Encyclopedia of African American Society

Encyclopedia of African American Society

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Gerald D. Jaynes

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Abstract

This two-volume reference seeks to capture the ways in which the tenets and foundations of African American culture have given rise to today’s society. Approaching the field from a “street level” perspective, these two volumes cover topics of universal interest in America: rap music, sports, television, cinema, racism, religion, literature, and much more. The Encyclopedia of African American Society is also the first comprehensive yet accessible reference set in this field to give voice to the turbulent historical trends—slavery, segregation, “separate but equal”—that are often ignored in favor of mere facts. This is a definitive, reliable, and accessible entry point to learning the basics about African American society.

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  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Abolition
    • Accommodationism
    • Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority
    • American Book Awards
    • Academy Awards
    • Amos ‘n’ Andy Show
    • Abolition
    • Ailey, Alvin
    • Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority
    • Affirmative Action
    • Academy Awards
    • African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, The
    • Abolition
    • African Meeting House
    • Automobile Industry
    • Accommodationism
    • Academicians
    • Ali, Muhammad
    • Ashe, Arthur
    • Activists
    • Adoption
    • Banking and Finance
    • Baltimore
    • African Independence
    • African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church, The
    • “Baad Nigger”
    • Anti-Lynching Bill
    • Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
    • Anderson, Marian
    • African Missionary Movement
    • Apollo Theater
    • Actors and Actresses
    • American Negro Theater
    • Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
    • Biracialism
    • African Heritage
    • African Independence
    • Black Aesthetic
    • American Negro Academy
    • Amsterdam News
    • Architecture
    • Black Enterprise
    • Afrocentric Movement
    • Armstrong, Louis
    • Baptist Church Organization
    • Atlanta Compromise
    • Baraka, Amiri
    • Baha'i Faith
    • American Anti-Slavery Society
    • Black Belt
    • Brimmer, Andrew
    • Adoption, Transracial
    • Adoption, Transracial
    • Athletes
    • Baseball
    • African Blood Brotherhood
    • Affirmative Action
    • Business
    • Cotton Club
    • American Colonization Society
    • Baptism, Rite of
    • Barbershop Culture
    • Black Codes
    • Black Women Mayors' Caucus
    • Atlantic Records
    • Attica Uprising
    • Black Entertainment Television (BET)
    • Art, Visual
    • Angelou, Maya
    • Antioch College
    • Black Capitalism
    • African Meeting House
    • African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church, The
    • Black Consciousness
    • Black Studies
    • Baldwin, James
    • Birth of a Nation, The
    • Black History Month
    • Back to Africa Movement
    • Baker, Josephine
    • Blue Vein Society
    • Black Panther Party
    • Beauty Pageants
    • Baptist Church Organization
    • Atlanta Riot of 1906
    • Cabrini-Green Housing Projects
    • Carson, Benjamin
    • Alexander, Sadie Tanner Mossell
    • Africans and African Americans
    • Basketball
    • Bayou Classic, The
    • Ambassadors, U.S
    • Black Consciousness
    • Carver, George Washington
    • Chicago South Side
    • Bethune, Mary McLeod
    • Black Baptist Church
    • Bid Whist
    • Bradley, Tom
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, The
    • Basie, William “Count”
    • Black Arts Movement
    • Black Periodicals
    • Black Arts Movement
    • Bambara, Toni Cade
    • Busing
    • Black Manifesto
    • African Missionary Movement
    • American Anti-Slavery Society
    • Buppies
    • Carson, Benjamin
    • Baraka, Amiri
    • Black Theatre Alliance
    • Black World/Negro Digest
    • Black Expo, Indianapolis
    • Battle, Kathleen
    • Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association
    • Brooke, Edward William, III
    • Break Dancing
    • Black Christianity
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, The
    • Civil Rights Museum, National
    • Coal Mining
    • Black Manifesto
    • Asian Americans and African Americans
    • Boxing
    • Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association
    • Astronauts
    • Busing
    • Construction Industry
    • District of Columbia
    • Brown, William Wells
    • Catholics, African American
    • Buppies
    • Bunche, Ralph Johnson
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • Bebop
    • Black History Month
    • Brown, Tony
    • Cosby, William Henry
    • Bearden, Romare
    • Carver, George Washington
    • Colonialism
    • American Colonization Society
    • American Negro Academy
    • Colonization
    • Child Care
    • Bondwoman's Narrative, The
    • Dandridge, Dorothy
    • Chicago Defender
    • Black Nationalism
    • Blues
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Busing
    • Cooking, Regional
    • Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, The
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Five Points Area, Denver
    • Coleman, Elizabeth “Bessie”
    • Capital Punishment
    • Athletes
    • Football
    • Golden Gloves, The
    • Buffalo Soldiers
    • Children's Defense Fund
    • Entrepreneurs, Black
    • Harlem
    • Carmichael, Stokely
    • Church of God in Christ, The
    • Dominoes
    • Cabinet, U.S. Presidential
    • Council on African Affairs
    • Boogie-Woogie
    • Black Panther Party
    • Crisis, The
    • Davis, Miles
    • Bontemps, Arna Wendell
    • Cooper, Anna Julia
    • Colorism
    • Amistad, The
    • Amos ‘n’ Andy Show
    • Debt Peonage
    • Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
    • Brooks, Gwendolyn
    • Davis, Ossie, and Ruby Dee
    • Ebony
    • Black Power Movement
    • Cakewalk, The
    • Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
    • Canada and African Americans
    • Double Dutch
    • Clergy
