Ethical Teachings. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press, 1999.

      Karenga, M. Maat, the Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press, 2006.

      Karp, I., and Charles, S. B. (Eds.). Explorations in African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.

      Kayitakibga, M. Le Saint-Siège et les religions Africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 38 (1978), 94–113.

      Kayitakibga, M. La Famille Traditionnel en Afrique Noire. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 44 (1980), 178–193.

      Kayitakibga, M. Religion et Famille au Rwanda. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 49–50 (1982), 141–152.

      Kayitakibga, M. Dialogue avec les Religions Traditionnelles Africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 57 (1984), 339–344.

      Kayitakibga, M. L'Èglise Catholique en Afrique face aux traditions religieuses africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 69 (1988), 207–214.

      Kayode, J. O. Understanding African Traditional Religion. Ilé-Ifè: University of Ifè Press, 1984.

      Kenyatta, J. Kikuyu-Religion, Ancestor-Worship and Sacrificial Practices. Africa (1937), 308–328.

      Kenyatta, J. Au Pied du Mont Kenya. Paris: Maspéro, 1960.

      Kerharo, J., and Bouquet, A. Sorciers, féticheurs et guérisseurs de la Côte d'Ivoire, Haute-Volta. Paris: Vigot Frères, 1950.

      Kibicho, S. G. The Teaching of African Religion in Our Schools and Colleges and the Christian Attitude Towards This Religion. Africa Theological Journal 10 (1981), 29–37.

      Kenyatta, J. Revelation in African Religion. Africa Theological Journal 12 (1983), 166–177.

      Kilson, M. Libation in Ga Ritual. Journal of Religion in Africa 2 (1969), 161–178.

      Kenyatta, J. Taxonomy and Form in Ga Ritual. Journal of Religion in Africa 3 (1970), 45–66.

      Kenyatta, J. Ambivalence and Power: Mediums in Ga Traditional Religion. Journal of Religion inin Africa 4 (1972), 171–177.

      Kenyatta, J. Women in African Traditional Religions. Journal of Religion in Africa 8 (1976), 133–143.

      Kenyatta, J. The Structure of Ga Prayer. Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 173–178.

      Kenyatta, J. Prayer and Song in Ga Ritual. Journal of Religion in Africa 12 (1981), 16–19.

      King, N. Q. Religions of Africa: A Pilgrimage Intoin Traditional Religions. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

      Kenyatta, J. African Cosmos: An Introduction toin Religion in Africa. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1986.

      Kirby, J. P. The Non-conversion of the Anufo of Northern Ghana. Mission Studies 2 (1985), 15–25.

      Kitewo, N., and Nzensili, M. Etre Africaine et religieuse. Telema 6 (1980), 47–53.

      Kivanga, K. B. Dieu et la magie dans la tradition Yombe. Revue du Clergé Africain, Mayidi (Zaïre) (1970), 299–335.

      Kopytoff, I. Extension of Conflict as a Method of Conflict Resolution Among the Suku of the Congo. Journal of Conflict Resolution 5 (1961), 61–69.

      Kopytoff, I. Ancestors as Elders in Africa. Africa 41 (1971), 128–142.

      Kouassigan, G. A. L'Homme et la Terre. Paris: Bureau de la recherche scientifique et technique outre-mer, Berger-Levrault (Nouvelle Série No. 8), 1966.

      Kowanba, J. S. The Mumuye Concept of God and Spiritual Beings. TCNN Research Bulletin 17 (1986), 31–36.

      Krige, E., and Krige, J. D. The Realm of a Rain-Queen. London: Oxford University Press, 1947.

      Kröger, F. Der Ritualkalender der Bulsa (Nordghana). Anthropos 81 (1986), 671–681.

      Kruger, D. The Xhosa Diviner: Ways of Understanding. Koers 43 (1978), 456–483.

      Kuckertz, H. (Ed.). Ancestor Religion in Southern Africa. Proceedings of a seminar on ancestor belief. Lumko Missiological Institute, Cacadu, 1981.

      Kuckertz, H. (Ed.). Witchcraft, Moral, Evil and the Concept of Conscience in South-East Africa. Neue Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft 40 (1984), 259–292.

      Labaere, H. R. Les termes qui désignent “Dieu” en tetela. Pastoralia (Wezembeek-Oppem, Belg.) 2, no. 2 (1964), 15–17.

      Labouret, H. Situation matérielle, morale et coutumière de la femme dans l'Ouest-Africain. Africa 13 (1940), 97–124.

      Laburthe-Tolra, P. Initiations et socieétés secrètes au Cameroun: Essai sur la religion béti. Paris: Karthala, 1985.

      Lacroix, P.-F. L'expression du temps dans quelques langues de l'Ouest African. Paris: Solof, 1972.

      Ladriere, J. Comment aborder aujourd'hui le phénomène religieux. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 15, no. 29 (1981), 139–142.

      Ladrille, G. Réflexions sur la vision du monde des Bantu. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1984), 7–19.

      Lafargue, F. La communication entre l'homme et le sacré dans les religions traditionnelles du groupe Akan de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. In La communication, Actes du XVe Congrès de l'Assoc. des sociétés de philosophes de langue française. Montréal, éd. Montmorency, 1971, 273–277.

      Lafargue, F. Contribution à l'étude des religions africaines: Les implications métaphysiques de la religion, de la magie et des structures sociales qui les sous-tendent chez les peuples du groupe Akan de Côte d'Ivoire. In Africa, 8th Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 49–52.

      Lafargue, F. Religion, magie sorcellerie des Abijia enin Côte d'Ivoire. Paris: N. E. Latines, 1976.

      Lafargue, F. Nature et société dans les cultures africaines traditionnelles. In La nature: Thèmes philosophiques. Thèmes d'actualité. Actes du XXVe Congris de l'ASPLF 1994. Publiée sous la dir. de D. Schulthess, Lausanne, Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, 1996, 101–102.

      Lagae, C. R. Notes sur les êtres suprasensibles chez les Azande. Congo no. 1 (1921), 396–413.

      Lagerwerf, L. Witchcraft, Sorcery and Spirit Possession—Pastoral Responses in Africa. Exchange 41 (1985), 1–62.

      Laleye, I.-P. La conception de la personne dans la pensée traditionnelle Yoruba: Approche phénoménologique. Préface de Ph. Laburthe-Tolra (Publications univers, europ.). Berne: Ed H. Lang et Cie, 1970.

      Laleye, I.-P. Four une anthropologie repensée, Ori l'oni-she, ou de la personne comme histoire: Approche phénoménologique des cheminements de la liberté dans la pensée Yoruba. Paris: La pensée universelle, 1977.

      Laleye, I.-P. Mythe et rite dans l'expérience religieuse africaine. In Ries, J. (Ed.), Traité d'anthropologie du sacré. Paris-Tournai: Desclée, 1992, 307–329.

      Laleye, I.-P. L'eau dans le vécu africain. Croissance de l'Eglise no. 105 (1993), 61–66.

      Laleye, I.-P. Les religions de l'Afrique noire. In Le fait religieux, sous la direction de Jean Delumeau. Pans: Fayard, 1994, 643–713.

      Lancaster, C. S. The Zambezi Goba Ancestral Cult. Africa 47 (1977), 229–241.

      Laverdiére, L. Sorcellerie ou spiritualité négro-afncaine. Euentes 17 (1984), 290–307.

      Lawson, E. T. Religions of Africa: Traditions in Transformation. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984.

      Lawuyi, O. B., The Idea of God Among the Old Basuthos. Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa 5 (1935), 308–330.

      Lawuyi, O. B. K. Metaphoric Associations and the Conception of Death: Analysis of a Yoruba World View. Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 2–14.

      Lebeuf, A. Les principautés Kotoko: Essai sur le caractère sacré de l'autorité. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1969.

      Lebeuf, J.-P. Le mythe de la création chez les Likouba et les Likouala (Congo). Actes du 6e Congrès international des sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques 2e, no. 2 (1964), 421–427.

      Lebeuf, J.-P. Système du monde et écriture en Afrique noire. Présence Africaine no. 53 (1965), 129–135.

      Leeuw, G. van der. La religion dans son essence et ses Manifestations. Paris: Payot, 1955.

      Lehuard, E. Art et mythologie Tshokwe. Arts d'Afrique Noire 68 (1988), 43–46.

      Leiris, M. L'Afrique fantôme. Paris: Nrf, 1934.

      Leiris, M. Rites de circoncision Namchi. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 4 (1934), 63–80.

      Leiris, M. La notion d'Awa chez les Dogons. Bulletin de la Société des Africanistes 11 (1941), 219–230.

      Lema, G. Essai sur la dimension, religieuse de l'art négro-africain: Référence à la sculpture traditionnelle au Zaïre. Art Religieux Africain, n° spécial des CRA 26, nos. 31–32 (1982), 71–111.

      Le Roy, A. La religion des primitifs. Paris: Gabriel Beauchesne, 1909.

      Leyder, J. Primauté de l'humain en Afrique noire: De la psychologie des Noirs au Congo belge. Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge de Géographie 71 (1947), 91–111.

      Liampawe, L. What Is the African Concept of God and Religion? Pastoral Orientation Service 4 (1990), 1–9.

      Lienhardt, G. Divinity and Experience: The Religion of of the Dinka. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

      Lienhardt, G. La signification du nom chez les peuples bantu. Le Langage et l'Homme no. 7 (1968), 42–54.

      Lifchitz, D. Textes éthiopiens magico-religieux. Paris: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 1940.

      Lindon, T. Orikï Orisà: The Yoruba Prayer of Praise. Journal of Religion in Africa 20 (1990), 205–224.

      Liolo, O.-B. Le concept Moto: Pour une étude systématique du concept Moto dans la pensée de Topoke. Mémoire de licence, Faculté Théol. Protestante, Kinshasa: UNAZA, 1965.

      Lola, D. La dynamique de la personne dans la religion et la culture Tetela. Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1988.

      Lombard, J. Le collectivisme africain, valeur socioculturelle traditionnelle, instrument de progrès économique. Présence Africaine (1959), 22–51.

      Lombard, J. Les cultes de possession en Afrique noire et le Bori Hausa. Psychopathologie Africaine 3, no. 3 (1967).

      Lomonde, S. Survie et morale chez les Tetela du Sankuru. Mémoire de licence, Théologie et Sciences Humaines, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1980.

      Lonfernini, B. I Gugi Giamgiam, gente del Ghirgia. Bologna: EMI, 1984.

      Louillet, L. Le “lusalo” ou mariage monogamique par échange de sang. Congo 1 (1926), 209–217.

      Lucas, G. The Religion of the Yoruba. Lagos: CMS Bookshop, 1948.

      Lucas, G. Religions in West Africa and Ancient Egypt. Lagos: CMS Bookshop, 1970.

      Lucier, R. M. Dynamics of Hierarchy in African Thought. Listening 24 (1989), 29–40.

      Lufuluabo, F. Vers une Theodicée Bantoue. Tournai: Casterman, 1962.

      Lufuluabo, F. La Notion Luba et Bantoue de l'Etre. Tournai: Casterman, 1964.

      Lugira, A. M. Redemption in Ganda Traditional Belief. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 13–24.

      Luneau, R., and Thomas, L. V. Les religions d'Afrique Noire. Paris: Fayard-Denoel Publishers, 1969.

      Luneau, R., and Thomas, L. V. La terre africaine et ses religions. Paris: Libraire Larousse, 1974.

      Lurdos, M. Au commencement était Mumbi: Mythes d'origine chez les Gikuyu et Ngugi.Représentations de l'origine: Littérature, histoire et civilisation. Ste-Clotilde-Ile de la Réunion, Nouvelle impimerie dionysienne, 1988, 193–199.

      Luttig, H. J. The Religious System and Social Organisation of the Her ero. Utrecht: Kemink, 1933.

      Mabona, A. Eléments de culture africaine. Présence Africaine no. 41 (1962), 144–150.