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Inner City
    • Jemison, Mae
    • Crime, Black-on-Black
    • Cabinet, U.S. Presidential
    • Golf
    • Harlem Globetrotters
    • Caribbean Americans and African Americans
    • Criminal Justice System
    • Lewis, Reginald F.
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Funeral Rites
    • Dozens
    • Capital Punishment
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    • Charles, Ray
    • Black Studies
    • Freedom's Journal
    • Emmy Awards
    • Brown, William Wells
    • Desegregation, School
    • Double Consciousness
    • Anti-Lynching Bill
    • Apollo Theater
    • Ebonics
    • Doctoral Degrees
    • Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
    • Entertainment Industry
    • Graves, Earl G.
    • Bread Riot
    • Charleston, The
    • Fair Employment Practices Committee
    • Census, U.S.
    • Family, African American
    • Hebrews, Black
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • Lockfield Garden, Indianapolis
    • Railroads
    • Criminal Sentencing of African Americans
    • Catholics, African American
    • Horse Racing
    • Johnson, John Arthur “Jack”
    • Clergy
    • Desegregation, School
    • Science and Invention
    • Motown Historical Museum
    • Civil War, The
    • Henson, Josiah
    • Family Reunions
    • Chisholm, Shirley
    • Free African Society
    • Coltrane, John
    • Bud Billikin Parade
    • Guardian, The
    • Film
    • Cuffe, Paul
    • Education, Industrial
    • Entrepreneurs, Black
    • Atlanta Riot of 1906
    • Attica Uprising
    • Feminism
    • Educational Attainment
    • Cullen, Countee
    • Fine Arts
    • Jet
    • Chicago Riots of 1919
    • Dance, African American Influence on
    • Freedman's Bank
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Fashion and Clothing
    • Islam
    • Delany, Martin
    • Museums of African American Culture and History
    • Steelworkers
    • Discrimination
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Louis, Joe
    • Negro Leagues
    • Confederate Soldiers, Black
    • Dozens
    • Thomas, Franklin Augustine
    • National Underground Railroad Museum, The
    • Douglass, Frederick
    • Islam, Nation of
    • Gambling, Illegal
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Masons, The Fraternal Order of
    • Dance Theatre of Harlem
    • Civil Rights Congress, The
    • Journal of Negro History, The
    • Gregory, Dick
    • Dunbar, Paul Laurence
    • Franklin, John Hope
    • Great White Hope, The
    • Attucks, Crispus
    • Back to Africa Movement
    • Identity
    • Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.
    • Ellison, Ralph
    • Harlem Renaissance
    • Journalism
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • Delta Blues
    • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    • Civil Service
    • Gospel Drama
    • Muhammad, Elijah
    • Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt
    • Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture
    • Walker, Madam C. J.
    • Drug Trade
    • Congress, African Americans in
    • Olympic Games of 1936
    • Olympic Games of 1968
    • Conservatives, Black
    • Drug Use
    • Wall Street, Black
    • Seneca Village
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Muslims, Black
    • Graffiti
    • Communism
    • Mutual Benefit Societies
    • Ellington, Edward “Duke”
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Liberator, The
    • Lee, Spike
    • Equiano, Olaudah
    • Greener, Richard Theodore
    • Integration, School
    • Banneker, Benjamin
    • Birth of a Nation, The
    • Intermarriage
    • Grimké, Charlotte Forten
    • Federal Writers' Project
    • McDaniel, Hattie
    • Media, Black
    • Draft Riots of 1863
    • Fisk Jubilee Singers
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • Compromise of 1850
    • Great White Hope, The
    • National Baptist Convention, The
    • Eyes on the Prize
    • Shotgun Houses
    • Family Reunions
    • Cowboys, Black
    • Olympics
    • Owens, Jesse
    • Creole
    • Homeownership, African American
    • Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
    • Fifteenth Amendment
    • Pentecostalism
    • Hair, African American
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • National Association of Black Journalists
    • Fitzgerald, Ella
    • French and Indian War
    • NAACP Image Awards
    • Micheaux, Oscar
    • Fiction, Modern
    • Harlem Writers Guild
    • Jack & Jill of America, Inc.
    • Black Codes
    • Black Nationalism
    • Marxism
    • Head Start
    • Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.
    • National Black Theater
    • National Association of Black Journalists
    • Gay and Lesbian Movement
    • Gillespie, John Birks “Dizzy”
    • National Association of Colored Women
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Henry, John
    • Preaching
    • Fourteenth Amendment
    • Immigration
    • Domestic Workers
    • Robinson, Frank
    • Robinson, Jack Roosevelt “Jackie”
    • Expatriates
    • Military Life
    • Free Blacks, Antebellum
    • Rastafarianism
    • Hip-Hop
    • Conservatives, Black
    • National Baptist Convention, The
    • Gospel Music
    • Great Depression, The
    • National Black Radio Network
    • Poitier, Sidney
    • Giovanni, Yolande Cornelia “Nikki”
    • Health
    • Migration
    • Black Power Movement
    • Bondwoman's Narrative, The
    • Miscegenation
    • Historically Black Colleges and Universities
    • Hansberry, Lorraine
    • Roots: The Saga of an African American Family
    • Pittsburgh Courier
    • Harlem Riots (1935, 1943, 1964)
    • Gospel Music Workshop of America
    • National Bar Association
    • Constitutional Law
    • Identity
    • Religious Affiliations
    • Freedom Riders
    • Miscegenation
    • Explorers
    • Robinson, Sugar Ray
    • Rucker Basketball Tournament, Harlem
    • Farmers
    • Occupations
    • Freedom's Journal
    • Sanctified Church
    • Minstrelsy
    • Criminal Sentencing of African Americans
    • National Black Theater
    • Grammy Awards
    • Islam, Nation of
    • Radio
    • Slave Baskets
    • Harlem Writers Guild
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Mis-Education of the Negro, The
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, The
    • Brown Babies
    • “Miss Ann”
    • Hospitals, Black
    • Harper, Frances Watkins
    • Slave Pottery
    • Walker, David
    • Juneteenth
    • Hip-Hop
    • National Coalition of 100 Black Women
    • Davis, Angela
    • “Mister Charlie”
    • Santeria
    • Freedmen's Bureau
    • Police Brutality
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), African Americans and
    • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
    • Southwestern Athletic Conference
    • Five Percent Nation
    • Prison Reform, African Americans and
    • Grimké, Charlotte Forten
    • Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
    • Mojo
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses, Inc.
    • Holiday, Billie
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., National Holiday
    • Slave Wrought Iron Decorations
    • Hughes, Langston
    • Houston, Charles Hamilton
    • Mojo
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Buffalo Soldiers
    • Mulatto
    • Howard University
    • Hurston, Zora Neale
    • Television
    • Korean War
    • Jackson, Mahalia
    • National Council of Negro Women (NCNW)
    • Elected Officials
    • “Nigger”
    • Slave Burial Customs
    • Hamer, Fannie Lou
    • Public Housing
    • Fugitive Slaves
    • Sports
    • Tennis
    • Gangs
    • Racial Attitudes
    • Hatcher, Richard
    • Slave Worship Practices
    • O. J. Simpson Trial
    • Evers, Medgar Wylie
    • National Federation of Afro-American Women
    • Jazz
    • Kwanzaa
    • Theater
    • Jacobs, Harriet Ann
    • Integration, School
    • Negro
    • Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
    • Chicago Defender
    • “Nigger”
    • Intelligence Tests
    • Johnson, James Weldon
    • Theater Owners Booking Agency (TOBA)
    • Labor Movement
    • Joplin, Scott
    • National League for the Protection of Colored Women
    • Executive Order 8802 (1941)
    • Rastafarianism
    • Soul
    • Henson, Josiah
    • Racial Violence
    • Haitians and African Americans
    • Track and Field
    • Women and Sports
    • Hebrews, Black
    • Segregation, Residential
    • Houston, Charles Hamilton
    • Sullivan, Leon
    • Rent Parties
    • Executive Order 9981 (1948)
    • National Medical Association
    • Minstrelsy
    • Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
    • Tyson, Cicely
    • Larsen, Nella
    • Iota Phi Theta Fraternity
    • Pan-Africanism
    • Chicago Riots of 1919
    • Chicago Seven
    • Political Status
    • Ivy League
    • Literature, Early
    • Los Angeles Riots
    • Morganfield, McKinley (Muddy Waters)
    • National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women
    • Farrakhan, Louis
    • Roots: The Saga of an African American Family
    • Theology, Black
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr.
    • Segregation, School
    • Hispanic Americans and African Americans
    • Woods, Eldrick “Tiger”
    • Intellectuals, Black
    • Suburbanization
    • Liberator, The
    • Tricksters
    • Protest Humor
    • Fair Employment Practices Committee
    • National Welfare Rights Organization
    • Motown Historical Museum
    • Lynching
    • Lorde, Audre
    • Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity
    • Poll Tax
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Race
    • Lincoln University
    • McMillan, Terry
    • March on Washington, The
    • Music, Concert/Classical
    • Negro Life and History, Association for the Study of
    • Fair Housing Act
    • Quilting
    • Voodoo
    • Malcolm X
    • Underclass
    • Italian Americans and African Americans
    • Jewish Americans and African Americans
    • Unemployment
    • Nat Turner's Rebellion
    • Slave Baskets
    • Foreign Policy
    • New England Anti-Slavery Society
    • Music, Country
    • Mardi Gras Parade
    • Morrison, Toni
    • Literacy
    • Race Theory
    • Civil Rights Congress, The
    • Civil War, The
    • Racial Violence
    • Little Rock Central High School
    • National Book Award
    • Migration
    • Music, Popular
    • New York Manumission Society
    • Fugitive Slave Laws
    • Slave Burial Customs
    • North Star, The
    • Wealth, African American
    • Judiciary
    • Law Enforcement and Public Safety, African Americans in
    • Welfare Rights Movement
    • Parks, Rosa
    • Slave Folktales
    • Garvey, Marcus
    • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
    • Music Industry, Modern
    • Million Man March
    • New Negro, The
    • Midwives
    • Reparations
    • Colonial Critics of Slavery
    • Colonialism
    • Sambo Stereotype
    • Mis-Education of the Negro, The
    • Nobel Prize
    • Million Woman March
    • National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses, Inc.
    • Omega Psi Phi Fraternity
    • Greener, Richard Theodore
    • Slave Pottery
    • Protest, Nonviolent
    • Lawyers
    • Mayors
    • Randolph, Asa Philip
    • Slave Spirituals
    • Graves, Earl G.
    • Operation PUSH
    • New Orleans Jazz
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Painting
    • Morehouse College
    • Sanctified Church
    • Colonization
    • Compromise of 1850
    • Signifying
    • National Medical Association
    • Playwrights
    • New Negro, The
    • Opera, African Americans in
    • Organization of African Unity
    • Great Society
    • Slave Wrought Iron Decorations
    • Robinson, Randall
    • Middle Class, Black
    • Miners
    • Slave Wrought Iron Decorations
    • Suppers, Saturday Night
    • Griggs v. Duke Power
    • Organization of Afro-American Unity
    • Paige, Leroy Robert (“Satchel”)
    • New York Slave Rebellion
    • Poetry
    • Nursing
    • Slavery, Economic System of
    • Confederate Soldiers, Black
    • Crisis, The
    • Stereotypes
    • Omega Psi Phi Fraternity
    • Poets Laureate
    • Niagara Movement
    • Parker, Charlie
    • Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity
    • Hamer, Fannie Lou
    • Television
    • Slavery, Political History of
    • Muslims, Black
    • Native Americans and African Americans
    • Terrell, Mary Church
    • Tricksters
    • Hatcher, Richard
    • Prince Hall Masons
    • R&B Groups, Female
    • Olympic Games of 1936
    • Pulitzer Prize
    • Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity
    • Uncle Tom
    • Debt Peonage
    • Douglass, Frederick
    • Physicians and Medicine
    • Shange, Ntozake
    • Olympic Games of 1968
    • R&B Groups, Male
    • Rainbow Coalition
    • Higginbotham, A. Leon
    • Urban Legends
    • Tubman, Harriet
    • Opera, African Americans in
    • Republican Party
    • Underground Railroad
    • Walker, Madam C. J.
    • Hill-Thomas Hearings
    • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Race Records
    • Operation Breadbasket
    • Short Story, The
    • Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture
    • Draft Riot of 1863
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • Segregation, School
    • Slave Folktales
    • Pan-Africanism
    • Ragtime Music
    • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
    • Homestead Act of 1862
    • Weddings
    • Vesey, Denmark
    • Revolutionary War, African American Participation in
    • Sailors
    • Williams, Robert
    • Immigration
    • Southern Negro Youth Congress
    • Rainey, Gertrude “Ma”
    • Pentecostalism
    • Slave Narratives
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority
    • Spingarn Medal
    • Political Movements
    • Rap Music
    • Southwestern Athletic Conference
    • Incarceration
    • Seminoles, Black
    • Slaveowners, African American
    • Jackson, Jesse
    • Supreme Court, U.S.
    • Robeson, Paul
    • Poor People's March
    • Truth, Sojourner
    • Sipuel v. Board of Regents
    • Equiano, Olaudah
    • Executive Order 8802 (1941)
    • Title IX
    • Uncle Tom's Cabin
    • Poverty, War on
    • Shakur, Tupac
    • United Nations
    • Jim Crow
    • Spanish-American War
    • Steelworkers
    • Jordan, Barbara
    • Universal Negro Improvement Association
    • Slave Spirituals
    • Race Riots
    • Walker, Alice
    • Tuskegee Institute
    • Executive Order 9981 (1948)
    • Eyes on the Prize
    • United Negro College Fund
    • West, Cornel
    • Red Summer
    • Smith, Bessie
    • Urban League, National
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    • Talented Tenth, The
    • Tuskegee Airmen
    • King, Coretta Scott
    • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
    • Soul Music
    • Sit-In Movement
    • Wheatley, Phillis
    • Washington, Booker T.
    • Federal Writers' Project
    • Fifteenth Amendment
    • West, Cornell
    • Wilson, August
    • Slave Revolts
    • Soul Train
    • Zeta Phi Beta Sorority
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr.
    • Underclass
    • Zulu Nation
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change
    • Stepping
    • Stono Rebellion of 1739
    • Wright, Richard
    • Wilson, William Julius
    • Fifty-Fourth Regiment, The
    • Fourteenth Amendment
    • Zeta Phi Beta Sorority
    • TransAfrica Forum
    • Tap Dance
    • Lynching
    • Malcolm X
    • Wallace, Christopher
    • Tulsa Race Riot of 1921
    • Franklin, John Hope
    • Free African Society
    • Uprisings, Racial
    • Work Songs
    • Marshall, Thurgood
    • Marxism
    • Watch Night
    • Free Blacks, Antebellum
    • Freedman's Bank
    • Watts Riot
    • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • Welfare Rights Movement
    • Freedmen's Bureau
    • Freedom's Journal
    • Western Settlement
    • National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women
    • New Deal, African Americans and the
    • Williams, Robert
    • Freedom Riders
    • French and Indian War
    • Women's Club Movement
    • Norton, Eleanor Holmes
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
    • Women's Suffrage Movement
    • Fugitive Slave Laws
    • Fugitive Slaves
    • Political Status
    • Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.
    • Fur Trade
    • Gangs
    • Powell, Colin L.
    • Profiling, Racial
    • Garvey, Marcus
    • Great Depression, The
    • Public Housing
    • Reconstruction
    • Great Migration, The
    • Harlem Renaissance
    • Redlining
    • Reparations
    • Harlem Riots (1935, 1943, 1964)
    • Hemings, Sally
    • Restrictive Covenants
    • Rice, Condoleezza
    • Henry, John
    • Hughes, Langston
    • Robinson, Randall
    • Segregation, Urban
    • Hurston, Zora Neale
    • Jim Crow
    • Sipuel v. Board of Regents
    • Slaves, Punishment of
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    • Kwanzaa
    • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • Sullivan, Leon
    • Liberator, The
    • Lynching
    • Thirteenth Amendment
    • Thomas, Clarence
    • Mexican-American War
    • Middle Passage
    • Urban Renewal
    • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Wilder, L. Douglas
    • Nat Turner's Rebellion
    • National Underground Railroad Museum, The
    • Wilkins, Roy
    • Wilson, William Julius
    • Negro Leagues
    • New York Slave Rebellion
    • Young, Andrew
    • Niagara Movement
    • North Star, The
    • Parks, Rosa
    • Persian Gulf War
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
    • Poll Tax
    • Prince Hall Masons
    • Protest, Nonviolent
    • Race Riots
    • Randolph, Asa Philip
    • Reconstruction
    • Reparations
    • Revolutionary War, African American Participation in
    • Rosewood Riot of 1923
    • Scottsboro Incident
    • Sit-In Movement
    • Slave Narratives
    • Slave Revolts
    • Slave Trade
    • Slavery, Economic System of
    • Slavery, Origins of
    • Slavery, Political History of
    • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Spanish-American War
    • Stono Rebellion of 1739
    • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • Thirteenth Amendment
    • Till, Emmett
    • Transatlantic Slave Trade
    • Truth, Sojourner
    • Tubman, Harriet
    • Tuskegee Airmen
    • Tuskegee Experiment, The
    • Tuskegee Institute
    • Uncle Tom
    • Underground Railroad
    • Urbanization in New York City, Early
    • Vietnam War, The
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Washington, Booker T.
    • Western Settlement
    • Wheatley, Phillis
    • Women's Suffrage Movement
    • Work Songs
    • World War I
    • World War II
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
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    • Copyright