      Mabona, A. Sur l'avenir des concepts religieux des Nguni. Présence Africaine no. 54 (1965), 173–180.

      Macalpine, A. G. Tonga Religious Customs and Beliefs. Journal of the African Society (1906), 377ff.

      MacGaffey, W. Oral Tradition in Central Africa. International Journal of African Historical Studies 7 (1975), 417–426.

      MacLean, D. A., and Solomon, T. J. Divination Among the Bena Lulua. Journal of Religion inin Africa 4 (1971), 25–44.

      MacLean, U. Magical Medicine: A Nigerian Casein Study. Allen Las: Penguin Press, 1971.

      MacLean, U. Who Speaks for African Traditional Religions? Thought and Practice 1 (1974), 75–79.

      MacLean, U. Investigating African Traditional Religions in Kenya Today. Thought and Practice 2, no. 1 (1975), 39–48.

      Madu, R. O. African Symbols, Proverbs andin Myths: The Hermeneutics of Destiny (Studies inin African and African-American Culture, 3). Bern: Peter Lang, 1992.

      Madubuko, L. Igbo World-View. Bigardin Theological Studies 14 (1994), 5–32.

      Mafwanikisa, M. La place des ancêtres sans lain pensée religieuse Yaka du Rivango Nord. Mémoire de licence, Faculté de théologie protestante de Kinshasa, 1979.

      Magesa, L. African Religion: The Moral Traditionsin of Abundant Life. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997.

      Mahieu, W. de. La sorcellerie comme système de pensé. Telema 10 (1984), 37–43.

      Maillard, B. Pouvoir et Religion: Les structuresin socio-religieuses de la chefferie de Bandjounin (Cameroon). Berne: Peter Lang, 1985.

      Maimela, S. S. Salvation in African Traditional Religions. Missionalia 13 (1985), 63–77.

      Mair, L. Native Marriage in Buganda. London: Oxford University Press, 1940.

      Makarius, L. Le sacré et la violation des interdits.

      Pans: Payot, 1987.

      Makinde, M. A. A Philosophical Analysis of the Yoruba Concepts of “Ori” and Human Destiny (Introduction by Richard Popkin). Internationalin Studies in Philosophy 17 (1985), 53–69.

      Manirakiza, M. Z. Actualité de la religion traditionnelle au Burundi. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 61 (1993), 209–257.

      Mankutu, N. Le problème de l'absolu chez lesin Kongo du Zaïre. Mémoire de licence en Philosophie et Religions Africaines. Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1980, 119.

      Maquet, J. J. P. Le système des relations socialesin dans le Ruanda ancien. Tervuren: Musée royal, 1954.

      Maquet, J. J. P. Afrique: Les civilisations noires. Paris: Ed. Horizons de France, 1962.

      Marcelin, M. Mythologie Vodou (2 vols.). Port-au-Prince: Ed. Haïtiennes, 1949–1950.

      Margarido, A., and Germaix-Wasserman, F. Du mythe et de la pratique du forgeron en Afrique noire. Diogenes no. 78 (1972), 91–122.

      Marshall, L. Kung Bushmen Religious Beliefs. Africa (1962), 221–252.

      Masson, J., and Masson, J. La notion traditionelle de l'Être Suprême chez les Barundi. Norsk Tidsskrift for Misjon 39 (1985), 231–242.

      Matsoro, M. Approches symboliques des rêves chez les Nande. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1979), 195–207.

      Matthews, Z. K. Marriage Customs Among the Barolong. Africa 13 (1940), 1–24.

      Mauka, M. B. Les rites funèbres chez les Nande. Mémoire de licence, Faculté de théol. protestante de Kinshasa, 1979.

      Maupoil, B. La géomancie à l'ancienne Côte des Esclaves. Travaux et Mémoires de l'Institut d'Ethnologie, XLII. Pans, 1981.

      Maurice, M. La maladie et la mort chez les Bapimbwe. Biblioth. Africana 4, no. 2 (1931), 22–31.

      Maurier, H. Essai d'une théologie du paganisme. Pans: L'Orante, 1965.

      Maurier, H. Chronique bibliographique sur la Religion Africaine Traditionnelle. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 69 (1988), 222–238.

      Mawinza, J. The Human Soul, Life and Soul-Concept in an East African Mentality Based on Luguru. A Dissertation, Faculté of Philosophy of the Pontifical Urbanian University, Roma, 1963 ed. 1965.

      Mawinza, J. Reverence for Ancestors in Tanzania With Reference to the Luguru and Other Bantu Tribes. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 239–248.

      Mawinza, J. Specific Difference Between the Attitude Toward the Ancestral Spirits and the Worship of God. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 37–48.

      Mawinza, J. Possibility of Dialogue Between the Church and African Traditional Religions in Tanzania. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue (1975), 28–29, 132–158.

      Mazama, A. (Ed.). The Afrocentric Paradigm. Trenton: Africa World Press, 2003.

      Mazama, A. (Ed.). African in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge, 2006.

      Mazrui, A. A. Religion and Political Culture in Africa. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 53 (1985), 817–839.

      Mbandi, E. La dialectique de la dénotation et de la connotation dans la nomination: Eléments pour une sémiologie structurale et pragmatique des anthroponymes bantu ngombe-henza. Thèse de doctorat en philosophie, Faculté de philosophie, Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1992.

      Mbiti, J. S. The African Concept of Time. Africa 8, no. 2 (1967), 33–38.

      Mbiti, J. S. Afrikaanse begrippen van tijd, geschiedenis en de dood. Afrika 21, no. 3 (1967), 68–75.

      Mbiti, J. S. African Religions and Philosophy. London: Heinemann, 1969.

      Mbiti, J. S. Concepts of God in Africa. London: SPCK, 1970.

      Mbiti, J. S. Introduction to African Religion. London: SPCK, 1975.

      Mbiti, J. S. The Prayers of African Religion. London: SPCK, 1975.

      Mbiti, J. S. Flowers in the Garden: The Role of Women in African Religion. Cahiers desin Religions Africaines 22 (1988), 69–82.

      Mbiti, J. S. God, Sin, and Salvation in African Religion. The Journal of the Interdenominational Theological Center 16 (1988), 59–86.

      Mbiyangandu, R. La chaîne ancestrale. Bulletinin CEPSI, no. 17 (1951), 26–30.

      Mbonyinkebe, S. Sens et sagesse des masques au pays des Phende du Zaïre. Nouvellesin Rationalités Africaines no. 10 (1988), 263–275.

      Mboyinkebe, S. Brèves réflexions sur la conception traditionnele du péché en Afrique Centrale. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1974), 155–165.

      Mbusa, K., and Hurwa, T. S. Le dynamique desin rêves dans les croyances Nande. Mémoire de licence, Faculté de théol. protestante de Kinshasa, 1979.

      Mbiti, J. S. Sensibilité musicale et spiritualité africaine: Art religieux africain. Numéro spécial de Cahiersin des Religions Africaines 16, nos. 31–32 (1982), 169–180.

      Mbiti, J. S. Le chant rituel, in L'Afrique et ses formes de vie spirituelle. Actes du 2e colloque intern., Kinshasa 1983. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 17 nos. 33–34 (1983), 239–250.

      Mbuyi, A. La mentalité bantoue. Dialogue et Culture, 4, no. 11 (1966), 9–11.

      McCarthy Brown, K. Marna Loia: A Vodou Priestessin in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

      McClelland, E. M. (1982). The Cult of If a Amongin the Yoruba. London: Ethnographica, 1982.

      McVeigh, M. God in Africa: Conceptions of Godin in African Traditional Religion and Christianity. Cape Cod, MA: Claude Stark, 1974.

      Meinhof, C. Die Dichtung der Afrikaner. Berlin: Buchhandlung der Berliner evangelischen Missionsgesellschaft, 1911.

      McVeigh, M. Afrikanische Religionen. Berlin: Buchhandlung der Berliner evangelischen

      Missionsgesellschaft, 1912.

      McVeigh, M. Religionen der Schriflosen Völker Africas, in Berlin. Buchhandlung der Berliner evangelischen Missionsgesellschaft, 1913.

      McVeigh, M. Die Religionen der Afrikaner in ihremin Zusammenhang mit ihrem Wirtschaftsleben. Oslo: Aschehung, 1926.

      Mendelsohn, J. God, Allah and Juju: Religion inin Africa Today. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1962.

      Mendonsa, E. L. The Journey of the Soul in Sisak Cosmology. Journal of Religion in Africa 7 (1975), 67–70.

      Mendonsa, E. L. The Soul and Sacrifice Among the Sisala.Journal of Religion in Africa 8 (1976), 52–68.

      Mendonsa, E. L. Etiology and Divination Among the Sisala of Northern Ghana. Journal of Religion inin Africa 9 (1978), 35–50.

      Menkiti, I. A. Person and Community in African Traditional Thought. In Wright, R. A. (Ed.), African Philosophy: An Introduction. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1979, 57–68. 3d ed., 1984, 171–181.

      Mercier, A. The Metaphysical, the Mystical and the Religious Approaches to Life. In Oruka, O., and Masolo, D. (Eds.), Philosophy and Cultures:in Proceedings of 2nd Afro-Asian Philosophyin Conference. (Nairobi, October/November 1981). Nairobi: Bookwise Limited, 1983, 75–85.

      Mercier, P. The Fon of Fahomey. In Förde, C. (Ed.), African Worlds: Ideas and Social Values of African Peoples. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

      Merriam, A. P. Death and Religious Philosophy of the Basongye. Antioch Review (Ohio) (1961), 293–309.

      Merriam, A. P. An African World: The Basongye Village of Lupuapa Ngye. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974.

      Mertens, J. La juridiction indigène chez les Bakongo orientaux. Kongo-Overzee 10–11 (1944–1945), 49–88.

      Mesquitela, L. A. Les hommes (conte Ngangela). Cahiers d'Ètudes Africaines 8 (1968), 257–269.

      Metuge, W. M. The African Concept of Man. Pan-in Africanist (Evanston) 4 (1972), 36–42.

      Metuh, E. I. Igbo World-View: A Premise for Christian/Traditional Religion Dialogue. Westin African Religion 13–14 (1972), 51–58.

      Metuh, E. I. The Religious Dimension of African Cosmogonies: A Case Study of Igbo of Nigeria. West African Religion 17 (1978), 9–102.

      Metuh, E. I. God and Man in African Religion. London: Geofrey Chapman, 1981.

      Metuh, E. I. (Ed.). The Gods in Retreat: Continuity andin Change in African Religions. Enugu: F.D.P., 1985.

      Metuh, E. I. African Religions in Western Conceptualin Schemes. Bodija, Ibadan: Pastoral Institute, 1985.

      Metuh, E. I. The Theological Study of African Traditional Religion: Case Study of Igbo Theodicy. Africa Theological Journal 14 (1985), 55–65.

      Metuh, E. I. Comparative Studies of African Traditionalin Religions. Onitsha: IMICO Publishers, 1987.

      Metuh, E. I. Search for Methodology of African Religion. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 22 (1988), 117–129.

      Metuh, E. I. Theological Status of African Traditional Religion. Journal of Inculturation Theology 1 (1994), 109–125.

      Metuh, E. I. Ritual Dirt and Purification Rites Among the Igbo. Journal of Religion in Africa 15 (1995), 3–24.

      Métraux, A. 1958. Le Vaudou Haïtien. Paris: Gallimard.

      Meyer, F. Oedipus and Job in West Africanin Religion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1959.

      Meyer, P. Divination Among the Lobi of Burkina Faso. In Peek, P. M. (Ed.), African Divinationin Systems: Ways of Knowing. Bloomington, Indianapolis: University of Indiana Press, 1991, 91–100.

      Meyerowitz, E. The Sacred State of the Akan. London: Faber & Faber, 1951.

      Meyerowitz, E. The Akan of Ghana: Their Ancient Beliefs. London, New York: Faber & Faber, 1958.

      Meyerowitz, E. The Divine Kingship in Ghana and Ancient Egypt. London: Faber & Faber, 1960.