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      Editorial Board

      General Editor

      Gerald D. Jaynes, Ph.D.

      Departments of African American Studies and Economics, Yale University

      Advisers

      Sherri L. Barnes

      Associate Librarian

      University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries

      W. Maurice Shipley, Ph.D.

      African American and African Studies, Ohio State University

      William H. Wiggins, Jr., Ph.D.

      Afro-American Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into eighteen general topical categories: Concepts and Theories; Fine Arts, Theater, and Entertainment; Health and Education; History and Heritage; Literature; Media; Movements and Events; Music and Dance; Organizations and Institutions; Places; Politics and Policy; Popular Culture; Religion and Beliefs; the Road to Freedom; Science, Technology, and Business; Social Issues; Special Populations; and Sports. Some entry titles appear in more than one category.

      History and Heritage
    • Abolition
    • African Heritage
    • African Independence
    • African Meeting House
    • African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church, The
    • African Missionary Movement
    • American Anti-Slavery Society
    • American Colonization Society
    • American Negro Academy
    • Amistad, The
    • Amos ‘n’ Andy Show
    • Anti-Lynching Bill
    • Apollo Theater
    • Atlanta Riot of 1906
    • Attica Uprising
    • Attucks, Crispus
    • Back to Africa Movement
    • Banneker, Benjamin
    • Birth of a Nation, The
    • Black Codes
    • Black Nationalism
    • Black Power Movement
    • Bondwoman's Narrative, The
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, The
    • Brown Babies
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Buffalo Soldiers
    • Chesnutt, Charles Waddell
    • Chicago Defender
    • Chicago Riots of 1919
    • Chicago Seven
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Civil Rights Congress, The
    • Civil War, The
    • Colonial Critics of Slavery
    • Colonialism
    • Colonization
    • Compromise of 1850
    • Confederate Soldiers, Black
    • Crisis, The
    • Debt Peonage
    • Douglass, Frederick
    • Draft Riot of 1863
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt
    • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Equiano, Olaudah
    • Executive Order 8802 (1941)
    • Executive Order 9981 (1948)
    • Eyes on the Prize
    • Federal Writers' Project
    • Fifteenth Amendment
    • Fifty-Fourth Regiment, The
    • Fourteenth Amendment
    • Franklin, John Hope
    • Free African Society
    • Free Blacks, Antebellum
    • Freedman's Bank
    • Freedmen's Bureau
    • Freedom's Journal
    • Freedom Riders
    • French and Indian War
    • Fugitive Slave Laws
    • Fugitive Slaves
    • Fur Trade
    • Gangs
    • Garvey, Marcus
    • Great Depression, The
    • Great Migration, The
    • Harlem Renaissance
    • Harlem Riots (1935, 1943, 1964)
    • Hemings, Sally
    • Henry, John
    • Hughes, Langston
    • Hurston, Zora Neale
    • Jim Crow
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    • Kwanzaa
    • Liberator, The
    • Lynching
    • Mexican-American War
    • Middle Passage
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Nat Turner's Rebellion
    • National Underground Railroad Museum, The
    • Negro Leagues
    • New York Slave Rebellion
    • Niagara Movement
    • North Star, The
    • Parks, Rosa
    • Persian Gulf War
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
    • Poll Tax
    • Prince Hall Masons
    • Protest, Nonviolent
    • Race Riots
    • Randolph, Asa Philip
    • Reconstruction
    • Reparations
    • Revolutionary War, African American Participation in
    • Rosewood Riot of 1923
    • Scottsboro Incident
    • Sit-In Movement
    • Slave Narratives
    • Slave Revolts
    • Slave Trade
    • Slavery, Economic System of
    • Slavery, Origins of
    • Slavery, Political History of
    • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Spanish-American War
    • Stono Rebellion of 1739
    • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • Thirteenth Amendment
    • Till, Emmett
    • Transatlantic Slave Trade
    • Truth, Sojourner
    • Tubman, Harriet
    • Tuskegee Airmen
    • Tuskegee Experiment, The
    • Tuskegee Institute
    • Uncle Tom
    • Underground Railroad
    • Urbanization in New York City, Early
    • Vietnam War, The
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Washington, Booker T.
    • Western Settlement
    • Wheatley, Phillis
    • Women's Suffrage Movement
    • Work Songs
    • World War I
    • World War II
    • Organizations and Institutions
    • Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority
    • Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity
    • Baptist Church Organization
    • Black Women Mayors' Caucus
    • Blue Vein Society
    • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, The
    • Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Council on African Affairs
    • Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    • Fair Employment Practices Committee
    • Free African Society
    • Freedman's Bank
    • Masons, The Fraternal Order of
    • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    • Mutual Benefit Societies
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • National Association of Black Journalists
    • National Association of Colored Women
    • National Baptist Convention, The
    • National Bar Association
    • National Black Theater
    • National Coalition of 100 Black Women
    • National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses, Inc.
    • National Council of Negro Women (NCNW)
    • National Federation of Afro-American Women
    • National League for the Protection of Colored Women