      Meyerowitz, E. At the Court of an African King. London: Faber & Faber, 1962.

      Middleton, J. Lugbara Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960.

      Meyerowitz, E. Ritual and Authority Among an East African People. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.

      Meyerowitz, E. Some Categories of Dual Classification Among the Lugbara of Uganda. History of Religions 7 (1968), 187–208.

      Meyerowitz, E. The Concept of the Person Among Lugbara of Uganda. In Dieterlen, G. (Ed.), La notion de personne en Afrique Noire. Paris: CNRS, 1973, 491–506.

      Meyerowitz, E. Myth and Cosmos: Readings in Mythology and Symbolism. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976; 1st ed., 1963; new ed., 1980.

      Meyerowitz, E. H. (Eds.). Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963.

      Migeod, F. W. H. The Basis of African Religion. JRAS 19, no. 73 (1919), 56–79.

      Mikanza Mobyem, M. K. Mort éternelle pour une profusion de vie: La force dramatique du masque, art religieux africain. Numéro spécial de Cahiers des Religions Africaines 16, nos. 31–32 (1982), 255–266.

      Miller Chernoff, J. African Rhythm and African Sensibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

      Minkus, H. K. The Philosophy of the Akwapim Akan of Southern Ghana. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1975.

      Misago, A. La croyance aux esprits au Rwanda et son impact sur la vie quotidienne aujourd'hui. Urunana 21 (1987), 36–70.

      Mitchell, R. C. African Primal Religions. Niles, IL: Argus Communications, 1977.

      Mokakamwa, B. Ndeko ou pacte du sang chez les Bangala de Bomongo: Essai d'analyse de la notion d'amour du prochain en un milieu africain. Mémoire de lie. en TSH, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1977.

      Mokakamwa, B. La solidarité entre les vivants et les morts chez les Bangala de Bomongo. Mémoire de DES, TSH, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1978, 84 p., dir. Ntedika Konde.

      Mokakamwa, B. Ndeko, le pacte du sang: Une expression de la solidarité chez les Bangala de Bomongo. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 13 (1979), 231–267.

      Mokakamwa, B. La tradi-thérapie, le fétichisme et la sorcellerie chez les peuples du Sud-Ngiri en RDC. Parapsychologie et Progrès des Sociétés: Actes du Vie Colloque International du CERA (Kinshasa, 19–25 nov. 2000). Cahiers des Religions Africaines 32, nos. 63–64 (2001), 163–196.

      Mokobe, N. Le fondement éthique des rites gémellaires chez les Ngombe Mowea de Gombalo. Mémoire de licence en Philosophie et religions Africaines, Faculté de Théologie Catholique, Kinshasa, 1979.

      Mokolo, D. Essai sur le fondement de la croyance aux “ndoki.” Pour Servir 1, no. 2 (1957), 8–10.

      Molet, L. Aspects de l'organisation du monde Ngbandi (Afrique Centrale). Journal de la Société des Africanistes 41 (1971), 35–64.

      Monama, M. Le langage rituel des jumeaux: Le cas des Banzari. Langage et philosophie: Actes de la 4e Semaine philos, de Kinshasa (1979), 295–304.

      Monod, T. Au pays de Kaydara: Autour d'un conte symbolique soudanais. Première Conférence Internationale des Africanistes de l'Ouest 1 (1950), 19–31.

      Morris, B. Anthropological Studies of Religion: An Introductory Text. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

      Morton-Williams, P. An Outline of the Cosmology and Cult-Organisation of the Yoruba. Africa (1964), 243–261.

      Motoshi, M. Le Muntu ne meurt que pour vivre: Réflexions sur les “morts-vivants” africains et le Danaoshi japonais. Telema 21 (1995), 37–43.

      Mpa-Osu, N. B. La parenté comme systèmeidéologique: Essai d'interprétation de l'ordrelignager chez les Basakata. Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1984.

      Mpase, N. M. La profondeur de l'esprit chez nos ancêtres vue à travers nos proverbs. Pour Servir no. 2 (1962), 29–46.

      Mpase, N. M. L'évolution de la solidarité traditionnelle en milieu rural et urbain du Zaïre: Le cas des Ntomba et des Basengele du Lac Mai-Ndombe. Kinshasa: PUZ, 1974.

      Mpay, K. La philosophie africaine pharaonique. Raison Ardente no. 41 (1994), 11–27.

      Mphahlele, M. C. The Traditional African Religion. Theologia Viatorum 21 (1994), 124–150.

      Mpolo, M. M. Le problème de la sorcellerie. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1973), 269–290.

      Mpongo, L. La célébration du mariage coutumier par les Ntomb'e du lac Léoplod IL Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 289–300.

      Mpunga, J. B. La valeur culturelle du nom de famille dans la conception bantoue. Dialogue et Culture 2, no. 11 (1964), 8–9.

      Mubuy, M. Communication par symboles: Langage du rituel ancestral. Telema 50 (1987), 63–65.

      Mufuta, K. L'art dans la célébration cosmique. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 26 (1986), 18–36.

      Mugambi, J., and Kirima, N. The African Religious Heritage. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1976.

      Mujynya, E.-N. Fe mystère de la mort dans le mond bantu. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 25–36.

      Mujynya, E.-N. Fe mal et le fondement dernier de la morale chez les Bantu interlacutress. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 55–78.

      Mulago, V. Fe culte de Fyangombe chez les Bashi et les Banyarwanda. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 299–314.

      Mulago, V. Symbolism in the Traditional African Religions and Sacramentalism. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 18 (1971), 164–198.

      Mulago, V. Eléments fondamentaux de la religion africaine. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1978), 43–63.

      Mulago, V. Simbolismo religioso Africano. Madrid: Bibliotheca autores cristianos, 1979.

      Mulago gwa, C. M. La religion traditionnelle des Bantu et leur vision du monge. Kinshasa: Faculté de Théologie Catholique, 1980.

      Muzungu, B. Le dieu de nos pères (3 vols.) (Rwanda, Burundi). Bujumbura: Presses Favigerie, 1974.

      Mulago, V. La tâche actuelle du théologien des religions africaines. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 11 (1977), 215–220.

      Mveng, E. Christianity and the Religious Culture of Africa. In Best, K. Y. (Ed.), African Challenge. Nairobi: Transafrica Publishers, 1975, 1–24.

      Mve Ondo, B. Sagesse et initiation a travers les contes, mythes et légendes fang. Fibreville: Centre Culturel Français Saint-Exupéry/Sépia, 1991.

      Mwamba, N. De quelques Mythes Fuba du Shaba. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1972), 201–213.

      Mwila, M. Un rite d'initiation yombe: Fe ki kuumbi. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1981), 41–75.

      Nabofa, M. Y. The Use of Dance in Urhobo Belief and Worship. Onta 22 (1990), 12–26.

      Mwila, M. Saliva Symbolism in African Belief. Orita 28 (1996), 11–35.

      Nadel, S. F. Nupe Religion. Fondon: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954.

      Nange Kudita wa, S. Un rite d'initiation chez les Tshokwe: Mukanda ou Tshamvula. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1974), 55–108.

      Nazombe, A. The Text and the Social Context: Witchcraft and Death in Nantongwe Songs. Religion in Malawi 3 (1991), 34–38.

      Ndayizeye, S. Une approche du concept d'Uwawe d'après les proverbes et d'autres éléments du langage. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 24 (1984), 72–95.

      Neckebrouck, V. Fa plygynie africaine, idéal ou concession? A proposdes argements littéraires. Revue Africaine de Theologie 19 (1986), 15–30.

      Negri, C. Alcuni Tratti della Religione presso gli Acioli. Annali Lateranensi (1937), 189–202.

      Ngindu, A. Propos et problèmes concernant le culte des morts chez les Baluba du Kasayi. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 79–110.

      Ngongo, F. Signification et portée des rites libérateurs chez les Beti du Sud-Cameroun. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 261–288.

      Ngubane, H. Some Notions of “Purity” and “Impurtiy” Among the Zulu. Africa 46 (1976), 274–284.

      Nicod, H. La vie mystérieuse de l'Afrique Noire. Paris: Payot, 1943.

      Njenga, J. Autour du mariage traditionnel. Telema 9(1983), 25–32.

      Nketia, J. H. Funeral Dirges of the Akan People. Achimota: University College, 1955.

      Nketia, J. H. Drumming in Akan Communities of Ghana. Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson, 1963.

      Noiret, F. Sacrifices traditionnels et Eucharistie à Madagascar. Telema 39 (1984), 39–61.

      Noon, A. J. A Preliminary Examination of Death Concept of the Ibo. American Anthropologist 44 (1944), 640.

      Nothomb, D. On humanism africain: Valeurs et pierres d'attente. Bruxelles: Ed. Fumen Vitae, 1965.

      Nothomb, D. Signification religieuse des récits et des rites de Fyangombe au Rwanda. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1976), 19–30.

      Nsimbi, B. Traditional Religion in Buganda. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28–29 (1975), 159–163.

      Ntabona, A. De la médiation du cultre traditionnell de Kubandwa au salut offert en Èglise aujourd'hui dans l'Afrique des Grands Facs. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 94 (1997), 65–92.

      Ntibarufata, A. Fe personnage de Sebitwi ou l'irresponsabilité personnifiée. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 26 (1986), 172–195.

      Nürnberger, K. The Sotho Notion of the Supreme Being and the Impact of the Christian Proclamation. Journal of Religion in Africa 7 (1975), 174–299.

      Nyamiti, C. The African Sense of God's Motherhood in the Light of Christian Faith. AFER 23 (1981), 269–274.

      Nürnberger, K. African Ancestral Veneration and Its Relevance to the African Churches. African Christian Studies 9 (1993), 14–37.

      Nzeki, N. M. Christian Dialogue With African Traditional Religions in Kenya. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 39 (1978), 205–212.

      Obama, J.-B. La musique africaine traditionnelle: Ses fonctions sociales et sa signification philosophique. Abbia nos. 12–13 (1966), 273–309.

      Obenga, T. L'Afrique dans l'antiquité. Présence Africaine no. 73 (1969), 73–84.

      Obitek, O. The Religion of the Central Tuo. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1971.

      Ocholla-Ayayo, A. B. C. Traditional Ideology and Ethics Among the Southern Tuo. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1976.

      O'Connell, J. The Withdrawal of the High God in West African Religion: An Essay of Interpretation. Man 42 (1962), 67–69.

      Oduyoye, M. A. The Vocabulary of Yoruba Religious Discourse. Ibadan: Daystar. 1971.

      Oduyoye, M. A. The Value of African Religious Beliefs and Practices for Christians Today. In Appiah-Kubi, K., and Torres, S. (Eds.), African Theology en Route. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1979, 109–116.

      Oduyoye, M. A. In the Image of God: A Theological Reflection From an African Perspective. Bulletin of African Theology 7 (1982), 41–54.

      Ofori, P. E. Black Africa, Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliograpic Survey of the Sources From the Earliest Times to 1974. Nendeln: Krauss-Thomson, 1975.

      Ogungbemi, S. A Philosophical Reaction on the Religiosity of the Traditional Yoruba. Orita 18 (1986), 61–67.

      Ogunheye, O. Yoruba Ancient Religion and Mythology. Africana 1, no. 3 (1949), 14–15, 30.

      Ohm, T Die Tiebe zu Gott in den nichtchristliche Religionen. Munich: Freib, 1950.

      Okediji, M. (Ed.). Principles of “Traditonal” African Culture. Ilé-Ifè: Bard Books, 1992.

      Okeke, D. C. African Concept of Time. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1973), 297–302.

      Okeke, G. E. Ancestor Worship Among the Igbo. Communio Sanctorum 27 (1984), 137–152.

      Okolo, C. The Ontological Status of African Folk Philosophy. Quest 9, no. 1 (1995), 106–115.

      Okonkwo, J. I. The Igbo Traditional Market Square, in Information Storage and Dissemination: A Culture Philosophy. Prima Philosophia 11, no. 3 (1998), 271–278.