    • National Medical Association
    • National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women
    • National Welfare Rights Organization
    • Negro Life and History, Association for the Study of
    • New England Anti-Slavery Society
    • New York Manumission Society
    • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
    • Omega Psi Phi Fraternity
    • Operation PUSH
    • Organization of African Unity
    • Organization of Afro-American Unity
    • Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity
    • Prince Hall Masons
    • Rainbow Coalition
    • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
    • Southern Negro Youth Congress
    • Southwestern Athletic Conference
    • Supreme Court, U.S.
    • United Nations
    • Universal Negro Improvement Association
    • Urban League, National
    • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
    • Zeta Phi Beta Sorority
    • Politics and Policy
    • Affirmative Action
    • Anti-Lynching Bill
    • Atlanta Compromise
    • Black Codes
    • Black Panther Party
    • Bradley, Tom
    • Brooke, Edward William, III
    • Bunche, Ralph Johnson
    • Busing
    • Cabinet, U.S. Presidential
    • Canada and African Americans
    • Capital Punishment
    • Census, U.S.
    • Chisholm, Shirley
    • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Civil Service
    • Communism
    • Compromise of 1850
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • Congressional Black Caucus
    • Conservatives, Black
    • Constitutional Law
    • Criminal Sentencing of African Americans
    • Davis, Angela
    • Dred Scott v. Sandford
    • Elected Officials
    • Evers, Medgar Wylie
    • Executive Order 8802 (1941)
    • Executive Order 9981 (1948)
    • Farrakhan, Louis
    • Fair Employment Practices Committee
    • Fair Housing Act
    • Foreign Policy
    • Fugitive Slave Laws
    • Garvey, Marcus
    • Greener, Richard Theodore
    • Graves, Earl G.
    • Great Society
    • Griggs v. Duke Power
    • Hamer, Fannie Lou
    • Hatcher, Richard
    • Higginbotham, A. Leon
    • Hill-Thomas Hearings
    • Homestead Act of 1862
    • Immigration
    • Incarceration
    • Jackson, Jesse
    • Jim Crow
    • Jordan, Barbara
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    • King, Coretta Scott
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr.
    • King, Martin Luther, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change
    • Lynching
    • Malcolm X
    • Marshall, Thurgood
    • Marxism
    • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    • Missouri Compromise of 1820
    • National Organization of Black Elected Legislative Women
    • New Deal, African Americans and the
    • Norton, Eleanor Holmes
    • Plessy v. Ferguson
    • Political Status
    • Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.
    • Powell, Colin L.
    • Profiling, Racial
    • Public Housing
    • Reconstruction
    • Redlining
    • Reparations
    • Restrictive Covenants
    • Rice, Condoleezza
    • Robinson, Randall
    • Segregation, Urban
    • Sipuel v. Board of Regents
    • Slaves, Punishment of
    • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • Sullivan, Leon
    • Thirteenth Amendment
    • Thomas, Clarence
    • Urban Renewal
    • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Wilder, L. Douglas
    • Wilkins, Roy
    • Wilson, William Julius
    • Young, Andrew
    • About the Editor

      Gerald D. Jaynes is Professor in the Departments of African American Studies and Economics at Yale University, where he has been a faculty member since 1977. He received a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana with high honors in philosophy in 1971 and a doctorate in economics in 1976, also from the University of Illinois at Urbana. He chaired the African American Studies program at Yale from 1990 to 1996. During his chairmanship, Yale designed and offered the nation's first joint doctoral degrees in African American studies and several other areas of academic study.

      From 1985 to 1989, Dr. Jaynes served as study director of the Committee on the Status of Black Americans at the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. He has lectured at many universities and forums around the world. He has appeared on radio and television, including the NBC Today Show and the Bill Moyers Show. Listed in Who's Who Among African Americans since 1989, he has written extensively for both scholarly journals and popular magazines. His three books are Branches Without Roots: Genesis of the Black Working Class in the American South (1986); A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society, edited with Robin Williams Jr. (1989); and Immigration and Race, which he edited (2000).

      Dr. Jaynes has testified before the U.S. Congress on numerous occasions, served as chairman of the New Haven Minority Business Development Agency, and served on the Board of Economists for Black Enterprise Magazine. He has also served as a Fellow for the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies and as a board adviser to the Encyclopedia of African American Literature.

      About the Contributors

      Principal Contributors

      General Editor

      Gerald D. Jaynes, Ph.D. Departments of African American Studies (Former Chair) and Economics Yale University

      Advisers

      Sherri L. Barnes

      Associate Librarian for Women's Studies, Writing, and U.S. History University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries

      W. Maurice Shipley, Ph.D.

      African American and African Studies Ohio State University

      William H. Wiggins, Jr., Ph.D.

      Former Chair of Afro-American Studies Trustee, Library of Congress, American Folklife Center Indiana University, Bloomington

      John Barnhill, Ph.D.

      Independent scholar

      Kathleen Neal Cleaver, Ph.D.

      African American and American

      Studies Yale University

      Robert Fink, Ph.D.

      Independent scholar

      Jane Garry

      Independent scholar

      David Gold, Ph.D.

      Independent scholar

      David Cunningham, Ph.D.

      Director, The Metcalfe Museum Durham, Oklahoma

      Kurt Hohenstein, Ph.D.

      Corcoran Department of History University of Virginia

      Peter A. Kuryla

      Independent scholar

      Gary Lemons, Ph.D.

      Former Director of Race, Ethnicity, and Post-Colonial Studies Eugene Lang College, New School for Social Research

      Thomas T. Lewis, Ph.D.

      Independent scholar

      Carmelita Pickett

      Assistant Professor and African American Studies Librarian

      Sterling C. Evans Library, Texas A&M University Libraries

      Jennifer Wallach, Ph.D.

      Independent scholar

      Sonya Winton

      African American and American Studies Yale University

      Laurie Woodard

      Independent scholar

      List of Illustrations

      Actors and Actresses
      Athletes
      Baseball
      Black Baptist Church
      Family, African American
      Fiction, Modern
      Historically Black Colleges and Universities
      Science and Invention
      Washington, Booker T.
      Music Industry, Modern
      National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
      Olympic Games of 1936

      Preface

      Now and then I receive emails and letters from students requesting assistance. Most often, the request concerns some aspect of African American society. The questioners have ranged in age from those in their earliest teenage years to typical college students to mature seniors enrolled in community college during their retirement years. Their inquiries have covered a wide spectrum of topics. They seek information about personalities, issues, and events covering the gamut from straightforward questions of who, when, or what to complex interrogatories seeking some definitive why. Recent examples fresh in my mind are: Who was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from an American institution of higher education? When was the Black Congressional Caucus formed? What was the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party? Why do African Americans have higher unemployment rates than most other racial and ethnic groups?

      When the publisher of The Encyclopedia of African American Society invited me to serve as general editor of this new work, one of my first thoughts was of these kinds of requests and the people who make them. Those (usually young) people and their millions of peers were the deciding factor in my decision to undertake the project. Our objective was to gather in two volumes a comprehensive assembly of concise essays that would provide many of the answers to just the kinds of questions that countless students—and often general readers—frequently seek. The objective was not to offer a complete discourse on these issues (the student is advised against summarizing any of these entries to turn in as a term paper) but to provide the reader with a reliable and initial reference as a point of entry—a starting point for learning basic facts and ideas about African American society and for obtaining guidance about where to go for more information. A further objective was to insist on entries written in clear, unassuming prose accessible to secondary school students but sophisticated enough to be useful to those at the more advanced stages of their education.

      The pages that follow meet those objectives. Within them, the reader can find out that in 1876, Alexander Bouchet of New Haven, Connecticut, received a Ph.D. in physics from Yale University, becoming the first African American to be awarded a doctoral degree from an American institution of higher learning; that the Black Caucus was formed in 1971; that the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was a political party that was formed to fight for black political rights and that in 1964 challenged the legitimacy of the all-white Democratic state primary; and, although even professional economists disagree as to a definitive explanation of why African Americans have higher unemployment rates, the reader can find an informative discussion of the issue in the following pages. We hope you enjoy the journey.

      Gerald D. Jaynes, Yale University

      Introduction

      Just a few decades ago, a reference work titled the Encyclopedia of African American Society would have been very different from the two-volume work offered here. Obviously, the sheer passage of time makes updating necessary (Tiger Woods wasn't born until 1975, and a young girl named Mae Jemison only dreamed of becoming an astronaut). But the differences I refer to are more complex than mere updating to reflect the brute accumulation of facts that always accompanies the ongoing movement of time. Perhaps the major difference between what might have been published sometime during the 1960s and the entries chosen here can be summed up in two words: greater diversity. Back then, the editor might have given great consideration to an alternative title, such as the Encyclopedia of the Black Community. Because the black population of the United States has always been characterized with more diversity and nuance than Americans' everyday references to it might suggest, that title would have been something of a misnomer even then, but at least until the late 1970s, blacks were prone to refer to themselves as “the community.” Also, the much higher degree of social and economic cohesiveness that characterized the black population back in earlier decades certainly provided license to those who referred to black Americans as a “community,” even if the term might not have been justified strictly on sociological grounds.

      At the beginning of the 1960s, African Americans (who of course weren't called by that name but were referred to as “Negroes” or “colored people”) were on the verge of asserting themselves to be Black Americans. That assertion was a pivotal stage in a process of identity change initiated by a self-awakening and movement toward a new, more assertive, and confident consciousness of who Americans of African descent were and where they should be going. At the time, Americans of African descent were largely segregated in nearly every major segment of life. That segregation both reflected and enforced a harsh dis-crimination designed to keep them in an inferior and subordinated status that denied their individual differences and therefore their basic humanity. That segregation also enforced and sustained among blacks a strong sense of a linked fate—a belief in a common future that would be shaped by the existence of similar needs, goals, and obstacles.