      Okonkwo, J. I. Oramedia-Traditions and the Igbo Question in Nigeria: A Philosophy of Identity. Prima Philosophia 11, no. 1 (1998), 33–43.

      Okoye, G. M. P. Our Strange Gods: A Survey of Some Forms of False Worship in Twentieth Century Nigeria. Mgbowo, Nigeria: Ude's Pub. Co., Omtsha, 1986.

      Okpewho, I. Principles of Traditional African Art. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 35 (1976–1977), 301–313.

      Oladipo, O. Morality in Yoruba Thought. Quest 1, no. 2 (1987), 42–51.

      Oladipo, O. Predestination in Yoruba Thought: A Philosopher's Interpretation. Orita 24 (1992), 36–49.

      Olaleye, A. M. A Philosophy of the Yoruba Religion. Unpublished master's thesis, Howard University, Washington, 1956.

      Olaoba, O. B. Traditional Religious Practices in Yoruba Palaces. Orita 27 (1995), 1–12.

      Olawale, E. T The Nature of African Customary Law. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1956.

      Olawale, E. T. La nature du droit coutumier africain. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1960.

      Olbrechts, F. M. Ethnologie: Inleiding tot de Studie der primitieve beschaving. Antwerpen: Standaard boekhandel, 1936.

      Oleko, N. Quelques réflexions sur les procès magiques. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1973), 271–285.

      Olumide, L. The Religion of the Yorubas. Lagos: CMS Bookshop, 1948.

      Olupona, J. K. (Ed.). African Traditional Religion in Contemporary Society. New York: Paragon, 1990.

      Olupona, J. K. (Ed.). Rituals in African Traditional Religion: A Phenomenological Perspective. Orita 22 (1990), 2–11.

      Olupona, J. K. (Ed.). Kingship, Religion and Rituals in a Nigerian Community. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1991.

      Olupona, J. K., and Rey, T. Orisa Devotion as World Religion: The Globalization of Yoruba Religious Culture. Madison, WI: University Press of Wisconsin, 2008.

      Oluwole, B. S. On the Existence of Witches. Second Order 8, nos. 1–2 (1978), 20–35.

      Oluwole, B. S. The Rational Basis of Yoruba Ethical Thinking. Nigererian Journal of Philosophy 4–5 (1984–1985), 14–25.

      Omolafe, J. A. The Socio-cultural Implications of Iwa in Yoruba Traditional Thought. Orita 22 (1990), 60–86.

      Omosade, A. J. Scape-Goatism in Yoruba Religion. Orita 19 (1987), 3–9.

      Omoyajowo, J. A. Concept of Man in Africa. Orita 9 (1975), 34–47.

      Onibere, S. G. A. Glimpses of Theologia Africana: Statement of the Sixth Conference (Geneva, January 5–13, 1983). Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1984), 81–87.

      Onibere, S. G. A. The Supernatural Triad in Bini Morality: A Case of Unchastity. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1984), 99–121.

      Onibere, S. G. A. The Contribution of African Religion and Culture to Marital Harmony: The Nigerian Example. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1988), 83–99.

      Onwuanibe, R. C. The Philosophy of African Medical Practice. Issue 9, no. 3 (1979), 25–28.

      Onwurah, E. Remaking of African Traditional Religions Under the Influence of Modernity. Journal of Dharma 12 (1987), 180–191.

      Onyeneke, A. Igbo Inculturation Initiatives: the Omu Liturgical Use. Afer 30 (1988), 3–11.

      Onyewuenyi, I. C. African Origin of Greek Philosophy: An Exercise in Afrocentrism. Nsukka, Nigeria: University of Nigeria Press, 1993.

      Onyewuenyi, I. C. African Belief in Reincarnation: A Philosophical Reappraisal. Enugu, Nigeria: Snaap Press, 1996.

      Opoku, K. A. West African Traditional Religion. Legon, Ghana: FEP International Private Limited, 1977.

      Opoku, K. A. Communalism and Community in the African Heritage. International Review of Mission 316 (1990), 487–492.

      Opoku, K. A. African Mysticism. Trinity Journal of Church and Theology 2 (1992), 32–54.

      Opoku, M. Le Bragoro: L'initiation féminine chez les Akan du Sud-Ghana. Telema 17 (1991), 49–50.

      Ortigues, E. C. Oedipe africain. Paris: Pion, 1966.

      Osei, G. K. The African Philosophy of Life. London: The African Publication Society, 1971.

      Osovo Onibere, S. G. A. Christian Reactions to indigenous Religion in Nigeria: The Ancestor Factor as a Case in Point. Bulletin of African Theology 5 (1981), 53–59.

      Osunwole, S. Witchcraft and Sorcery: Yoruba Beliefs and Medicine. Orita 22 (1991), 73–82.

      Ottenberg, S. (Ed.). Double Descent in an African Society: The Afikpo Village-Group. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970.

      Ottenberg, S. (Ed.). Leaderschip and Authority in an African Society: The Afikpo Village-Group. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1971.

      Ottenberg, S. (Ed.). Masked Rituals of Ajikpo: The Context of an African Art. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975.

      Ottenberg, S. (Ed.). African Religious Groups and Beliefs: Papers in Honor of William R. Bascom. Folklore Institute. Meerut, India: Folklore institute, 1982.

      Oueraogo, J.-B. La conception du sacré dans la pensée traditionnelle négro-africaine: L'exemple des Mosse de Haute-Volta. Mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Dakar, 1979.

      Palau-Marti, M. Les Dogon. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1957.

      Palau-Marti, M. Le roi-dieu au Bénin. Paris: Berger Levrault, 1964.

      Pâques, V. Mythes et structure dans les sociétés sahariennes sédentaires. 6e Congrès international des sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques 2e, no. 2 (1964), 441–445.

      Pâques, V. Unité de la pensée africaine. Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie 3 (1966), 501–518.

      Pare, I. L'araignée divinatoire. Etudes Camerounaises (Yaounde) 53–54 (1956), 61–83.

      Parratt, J. Time in Traditional African Thought. Religion 7 (1977), 117–126.

      Parrinder, G. Theistic Beliefs of the Yoruba and Ewe Peoples of West Africa. In Smith, E. W (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House, 1950, 224–240.

      Parrinder, G. La religion en Afrique occidentale (Bibliothèque scientifique). Paris: Payot, 1950, 2e éd., 1961.

      Parrinder, G. West African Psychology. London: Lutterworth Press, 1951.

      Parrinder, G. Religion in an African City. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

      Parrinder, G. African Traditional Religion. London: Hutchinson's University Library, 1954, 2nd ed., 1962, 3rd ed. revised and updated, with new preface by the author, London: Sheldon Press, 1974.

      Parrinder, G. Witchcraft. London: Penguin, 1958.

      Parrinder, G. West African Religion: A Study of the Beliefs and Practices of Akan, Ewe, Yoruba, Ibo and Kindred Peoples. London: The Epworth Press, 2nd ed., 1961.

      Parrinder, G. Witchcraft: European and African. London: Faber & Faber, 1963.

      Parrinder, G. African Traditional Religion. London: Sheldon Press, 1964.

      Parrinder, G. African Mythology. London: Hamlyn, 1967.

      Parrinder, G. Mythologies africaines. Paris: Odege, 1967.

      Parrinder, G. West African Religion. London: Hamlyn, 1967.

      Parrinder, G. Africa's Three Religions. London: Sheldon Press, 1969.

      Parrinder, G. Monotheism and Pantheism in Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa no. 3 (1970), 81–88.

      Parrinder, G. Religion in Africa. London: Pall Mall Press, 1970.

      Parrinder, G. Mysticism in African Religion. In Pobee, J. S. (Ed.), Religion in a Pluralistic Society: Essays Presented to Prof. C. G. Baëta. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976, 48–59.

      Parsons, R. T The Idea of God Among the Kono of Sierra Leone. In Smith, E. W. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House, 1950, 260–276.

      Paulme, D. La divination par les chacales chez les Dogon de Sanga. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 7 (1937), 1–13.

      Paulme, D. Parentés à plaisanteries et alliance par le sang en Afrique occidentale. Africa 12 (1939), 4.

      Paulme, D. Structures sociales traditionnelles en Afrique Noire. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 1 (1960), 15–27.

      Paulme, D. (Ed.). Femmes d'Afrique Noire. La Haye: Mouton, 1960.

      Paulme, D. Pacte de sang, classes d'âge et castes en Afrique noire. Archives Européennes de Sociologie 9 (1968), 12–33.

      Paulme, D. Le conte des “Alliés animaux” dans l'ouest africain. Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 12 (1972), 76–108.

      Pauw, B. A. Religion in a Tswana Chief dont. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960.

      Pauwels, M. Imana. Kongo-Overzee 18 (1952), 318–337.

      Pauwels, M. Immana et le culte des mânes au Rwanda. Bruxelles: Académie royale des sciences coloniales, 1958.

      Pawlik, J. J. Expérience sociale de la mort: Etude des rites funéraires des Bassar du Nord-Togo. Préface de Louis-Vincent Thomas (Studia instituti Anthropos, 43). Fribourg, Suisse: Editions universitaires, 1990.

      Pazzi, R. Culte de mort chez le peuple Mina (Sud Togo). Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1968), 249–260.

      P'bitek, O. The Concept of Jok Among the Acholi and Lango. The Uganda Journal no. 27 (1963), 15–29.

      P'bitek, O. African Religions in Western Scholarship. Kampala, Nairobi: Dar-es-Salaam, East African Literature Bureau, 1970.

      P'bitek, O. Religion in Central Luo. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1971.

      Peek, P. M. (Ed.). African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1991.

      Peeraer, S. Dieu selon la conception des Baluba. Grands Lacs 56, no. 8 (1939–1940), 13–24.

      Pemberton, J. A Cluster of Sacred Symbols: Orisha Worship Among the Igbomina Yoruba of Ila Orangun. History of Religions 17 (1977), 1–28.

      Perlman, M. L. The Changing Status and Role of Women in Toro (Uganda). Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 6 (1966), 564–591.

      Perner, C. Living on Earth in the Sky. Journal of Religion in Africa 22 (1992), 23–46.

      Person, Y Pour une histoire des religions africaines. Archives des Sciences Sociales des Religions no. 36 (1973), 91–101.

      Peterson, A. Spirit Possession Among the Massai in Tanzania. African Theological Journal 14 (1985), 174–178.

      Pettazzoni, R. T. The All-Knowing God. New York: Arno Press, 1978.

      Pettersson, O. Chiefs and Gods (Studia theologica Lundensia 3). Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup Inaug.-Diss., 1953.

      Pettazzoni, R. T. The Germ of Life: Outlines to a Study of African Cosmology. Ethnos (1956), 95–104.

      Pfister, G. F. Marriage Among the Central Basukuma. Anthropological Quarterly 35 (1962), 134–142.

      Philip, H. R. A. God and the African in Kenya. London: Parseli, Mogan and Scott, 1935.

      Philippart, L. L'organisation sociale dans le Bas-Congo. Congo 1, no. 1 (1920), 46–66, 231–252, 505–518; no. 2, 39–57.

      Philippart, L. Le Bas-Congo, état religieux et social. Louvain: Bibliotheca Alfonsiana, 1947.

      Pieraerts, C. Synthèse des Baluba. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Géographie 56 (1936), 36–51.

      Platvoet, J. G. Comparing Religions (Akan, Raracreole, Sanando). The Hague, New York: Mouton Publishers, 1982.

      Pongo, K. Etude comparée des contes du décepteur dans les littératures luba et mbala. Mémoire de licence en langues et littér. Africaines, Lubumbashi: Université de Lubumbashi, 1984.

      Preuss, K. T. Oie Geistige Kultur der Naturvölkern. Leipzig, Berlin: B. G. Teubner, 1914.

      Pro Mundi, V. Who's Who in African Witchcraft. Pro Mundi Vita: Africa Dossier 12 (1980), 1–41.

      Quarcoopome, T. N. O. West African Traditional Religion. Ibadan: African Universities Press, 1987.

      Rabemahafaly, V. L'incultration de l'Evangile dans le contexte africaine d'après les allocutions pastorales du Pape Jean-Paul IL Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 49–50 (1982), 153–165.

      Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., and Forde, K. (Eds.). African Systems of Kingship and Marriage. London: Oxford University Press, 1950.

      Radin, P. La Religion Primitive. Paris: Gallimard, 1941.

      Rampazzo, L. La Famiglia in Burundi. Bologna: Editrice Missionari Italiana, 1979.

      Ranger, T. O., and Kimambo, I. (Eds.). The Historical Study of African Religion. London: Heinemann, 1972.

      Raponda-Walker, A., and Sillans, R. Rites et croyances des peuples du Gabon. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1962.

      Rattray, R. S. The Ashanti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1923.

      Rattray, R. S. Religion and Art in Ashanti. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

      Ray, B. C. African Religions: Symbol, Rituals and Community. Englewood Cliffs, NT: Prentice-Hall, 1976.

      Razafintsalama, A. Les ancêtres au coeur de la vie et de la sagesse: Jalons pour une théologie en terre Malgache. Telema 53 (1988), 11–29.

      Reynolds, B. Magic, Divination and Witchcraft Among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. London: Chatto & Windus, 1963.

      Riehl, V., and Christiane, A. “Die Erde kommt, die Erde geht”: Zum religiösen Naturverständnis der Tallensi in Nord-Ghana. Sociologus 44 (1994), 136–148.

      Rigaux, M. 1953. La Tradition Voudoo et Voudoo Haitien (Son Temple, Ses Mystères, Sa Magie). Paris: Editions Niclaus.

      Rigby, P. Dual Symbolic Classification Among the Godo of Central Tanzania. Africa 36 (1966), 1–17.

      Riviere, C. Dieu, l'Insurpassable chez les Ewe du Togo. Anthropos (1979), 25–39.

      Roheim, G. L'animisme, la magie et le roi divin. Pans: Payot, 1988.

      Roscoe, J. The Baganda, Their Customs and Beliefs. London: Macmillan & Co., 1912.

      Roscoe, J. The Soul of Central Africa: A General Account of the Mackie Ethnological Expedition. London: Cassell, 1922.

      Rosny, E. Les yeux de ma chèvre: Sur les pas des maîtres de la nuit en pays douala (Cameroun). Pans: Pion, 1981.

      Rossano, P. Evangile et culture africaine. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 311–318.

      Rouch, J. La religion et la magie Songhai. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960.

      Routledge, W S. With a Prehistoric People, the Akikuyu. London: F. Cass & Co., 1910.

      Roy, H. van. (Ed.). Dieu, idoles, sorcellerie (Yaka). Bandudu, Zaire: Editions Ceeba, 1968.

      Ruel, M. J. Religion and Society Among the Kuria of East-Africa. Africa (1965), 295–306.

      Russell, J. K. Men Without Godi London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966.

      Ruud, J. Taboo: A Study of Malagasy Customs and Beliefs. Oslo, London: Oslo University Press and Allen & Unwin, 1960.

      Rweyemamu, R. Evangelization and African Religions. Omnis Terra 142 (1983), 465–485.

      Ryan, P. J. “Arise O God!” The Problem of “Gods” in West Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa 11 (1980), 161–171.

      Ryckmans, A., and Mwelanzambi, B. C. Droit coutumier africain: Proverbes judiciaires Kongo (Zaïre). Préface de L.-V. Thomas. Liminaire de J. Vanderlinden (Zaïre, Histoire et société). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1993.

      Sa Angang, D. A. Les valeurs contenues dans les Religions Traditionnelles Africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 94 (1997), 11–29.

      Salomone, F. A., and Mbabuike, M. The Ancient Wind: Inculturation and Resistance, an Igbo Example. Missionalia 23 (1995), 261–282.

      Sanon, A. T. Religions Traditionnelles et Christianism en Haute-Volta. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Intetreligious Dialogue 28–29 (1975), 87–100.

      Sanon, A. T. Religion et spiritualité Africaine: La quête spirituelle de l'humanité Africaine. Au Coeur de l'Afrique 23 (1983), 62–81.

      Sarpong, P. The Influence of Traditional Religions on African Christianity. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 25 (1974), 27–42.

      Sarpong, P. Ghana in Retrospect: Some Aspects of Ghanaian Culture. Accra-Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1974.

      Sarpong, P. Christianity and Traditional African Religion. In Best, K. Y. (Ed.), African Challenge. Nairobi: Transafrica Publishers, 1975, 25–31.

      Sarpong, P. Media of Revelation in African Traditional Religion. The Ghana Bulletin of Theology 4 (1975), 40–47.

      Sarpong, P. African Traditional Religions and Their Values. Omnis Terra 79 (1976), 36–40.

      Sarpong, P. Christianity and Traditional African Cultures. Worldmission 30 (1979), 16–23.

      Sarpong, P. Growth or Decay: Can Christianity Dialogue With African Traditional Religion? Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 69 (1988), 189–206.

      Sarpong, P. Girls' Nubility Rites. Accra-Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1991.

      Sarpong, P. The Sacred Stools of the Akan. Accra-Tema: Ghana Publishing Corporation, 1991.

      Sarpong, P. The Individual, Community, Health and Medicine in African Traditional Religion: the Asante Model. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 84 (1993), 271–280.

      Sastre, R. Le sacré dans la musique négro-africaine. Rythmes du Monde 6 (1958), 5–9.

      Sastre, R. Le voudoÛ dans la vie culturelle, sociale et politique du Sud-Dahomey. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 177–188.

      Savary, C. La pensée symbolique des Fon de Dahomey. Thèse, Univ. De Neuchatel, FL. Genève, Ed Médecine et hygiène, 1976.

      Sawyerr, H. Do African Believe in God? Sierra Leone Studies 15 (1961), 23–30.

      Sawyerr, H. Ancestor or Creator God? Présence Africaine no. 74 (1970), 111–127.

      Sawyerr, H. K. The Significance of the Numbers Three and Four Among the Mande of Sierra-Leone. Sierra-Leone Studies (Freetown) 26 (1969), 29–36.

      Scarin, A. Les structures de la spiritualité des traditions religieuses Africaines. Revue Africaine de Theologie 7 (1983), 205–214.

      Schapera, J. The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa. London: Routledge & Sons, 1960.

      Schapera, J. Married Life in an African Tribe. New York: The Sheridan House, 1941.

      Schebesta, P. La civilisation Aramba en Afrique: La divinité lunaire panafricaine et la religion des Bambuti. Zaïre 3 (1949), 483–502.

      Schebesta, P. Le sens religieux des primitifs. Paris: Marne, 1963.

      Schilde, W Orakel und Gottesurteile in Afrika. Leipzig: R. Voigtlarinder, 1940.

      Schmidt, A. Das Kornfest “Nsiä” [Grasland v. Kamerun]. Archiv für Anthropologie, Völkerforschung und kolonial Kulturwandel, 28 (1943), 89–125.

      Schmidt, G. A la recherche d'une définition de la magie: Religion et magie. Anthropos 8 (1913), 883–885.

      Schmidt, W. Zur erforschung der Alte Bushmann-Religion. Africa (1929), 291–301.

      Schmidt, W. Die Religionen der Urvölker Afrikas. Münster: Aschendorff, 1933.

      Schoffeleers, J. M. The Religious Significance of Bush Fires in Malawi. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1971), 271–282.

      Schöneberger, P. Names for “God” Known and Used by the Nyamwezi. Anthropos (1961), 947ff.

      Schöneberger, P. Kisuk-Tiere der Bulsa-Zur Frage des “Totemismus” in Nord-Ghana. Kölner Ethnologische Mitteilungen 5 (1973), 439–459.

      Schöneberger, P. Serment et voeux chez des ethnies voltaïques (Lyela, Bulsa, Tallensi) en Afrique Occidentale. Droit et Cultures 14 (1987), 29–56.

      Schumacher, P. Imana-Glaube in Ewanda. Anthropos 22 (1927), 617–618.

      Schumacher, P. L'éthique chez les pygmies. Congo 9, no. 2 (1928), 286–301.

      Schumacher, P. Gottesglaube und Weltanschauung der Zentral-Afrikanischen Kivu-Pygmäen Bagesera Bazigaba. Festschrift P. W. Schmidt (1928), 677–692.

      Schumacher, P. La morale chez les pygmées du Ruanda. Revue d'Histoire des Missions 2 (1928), 199–209. Studia catholica 4 (1928), 289.

      Schumacher, P. Sommaire historique des origines du sentiment religieux au Ruanda. Grands Lacs 51 (1935), 554–560.

      Schumacher, P. Au Ruanda: Considérations sur la nature de l'homme. Zaïre 3 (1949), 257–278.

      Schumacher, P. Die physische und sozial Umwelt der Kivu-Pygmäen (2 vols.). Bruxelles: Institut Royal colonial belge, 1949–1950.

      Schumacher, P. Quelques cas particuliers de la loi morale chez l'indigène du Ruanda. Trait d'Union no. 6 (1951), 21–24.

      Schutte, A. G. Mwali in Venda: Some Observations on the Significance of the High God in Venda History. Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 109–122.

      Schwartz, A. Calendrier traditionnel et conception du temps dans la société Guère. Cahiers Orstom, Série Sciences Humaines 5 no. 3 (1968), 53–64.

      Schweeger-Hefel, A. Ahnen, die sich verbergen. Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 1 (1988), 219–243.

      Schweizer, B. La notion de Dieu chez les Yansi, in Dieu, idoles et sorcellerie. Bandundu: Editions Ceeba, 1968, 72–74.

      Sebasoni, G. Condition humaine et tradition rwandaise. Civilisations 16 (1966), 97–108.

      Sekoto, G. La responsabilité et la solidarité dans la culture africaine. Présence Africaine nos. 27–28 (1957), 263–267.

      Seligman, C. G. Egypt and Negro Africa. London: Routledge, 1934.

      Seligman, C. G. Z. Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1932.

      Semakuba, J. B. Sagesse malgache, sagesse rwandaise et théologie chrétienne. Servir 24 (1963), 145–153.

      Semakuba, J. B. Ubupfwa ou la noblesse du coeur en culture rwandaise. Servir 24 (1963), 179–200.

      Sempebwa, J. Die Suche nach Frieden in afrikanischen Religionen. Zeitschrift für Mission 10 (1984), 21–25.

      Senghor, L. S. The Study of African Man. Mawazo (1968), 3–7.

      Setiloane, G. M. The Image of God Among the Sotho-Tswana. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1976.

      Shala, L. La notion d'autorité chez les Tetela à travers quelques proverbs. Annales Aequatoria 6 (1985), 147–163.

      Sharevskaya, B. Agency, Meaning and Structure in African Religion. Journal of Religion in Africa 18 (1988), 255–266.

      Sharevskaya, B. Splitting Truths From Darkness: Epistemological Aspects of Temne Divination. In Peek, P. M. (Ed.), African Divination Systems: Ways of Knowing. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991, 137–152.

      Shelton, A. J. On the Recent Interpretation of Deus Otiosus, the Withdrawal of High God in West African Religion. Man 64 (1964), 53f.

      Shelton, A. J. The Presence of the Withdrawn High God in North Ibo Religious Belief and Worship. Man 65 (1965), 15f.

      Shelton, A. J. Problems and Possibilities for the Church's Dialogue With African Traditional Religion. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28–29 (1975), 111–121.

      Shelton, A. J. Creative Imagination and the Language of Religious Traditions in Africa. Kerygma 35 (1980), 175–203.

      Shelton, A. J. The Study of African Traditional Religion. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 70 (1989), 77–82.

      Shropshire, G. The Bantu Conception of the Supra-mundane World. Journal of the African Society 30 (1931), 58–68.

      Sidibé, M. J.-M. Une approche de la conception africaine de l'homme. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 49–50 (1982), 121–140.

      Simiyu, V G. Traditional Methods of Education in East Africa. Présence Africaine no. 87 (1973), 178–196.

      Singleton, M. Ancestors, Adolescents and the Absolute: An Exercise in Contextualisation. Pro Mundi Vita Bulletin 68 (1977), 1–35.

      Siswa, S. Spiritualité comme facteur de développement et de paix en Afrique, in Tradition, spiritualité et développement. Actes de la 13e Semaine philos, de Kinshasa, 1992 (Recherches Philosophiques Africaines 22). Kinshasa: Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1993, 311–322.

      Smith, E. W. (Ed.). African Symbolism. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 83 (1953), 9–36.

      Smith, E. W. (Ed.). African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House, 1973.

      Sodipo, J. O. Notes on the Concept of Cause and Chance in Yoruba Traditional Thought. Second Order 2, no. 2 (1973), 40–69.

      Sogolo, G. S. Intellectualism and Religious Discourse: A Neo-Tylorian Perspective to the Understanding of Traditional Religion. Orita 14 (1982), 79–89.

      Some, B. B. La Religion Traditionelle Mossi comme source de valeurs de civilisation politique. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1970), 205–227.

      Sow, A. L, et al. Introduction à la Culture Africaine. Paris: Union générale d'éditions, 1977.

      Spellig, F. Über Geheimbünde bei den Wanyamwezi. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 59 (1927), 62–66.

      Spieth, J. Die Religion der Eweer in Süd-Togo. Göttingen und Leipzig: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht-J. C. Hinrich, 1911.

      Stam, N. The Religious Conceptions of the Kavirondo. Anthropos (1919–1920), 275–293, 968–980.

      Stam, N. Dieu chez les BaaMilembwe. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968), 171–172.

      Stam, N. Prières Luba-Kasaï datant de 1912. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1969), 111–115.

      Stam, N. Les religions africaines: Que sais-je, 632. Pans: PUF, 1995.

      Storms, A. A propos de la psychologie bantoue. Bulletin des Missions 20 (1946), 114–117.

      Storms, A. La philosophie bantoue. Bulletin des Missions 20 (1946), 165–177.

      Storms, A. La notion de Dieu chez les Baluba du Kasaï. Bulletin des Missions 26 (1952), 94–101.

      Stow, G. W. Native Races of Africa. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1905.

      Sulzmann, E. Die Bewegung der Antonier im alten Reiche Kongo. In Mühlmann, W. E. (Ed.), Chiliasmus und Nativismus: Studen zur Psychologie, Soziologie und historischen Kasuistik der Unsturzbewegungen. Berlin: Reimer, 1961, 81–86.

      Sumner, C. The Ethiopian Understanding of Human Beings. In Proceedings of the First National Conference of Ethiopian Studies (Addis Ababa, April 11–12, 1980). Addis Ababa: Addis Aababa University, 1990, 335–343.

      Sumner, C. Anthology of Oromo Proverbs (Part I). Eshet, A Bilingual Magazine 6, no. 1 (1992), 39–42.

      Sundermeier, T. Nur gemeinsam können wir leben: Das Menschenbild schwarzafrikanischer Religionen. Gütersloh: Gerd Mohn Theissen, 1988.

      Sundkler, B. Bantu Prophets in South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.

      Surgy, A. de. Le sacrifice à la lumière des conceptions mwaba-gurma et évhé (nord et sud du Togo). Anthropos 84 (1989), 63–80.

      Sylla, A. La philosophie morale des Wolof Dakar: Editions Sankore, 1979.

      Sylla, A. Le sacré dans les philosophies africaines: Revue Sénégalaise de Philosophie no. 2 (1982), 28–38.

      Sylla, A. Droit et morale dans la société wolof. Revue Sénégalaise de Philosophie nos. 7–8 (1985), 105–110.

      Tablino, P. Time and Religion: Some Considerations on the Traditional Beliefs of the Gabra People of Kenya. Bulletin Secretarius pro non-Christianis 23 (1988), 215–221.

      Talbot, P. A. Tribes of the Niger Delta. London: Frank Cass, 1922.

      Talbot, P. A. Some Nigerian Fertility Cults. Oxford: Oxford Univertsity Press, 1927.

      Tamuno, T. N. Traditional Methods of Crime Detection and Control in Nigeria. Orita 26 (1994), 25–41.

      Tanghe, B. Le Culte de Dieu chez les Ngbandi. Congo II (1925), 435–438.

      Tardits, C. Religion, Epic, History: Notes on the Underlying Functions of Cults in Benin Civilizations. Diogenes 37 (1962), 113–129.

      Tasie, G. African Religions and Philosophy. Journal of Modern African Studies 12, no. 2 (1974), 326.

      Tasie, G. Concepts of God in Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 12, no. 2 (1974), 326.

      Tasie, G. Africans and the Religious Dimensions: An Appraisal. Africana Marburgensia 9 (1976), 34–70.

      Tastevin, C. Les conceptions mystiques de Nyanekas, peuple bantou de l'Afrique méridionale. In XVe Congrès international anthropologique et archéologique préhistorique. Paris: Nouvry, 1933, 753–754.

      Tastevin, C. La religion païenne en Basse-Casamance. Ètudes Théologiques (1933), 264–281.

      Tastevin, C. La religion des Nones. Ètudes Théologiques (1934), 81–100, 177–181.

      Tastevin, C. Idées religieuses dan l'Enclave de Cabinda. Ètudes Théologiques (1935), 101–111, 191–197, 257–273.

      Tastevin, C. La religion des Wakwanyama (Angola). Revue d'Histoire des Missions (1938), 264–284.

      Tastevin, C. La notion de l'énergie primordiale, Mana, chez les Noirs. Journal de la Société des Africanistes 10 (1940), 196–197.

      Tate, H. R. Notes on the Kikuyu and Kamba Tribes. Journal of the African Institute (London) (1904), 263.

      Tauxier, L. La religion Bambara. Paris: Libraire Orientaliste P. Geuthner, 1927.

      Tauxier, L. Religion, moeurs et coutumes des Agnis de la Côte d'Ivoire. Paris: Wild, R. P. & H. Braunholtz, 1934.

      Taylor, J. V. The Primal Vision. London: SCM Press, 1963.

      Tchicaya, U. T. Légendes africaines. Préface de Mercer Cook (Nouveaux horizons). Paris: Seghers, 1967.

      Tchouanga, P., and Ngangoum, B. F. La vérité du Culte des Ancêtres en Afrique chez Bamiléké. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 219–253.

      Tegnaeus, H. Le héros civilisateur. Stockholm: Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia 2, Uppsala, 1950.

      Tegnaeus, H. La fraternité de sang. Paris: Payot, 1954.

      Tempels, P. La philosophie Bantoue. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1965.

      Tengan, E. B. The Sisala Universe: Its Composition and Structure. Journal of Religion in Africa 20 (1990), 2–19.

      Ten Raa, E. The Moon as a Symbol of Life and Fertility in Sandawe-Thought. Africa (1969), 24–53.

      Theuws, T. Croyance et culte chez les Baluba. Présence Africaine 17–18 (1958), 23–32.

      Theuws, T. Naître et mourir dans le rituel luba. Zaïre 14 (1960), 115–173.

      Theuws, T. Luba Conception of Reality. U.S. Joint Publications Research Service no. 13328 (1962), 10–38.

      Theuws, T. De Luba-mens. Tervuren: Koninkl Museum voor Midden-Afrika, 1962.

      Theuws, T. De mens in de Bantoe-wereld, in De Negro-afrikaanse mens en zijn cultuur. Brugge: Desclée de Brouwer, 1965, 27–53.

      Theuws, T. Rites et religion en Afrique. Revue du Clergé Africain no. 5 (1966), 426–436.

      Theuws, T. Mort et sépulture en Afrique. Concilium no. 32 (1968), 123–126.

      Thiel, J. F. La situation religieuse des Mbiem. Bandudu, Zaire: Editions Ceeba, 1972.

      Theuws, T. Ahnen, Geister, Höchste Wesen (Rasai). Vienna: Verlag des Anthropos-Instituts, 1977.

      Thomas, B. H. The Doctrine of God in Uganda. in Smith, E. (Ed.), African Ideas of God. London: Edinburgh House Press, 1950.

      Thomas, B. H. Essai sur quelques notions de morale théorique en pays Diola (Base Casamance). Bulletin IFAN, série B, 19 (1957), 127.

      Thomas, B. H. Théorie du sacrifice chez les Diola de la Casamance. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 4, no. 22 (1957), 117–127.

      Thomas, B. H. Réflexions sur quelques aspects de la moralité Diola. Bulletin IFAN, série B, 20 (1958), 249–290.

      Thomas, B. H. Animisme et christianisme. Présence Africaine no. 26 (1959), 5–21.

      Thomas, B. H. Les Diolas: Essai d'analyse fonctionnelle sur une population de Basse Casamance. Dakar: IFAN, 1959.

      Thomas, B. H. Un système philosophique sénégalais: La cosmologie des Diola. Présence Africaine nos. 32–33 (1960), 67–76.

      Thomas, B. H. Pour un programme d'études théoriques des religions et d'un humanisme africains. Présence Africaine no. 37 (1961), 48–86.

      Thomas, B. H. Temps, mythe et histoire en Afrique de l'Ouest. Présence Africaine no. 39 (1961), 12–58.

      Thomas, B. H. Analyse de la personnalité diola: Essai et synthèse. Bulletin IFAN, sér. B, 30, no. 2 (1963), 536–585.

      Thomas, B. H. Une idéologie moderne: La négritude. Revue Psychologique des Peuples no. 3 (1963), 246–272; no. 4, 367–399.

      Thomas, B. H. Remarques sur quelques attitudes négro africaines devant la mort. Revue Française de Sociologie (1963, Oct.-Déc), 395–410.

      Thomas, B. H. Aspects de la négritude. Cahiers Pédagogiques 20 (1964), 89–94.

      Thomas, B. H. Les constances de la culture nègre, ou réflexions à propos du livre de Janheinz Jahn, “Muntu, l'homme africain et la culture néoafricaine.” Bulletin IFAN, série B, 26 (1964), 258–271.

      Thomas, B. H. Responsabilité, sanction et organisation judiciaire chez les Diola traditionnels de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). Notes Africaines (1964), 106–112.

      Thomas, B. H. A propos des religions négro-africaines traditionnelles: Réflexions critiques. Afrique Documents no. 93 (1967), 219–255.

      Thomas, B. H. L'Africain et le sacré: Réflexions sur le devenir des religions. Bulletin IFAN, série B, 29 (1967), 619–677.

      Thomas, B. H. La mort et la sagesse africaine (Esquisse d'une anthropologie philosophique). Psychopathologie Africaine (Dakar) 3 (1967), 13–50.

      Thomas, B. H. La Diola et le temps: Recherches anthropologiques sur la notion de durée en Basse-Camance. Notes linguistiques par David Sapir. Bulletin IF AN, série B, 29 (1967), 331–424.

      Thomas, B. H. Cinq essais sur la mort africaine. Dakar: Publications de la Faculté de Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Philosophie et Sciences Sociales, 3, 1969.

      Thomas, B. H. Société et Santé mentale. Psychopathologie Africaine 5 (1969), 355–394.

      Thomas, B. H. Mort symbolique et naissance initiatique (Bukut chez les Diola-Niomoun). Cahiers des Religions Africaines 4 (1970), 41–73.

      Thomas, B. H. Une coutume africaine: L'interrogation du cadavre. Bulletin de la Société de Thanatologie 6, no. 1 (1972), 1–25.

      Thomas, B. H. Pour une sémiologie de la mort négro africaine. Ethno-psychologie 27, nos. 2–3 (1972), 157–185.

      Thomas, B. H. Réflexions sans titre à propos de la mort. In Congrès international des Africanistes. Paris: Présence africaine, 1972, 243–256.

      Thomas, B. H. Réflexions sans titre au sujet des mythes africains. Cahiers des Religions Africaines no. 6 (1972), 133–165.

      Thomas, B. H. Vie et mort en Afrique: Introduction à l'ethnothanatologie. Ethno-psychologie, Rev. de Psychologie des Peuples 27 (1972), 103–123.

      Thomas, B. H. La religion africaine dans son essence et ses manifestations. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 11, nos. 21–22 (1977), 65–89.

      Thomas, B. H. Positivisme et cosmomorphisme: l'homme et l'expérientation en Afrique Noire traditionnelles, in L'expérience religieuse africaine et les relations interpersonnelles. Actes du Colloque international d'Abidjan (16–20 sept. 1980), n° spécial de Savannes-Forêts (1982), 241–256, et in Combats pour un christianisme africain. Kinshasa, CERA, Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1981, 159–170.

      Thomas, B. H. La mort africaine: Idéologie funéraire en Afrique Noire. Paris: Payot, 1982.

      Thomas, B. H., and Luneau, R. Les religions d'Afrique noire (2 vols.). Paris: Stock, 1981.

      Thomas, B. H. La terre africaine et ses religions: Traditions et changements. Paris: Larousse université, 1975.

      Nouv. éd. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2000.

      Thomas, B. H., and Doneux, J. L. Les religions d'Afrique noire: Textes et traditions sacrées. Paris: Fayard-Denoël, 1969.

      Thomas, B. H., Rousset, B., and Van Tad, T. La mort aujourd'hui. Paris: Anthropos, 1977.

      Thomas, N. W. Dualism in African Religions. Ancient Egypt 4 (1922), 108–110.

      Thompson, R. F. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Random House, 1983.

      Tiarko Fourche, J. A., and Morlighem, H. Les communications des indigènes du Kasaï avec les âmes des morts. Bruxelles: Institut royal colonial belge, 1939.

      Tierou, A. Le nom africain ou langage des traditions. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1977.

      Tindano, T. T. La place du sarificateur chez les Gourmanceba. Telema 42 (1985), 57–61.

      Tobner, O. Cheikh Anta Diop, l'hérétique. Peuples Noirs, Peuples Africains 30 (1982), 85–91.

      Tongo, L. M. L'ordre rationnel de la sagesse négro africaine: Le problème terminologique et philosophique de la sagesse négro-africaine du jour et de la nuit. Noraf no. 1 (1985), 64–77.

      Tonkin, E. Lega Culture: Art, Initiation and Moral Philosophy Among a Central African People. Canadian Journal of African Studies 9, no. 2 (1975), 366–368.

      Topor, W. The Concept of God in the African Philosophy. Journal of African Religion and Philosophy 2 (1990), 1–6.

      Torday, E. Dualism in Western Bantu Religion and Social Organization. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 58 (1928), 225–246.

      Torday, E. The Morality of African Races. International Journal of Ethics 39 (1929), 167–176.

      Torday, E. The Principles of Bantu Marriage. Africa 2 (1929), 254–290.

      Tose, C. La spiritualità dei bantu dello Zaïre e il messaggio cristiano. Genova, Centre Studi S. Caterina Fieschi Adorno, 1972.

      Toso, V Ewe-Texte. Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen 17 (1916–1917), 1–24.

      Tovagonze, V God-concept: “Supreme Being” in African Tribal Religions. Journal of Oh arma 17 (1992), 122–140.

      Traore, D. La volonté humaine responsable du mal d'après les Bambaras du Soudan français. Notes Africaines no. 32 (1946), 20.

      Trilles, R. P. Le totémisme chez les Fan. Münster: Murinster i.W, Aschendorff, 1912.

      Trilles, R. P. Les Pygmées de la forêt equatoriale. Paris: Bloud & Gay, 1931.

      Trilles, R. P. L'ante du Pygmée d'Afrique. Paris: Èditions du Cerf, 1945.

      Tsala, A. l'Ethique et la thérapeutique dans les traditions africaines. Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 33 (1976), 254–260.

      Tshiamalenga, N. La vision “ntu” de l'homme: Essai de philosophie linguistique et anthropologique. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 7, no. 14 (1973), 176–197.

      Tshiamalenga, N. La philosophie de la faute dans la tradition Luba. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1974), 167–186.

      Tshiamalenga, N. L'image de l'homme à travers l'art traditionnel négro-africain. Kinshasa, Marburg, 1976.

      Tshiamalenga, N. L'art comme langage et comme vérité. Art religieux africain, Numéro spécial de Cahiers des Religions Africaines 16, nos. 31–32 (1982), 65–70.

      Tshiamalenga, N. Art et religion, in L'Afrique et ses formes de vie spirituelle. Actes du 2e colloque international de Kinshasa 21 au 27 févr. 1983. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 17, nos. 33–34 (1983), 217–227.

      Tshiamalenga, N. Mythe et religion en Afrique. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 18, no. 36 (1984), 176–196.

      Tshiamalenga, N. Y a-t-il un mythe du mythe? Diogenes no. 132 (1985), 120–144.

      Tshibaka, K. La conception de l'homme et de la femme chez les Luba-Kasaï. Afrique et Philosophie no. 1 (1977), 55–68.

      Tshibaka, K. Les éléments culturels et leur influence dans la thérapie traditionnelle chez les Baluba. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 13, no. 25 (1979), 131–143.

      Tshibaka, K. La portée psychologique de quelques techniques divinatoires chez les Baluba. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 15, no. 29 (1981), 127–137.

      Tshibangu, T. Problématique d'une pensée religieuse africaine. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968), 11–21.

      Tubiana, M. J. Survivances préislamiques en pays Zaghawa. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, 1964.

      Turner, W. H. Themes in the Symbolism of Ndembu Hunting Ritual. Anthropological Quarterly 35 (1962), 37–57.

      Turner, W. H. The Forest of Symbols. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.

      Turner, W. H. The Drums of Affliction: A Study of Religious Processes Among the Ndembu of Zambia. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.

      Turner, W. H. The Ritual Process. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul: Chicago, Aldine, 1969.

      Turner, W. H. Living Tribal Religions. London: Ward Lock Educational, 1971.

      Turner, W. H. Revelation and Divination in Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1975.

      Turner, W. H. Ritual Symbolism, Morality and Social Structure Among the Ndembu. In Karp, I., and Bird, C. S. (Eds.), African Systems of Thought. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980, 79–95.

      Turner, W. H. The Way Forward in the Religious Study of African Primal Religions. Journal of Religion in Africa 12 (1981), 1–15.

      Uba, C. N. Divinities and Ancestors in Igbo Traditional Religion. Africa no. 2 (1982), 90–105.

      Uchendu, V. C. Concubinage Among Nwa Igbo of Southern Nigeria. Africa 35 (1965), 187–197.

      Ukpong, J. S. Sacrificial Worship in Ibibio Traditional Religion. Journal of Religion in Africa 13 (1982), 161–188.

      Ukpong, J. S. The Problem of God and Sacrifice in African Traditional Religion. Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 187–203.

      Umezinwa, W A. Elements constitutifs de la Religion traditionnelle dans les romans de Mongo Beti, Benjamin Matip et Ferdinand Oyono. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1973), 5–42.

      Umoren, U. E. Religious Symbols and Crime Control in Annang-Land. Onta 26 (1994), 67–78.

      Uroh, C. O. Witchcraft, Causality and the African World. Bodija Journal 6 (1994), 45–64.

      Utshudi, E.-D. Les interdits et tabous chez les Atetela. Congo-Afrique no. 33 (1969), 149–157.

      Utshudi, E.-D. Etude comparée de proverbes des quatre langues nationales congolaises. Congo-Afrique no. 50 (1970), 545–551.

      Uzoho, V. N. The Sacred and the Profane in the Traditional Religion of Africa. West African Religion 15 (1974), 30–43.

      Uzukwu, E. The God of Our Ancestor and African Unity. African Ecclesial Review 23 (1981), 344–352.

      Uzukwu, E. Igbo Spirituality as Revealed Through Igbo Prayers. Bulletin de Théolgie Africaine Kinshansa no. 10 (1983), 205–222.

      Uzukwu, E. (Ed.). Religion and African Culture: InculturationA Nigerian Perspective. Enugu, Nigeria: SNAAP Press, 1994.

      Valente, J. F. Paisagem Africana: Urna tribo angolana no seu fabulârio. Luanda: Instituto de Investigaçào Cientifica de Angola, 1973.

      Van Binsbergen, W., and Schoffeleers, M. (Eds.). Theoretical Explorations in African Religion. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.

      Van Bulck, G. Phénomènes religieux et cycles culturels en Afrique. Congo 17, no. 2 (1936), 1–55, 161–197.

      Van Bulck, G. Notes d'ethnologie, Style oral et symbolisme au Mayombe. Congo 19 (1938), 481–498.

      Van Bulck, G. Les éléments culturels propres aux tribus de pasteurs en Afrique d'après leur style oral. in Congrès international des Sciences anthropologiques et ethnologiques 1938. Copenhague, 1939.

      Van Bulck, G. Het probleem der pygmeeënreligio volgens Schebesta. Kongo-Overzee 15 (1949), 108–118.

      Van Bulck, G. Le problème du mal chez quelques populations d'Afrique noire. Rythmes du Monde 3(1955), 93–111.

      Van Bulck, G. La dialectique des Barundi. Zaïre 11 (1957), 1021–1029.

      Van Bulck, G. La religion des Bakongo orientaux: Essai d'analyse d'un complexe culturel. Zaïre 12 (1959), 663–675.

      Van Caeneghem, R. De gierigheid in de spreekwoorden der Baluba en Baluba-Mongo. Congo 16, no. 2 (1935), 376–388.

      Van Caeneghem, R. “Geven aan anderman” in de spreekwoorden der Baluba-menschen. Congo 18 (1937), 377–411.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Studie over de gewoontelijke strafbepalingen tegen het overspel bij de Baluba en Bene Lulua van Rasai. Brüssel, Konink: Belgian Colonial Institute, 1938.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Gastvrijheid in de spreekwoorden der Luba-menschen. Congo 20, no. 1 (1939), 295–310, 412–432.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Het vrijgezellen-leven in de spreekwoorden van Luba en Moyo-volk. Congo 21, no. 1 (1940), 47–79.

      Van Caeneghem, R. De psychologie der Baluba in hun spreekwoorden over ziekten. Congo 21, no. 1 (1940), 284–306, 2e deel; Zaïre 1 (1947), 55–72.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Godsgebeden bij de Baluba. Aequatoria 7 (1944), 28–34.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Pour plus d'étude des valeurs indigènes luba. Aequatoria 8 (1945), 78–79.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Gebeden der Baluba IL Aequatoria 10 (1947), 4–16.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Dispositions pénales coutumières chez les Baluba et les Bena Lulua du Kasai. Aide Médicale aux Missions 21, no. 1 (1949), 13–16.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Etude sur les dispositions coutumières contre l'adultère chez les Baluba et les Bena Lulua du Kasai. Bulletin CEPSI no. 8 (1949), 5–46.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Het godsbegrip bij de Baluba van Kasaï. Zaïre no. 3 (1949), 743–764.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Over het godsbegrip der Baluba van Rasai. Brussels, Belgium: Kolonial Instituut, 1952.

      Van Caeneghem, R. Fondements de l'idée de Dieu chez les Baluba. Rythmes du Monde 3 (1955), 220–228.

      Van Caeneghem, R. La notion de Dieu chez les Baluba du Rasai. Bruxelles: Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales IX, 2 (1956).

      Van de Casteele, J. La philosophie bantoue du R.P. Tempels. Revue d'Aucam no. 2 (1946–1947), 173–176.

      Vanden Bosch, G. Le nom et la notion de l'Être Suprême chez les Baie. Anthropos (1928), 987–999.

      Van der Kerken, G. Religion, science et magie au pays des Mongo. Bulletin des Scéances de l'Institut Royal Colonial Belge 9, no. 2 (1938), 202–292.

      Van der Merwe, W. J. The Shona Idea of God. Nada 34 (1957), 37–63.

      Vandevivere, O. Quelques sentences Kisanga sur la vie et la mort. Problèmes Sociaux Congolais CEPSI (1963), 81–93.

      Van Goethem, E. Le dieu des Nkundo. Aequatoria 13 (1950), 1–6, et 41–48.

      Vansina, J. Les Tribus Ba-Ruba. Tervuren: Annales de Musée Royal du Congo Belge, 1954.

      Vansina, J. Initiation Rituals of the Bushong. Africa 25 (1955), 138–153.

      Vansina, J. A Comparison of African Kingdoms. Africa 32 (1962), 324–335.

      Vansina, J. Religions et sociétés en Afrique centrale: Religions Bushong et Tio. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 2 (1968), 95–108.

      Vansina, J. Probing the Past of the Lower Kwilu Peoples. Paideuma 19–20 (1974), 332–364.

      Van Wing, J. Etudes Bakongo: Sociologie, religion et magie. Museum Lesianum, sect. Missiologie. Bruges: Desclée de Brouwer, 2e éd., 1959.

      Van Zuylekom, R. M. The Notion of Time in African Thinking: A Survey of Some Approaches. In Kimmerlr, H. (Ed.), We and Body: First Joint Symposium of Philosophers From Africa and From the Netherlands. Atlantic Highlands: Grüner, 1989, 93–101.

      Vecsey, C. Facing Death, Masking Death, in Luba Myth and Art. Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 24–25.

      Vedder, H. Die Bergdama (2 vols.). Tervuren: Musée Royal du Congo Beige, 1923.

      Vedder, H. Le Bulopwe et Kutomboka par le sang humain chez les Baluba-Shankaji. Bulletin des Juridictions Indigènes et du Droit Coutumier Congolais 5, no. 2 (1937), 52–61.

      Vedder, H. La signification mystique des couleurs chez les Bantou. Zaïre 10 (1949), 1139–1144.

      Verdier, R. Une esquisse anthropologique des droits de tradition orale d'Afrique Noire. Revue de Synthèse no. 106, (1985), 301–311.

      Verger, P. Dieux d'Afrique. Paris: Paul Hartmann, 1954.

      Verger, P. Automatisme verbal et communication du savoir chez les Yoruba. L'homme 12, no. 2 (1972), 5–46.

      Verger, P. Dieux d'Afrique: Culte des Orishas et Vodouns à l'ancienne côte des esclaves en Afrique et à Bahia, la baie de tous les saints au Brésil I Pierre Fâtumbi Verger; préface de Théodore Monod et Roger Bastide; cent-soixante photographies de l'auteur. Paris: Editions Revue noire, 1995.

      Vergiat, A. M. Les rites secrets des primitifs de l'Oubangui. Paris: Payot, 1951.

      Verstraelen, F. La conscience morale des Baluba et quelques autres peuplades dans le Sud-Est du Congo. Anthropos 59 (1964), 361–399.

      Veto, M. Le rôle de l'homme dans les mythes de mort chez les Bantous de l'Afrique orientale et du Congo. Zaïre 15 (1961), 75–93.

      Veyrières de P., M. de G. Le Livre de la Sagesse Malgache, Proverbes, Dictons, Sentences, Expressions Figurées et Curieuses. Paris: Èditions Maritimes et d'Outre-mer, 1967.

      Viaene, L. Uit de kunstschat der Bahunde. Congo 7, no. 2 (1923), 28–35, 226–237.

      Vincent, J.-F. Techniques divinatoires des Saba (Montagnards du Centre-Tchad). Journal de la Société des Africanistes 36 (1966), 45–63.

      Vincent, J.-F. Princes montagnards du Nord-Cameroun, les Mofu-Diamaré et le pouvoir politique. Paris: Editons l'Harmattan, 1991.

      Visser, J. J. Pökoot Religion. Oegstgeest, Netherlands: Hendrik Kraemer Instituut, 1989.

      Vunza, M. Dieu comme une mère dans la culture Yaka. Raison Ardente no. 30 (1989), 55–71.

      Wane, Y. Le célibat en pays Toucouleur. Bull, de l'IFAN, Série B, sciences humaines 31 (1969), 717–732.

      Wanger, W The Zulu Notion of God. Anthropos (1926), 351–385.

      Wanjohi, G. J. An African Conception of God: the Case of the Gikuyu. Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 136–146.

      Warren, D. M. Disease, Medicine and Religion Among the Techiman Bono of Ghana: A Study in Culture Change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Indiana, 1974.

      Waswandi, N. K. Culte sacrificiel à Dieu Nyamuhanga chez les Nande du Zaïre et signification du sacrifice. Revue Africaine de Theologie 14 (1990), 65–101.

      Webster, A. Le tabou: Etude sociologique. Paris: Payot, 1950.

      Weeks, J. H. Among the Primitive Bakongo. London: Seeley Service, 1913.

      Welbourn, F. B. Keyo initiation. Journal of Religion in Africa! (1968), 212–232.

      Welter, G. Les croyances primitives et leurs survivances. Paris: Libraire Armand Colin, 1960.

      Welton, M. R. Themes in African Traditional Belief and Ritual. Practical Anthropology 18, no. 1 (1971), 1–18.

      Wemalowa, T. Le bois qui parle, tam-tam lokombe, projet d'avenir culturel, in Philosophie et communication sociale en Afrique, 3e Séminaire scientifique de philosophie, 1987, (RPA, 17). Kinshasa: Facultés Catholiques de Kinshasa, 1989, 167–175.

      Werner, A. Myths and Legends of the Bantu. London: G. G. Harrap & Co., 1933.

      Wese w'Esimela, L. Die Kpelle-Ein Negerstamm in Liberia. Göttingen und Leipzig: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, J. C. Hinrich, 1921.

      Wese w'Esimela, L. Die Glidyi-Ewe in Togo. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1935.

      Wese w'Esimela, L. La notion de Bont'okaka: Indice d'une morale mongo. Cahiers des Religions Africaines (1974), 173–202.

      Whooley, P. Dialogue With African Cultures (South Africa). Bulletin of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue 28–29 (1975), 164–173.

      Willis, C. A. The cult of Deng. Sudan Notes and Records 11 (1928), 195–208.

      Willoughby, W C. Some Conclusions Concerning the Bantu Conception of the Soul. Africa 1 (1928), 336–347.

      Wilmore, G. S. Black Religion and Black Radicalism. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1983.

      Wilson, G. An African Morality—Nyakyusa. Africa 9 (1936), 75–99.

      Wilson, M. Ritual of Kinship Among the Nyakusa. London: Oxford University Press, 1957.

      Wilson, M. Communal Rituals of the Nyakusa. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.

      Wing, J. van. L'Etre Suprême des Bakongo. Recherces de Science Religeuse, Parish (1920), 170–181.

      Wing, R. P. van. Etudes ba-Kongo. Bruxelles: Goemaere, 1959.

      Wright, A. C. A. The Supreme Being Among the Acholi of Uganda. Uganda Journal (1940), 130–137.

      Wyllie, R. W Ghanaian Spiritual and Traditional Healers' Explanations of Illness: A Preliminary Survey. Journal of Religion in Africa 14 (1983), 46–57.

      Yamsat, P. The Concept of God and Spiritual Beings in Various Nigerian Traditional Religions. TCNN Research Bulletin 16 (1986), 27–29.

      Yao, K. V. Naissance et mort chez les Akans, in L'expérience religieuse africaine et les relations interpersonnelles. Actes du Colloque international d'Abidjan (16–20 sept. 1980), n° spécial de Savannes-Forêts, 1982, 409–419.

      Yav, D. M. La conception de la mort et de l'au-delà chez les Lunda. Mémoire de licence, Faculté de théologie protestante de Kinshasa, 1979.

      Yilji, D. G. J. The Ngas Concept of God and Spiritual Beings. TCNN Research Bulletin 16 (1986), 30–39.

      Yoka, L. M. Bobongo: Danse sacrée et libération, art religieux africain. Numéro spécial de Cahiers des Religions Africaines 16, nos. 31–32 (1982), 277–292.

      Yoka, L. M. Spiritualité et créativité artistique aujourd'hui, in L'Afrique et ses formes de vie spirituelle. Actes du 2e colloque international de Kinshasa 1983. Cahiers des Religions Africaines 17, nos. 33–34 (1983), 229–237.

      Young, J. Pan African Theology: Providence & the Legacies of the Ancestors. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press. 1992.

      Young, T. C. Contemporary Ancestors. London: Lutterworth, 1940.

      Zahan, D. Aperçu sur la pensée théogonique des Dogon. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie (Pans) 6 (1949), 113–139.

      Zahan, D. Etudes sur la cosmologie des Dogon et de Bambara du Soudan français, I: La notion d'écliptique chez les Dogon et les Bambara. Africa 21 (1951), 13–20.

      Zahan, D. Ataraxie et silence chez les Bambara. Zaïre 14 (1960), 491–504.

      Zahan, D. Société d'initiation Bambara: Le N'domo, le Korè. Paris: La Haye, Mouton, 1960.

      Zahan, D. La dialectique du verbe chez les Bambara. Paris: Mouton, 1963.

      Zahan, D. (Ed.). Réincarnation et vie mystique en Afrique noire. Paris: PUF, 1965.

      Zahan, D. Essai sur les mythes africains d'origine de la mort. L'homme no. 4 (1969), 41–50.

      Zahan, D. La viande et la graine: Mythologie Dogon. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1969.

      Zahan, D. Religion, spiritualité et pensée africaines (Bibliothèque scientifique). Paris: Payot, 1970.

      Zahan, D. L'univers cosmo-biologique de l'Africain. Eranos-Jhrb 42 (1973), 205–235.

      Zahan, D. The Religion, Spirituality, and Thought of Traditional Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

      Zempleni-Rabain, J. Modes fondamentaux de relations chez l'enfant Wolof, du sevrage à l'intégration dans la classe d'âge. Psychopathologie Africaine 2 (1966), 143–177.

      Ziegle, H. Notes sur la psychologie des Bantous de l'Afrique Centrale. Cahiers d'Outre-mer (Bordeaux) 5 (1951), 23–38.

      Ziegler, J. Contribution à l'étude de la notion de temps dans certaines sociétés d'Afrique Centrale. In Congrès international des Africanistes. Paris: Présence africaine, 1972, 257–281.

      Zimo, H. Guinea Corn Harvest Rituals Among the Konkomba of Northern Ghana. Anthropos 84 (1989), 447–458.

      Zuesse, E. M. Divination and Deity in African Religions. History of Religions 15 (1975), 158–182.

      Zuesse, E. M. Action as the Way of Transcendence: the Religious Significance of the Bwami Cult of the Lega. Journal of Religion in Africa 9 (1978), 62–72.

      Zuesse, E. M. Ritual Cosmos: The Sanctification of Life in African Religions. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1979.

      Zuure, B. Immâna, le Dieu des Barundi. Anthropos (1926), 733–776.

      Zuesse, E. M. Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Barundi. Bruxelles: Editions de I'Essorial, 1929.

      Zuesse, E. M. L'Ame du Murundi. Paris: Edition Beauchêne, 1932.

      Zuesse, E. M. Ce qu'ils croient. Grands Lacs nos. 4–6 (1948–49), 30–35.

      Zuesse, E. M. Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Barundi révélées par leur usages et pratiques. Grands Lacs no. 9 (1948–1949), 66–69.

      Zuesse, E. M. Les croyances des Barundi révélées par leur contes. Grands Lacs 64, no. 19 (1949), 11–14.

      Zvarevashe, I. Shona (Bantu) Traditional Religion. African Ecclesial Review 22 (1980), 294–303.

      Zvarevashe, I. The Problem of Ancestors and Inculturation. AFER 29 (1987), 242–251.

      Zwernemann, J. Les notions du dieu-ciel chez quelques tribus voltaïques. Ètudes Voltaïques 2 (1961), 71–100.

    Back to Top