      Although a strong belief that Americans of African descent share a linked fate persists among African Americans today, the social and economic cohesiveness that once existed is no longer a sociological fact or as prominent a factor in many African Americans' everyday lives. Early in the twenty-first century, African Americans, as a distinct population more or less identified in U.S. census statistics, are nearly as diverse as many other ethnic or racial groups. While African Americans are still disproportionately poor (they vie with Hispanic Americans for the distinction of having the highest poverty rate among major race or ethnic groups, approximately 24% and 22% for African Americans and Hispanics, respectively, in 2002), increasing numbers of African Americans are also among the most affluent and influential citizens in the nation. Young entrepreneurs have amassed fortunes in the growing mass consumer market that appeals to youth of all races, and an African American woman succeeded an African American man as U.S. secretary of state in 2005. The number of African Americans remains disproportionately high among high school dropouts and lags behind the average American college graduation rates, but unlike the 1960s, black students can be found in every major institution of higher learning in the country. Furthermore, an African American woman, Ruth J. Simmons, is president of historic Brown University and is one of several African Americans who have headed major academic institutions with predominantly white student bodies. Such diversity in African Americans' college attendance patterns has meant that the number of historically black colleges and universities has declined, but many such institutions continue to thrive and graduate large numbers of students who become leaders in all fields of society.

      The formal definition of society that is relevant to the Encyclopedia of African American Society may be given in two parts: a society is “an enduring and cooperating social group whose members have developed organized patterns of relationships through interaction with one another” and have “common traditions, institutions, and collective activities and interests” (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, tenth edition). Thus, although the African American population has been transformed by incredible social and economic diversity during the past few decades, its venerable institutions have been retained, and its collective activities and the organizations required to pursue those activities live on, although each has had to adapt to changing conditions both within the greater society and among African Americans themselves. The nearly 700 entries in the Encyclopedia of African American Society reflect both the continuity of cultural and social institutions and patterns of interaction among African Americans and between them and others, as well as the increased diversity evident within the African American population.

      The objective of the Encyclopedia of African American Society is to capture the spirit of the aforementioned idea of a “society”—to provide a reference base for those interested in obtaining information about the significant events, institutions, and activities that have taken African Americans along the path leading to their present positions and that have provided the source of continuing cohesiveness that allows both African Americans and the rest of the world to think of Americans of African descent in terms that justify the nomenclature “African American society.” Thus, while biographic information on a wide list of the usual suspects important to African American history (e.g., Phillis Wheatley, David Walker, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, W. E. B. Du Bois, Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., the AME Church, the Baptist Church, NAACP, Tuskegee Institute) and scores of others can be found in the Encyclopedia, an effort has been made to focus on social events, issues, and ideas of consequence. The final result is therefore necessarily multi-disciplinary, covering a broad range of categories.

      We arrived at our selection of entries by assembling our choices into three general categories or groups: social issues, humanities, and people and places. The social issues discussed include social and civil movements, law and justice, economic growth, and policies and politics. Entries within the field of humanities cover areas including art, literature, popular culture, religious life, and education.

      The reader searching for entries on specific people will, as mentioned above, find many of them listed alphabetically by name as main entries. However, information about some well-known people is not presented in that format. Instead, several of the longer or medium-length entries are accompanied by additional information in boxes that accompany topical entries. For example, biographical information on Ida B. Wells may be found in the “In Their Own Words” feature that accompanies the entry on the Anti-Lynching bill sought by African American activists during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This box quotes her reactions to the Silent Protest Parade of 1917.

      A word or two about the breadth of coverage in this book within the three general topics noted above is in order. Entries on social issues include relatively long entries on traditional topics such as abolition and the civil rights movement—two topics that tie the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and show continuity in both the struggle for the rights of African Americans and the struggle to achieve the vision of full democracy in America. The reader will also find medium-length entries covering issues such as feminism and the Afrocentric movement, as well as shorter entries on topics such as the TransAfrica Forum and the bread riot of 1863. On the general subject of “policies and politics,” entries range from transracial adoption and affirmative action to the National Welfare Rights

      Organization and the relation between Italian Americans and African Americans. Entries on social issues also include a number of topics related to law and justice, such as capital punishment and racial violence, as well as a long entry on Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and an entry on Richmond v. Croson. The latter entry discusses an important 1989 U.S. Supreme Court case that set benchmarks affecting the ability of cities and other local governments to redress past and ongoing discrimination by encouraging minority business formation through specific programs meant to increase minority contracting with such governments. On the subject of economic growth, we include several important labor market and business topics such as domestic workers, steelworkers, the automobile industry, and black entrepreneurs.

      Entries in the area of humanities include especially broad coverage of topics on culture. Users may find, for example, entries on two of Harlem's famous institutions (the newspaper The Amsterdam News and the Apollo Theatre), long entries on visual art and popular music, and an explanation of the southern vernacular term “Miss Ann,” to mention only a few. The coverage of religious life includes entries on the major churches serving African American society as well as less numerically representative groups such as Black Hebrews and other entries on specific topics such as the clergy and slave worship practices.

      The topics and entries I discussed here represent just a fraction of what is available in this two-volume reference work. I have not mentioned, for example, coverage of important social and economic developments such as the fact that some of the nation's most important corporations are now headed by African Americans. I have also not mentioned that the evolution of black consciousness appears to be ongoing. The last decennial census allowed people of mixed ancestry to declare themselves members of more than one racial category. Hundreds of thousands took the opportunity to do so. In place of what previously would have been, in the census data at least, a population of black people uncomplicated by the result of real-world interracial interactions, we now have another source of diversity and a subpopulation calling themselves of mixed race but still, in most cases, no less proud of their African heritage. That cultural and social development is reflected in several entries such as “Colorism” and “Biracialism.” Nor have I discussed that along with black poverty and joblessness, as well as segregated housing patterns producing black housing projects in many major cities, we also have African American wealth and educational attainment. Moreover, many African Americans live in affluent predominantly white suburbs such as Cleveland's Shaker Heights and New York's Westchester County, as well as affluent suburbs such as Prince Georges County, Maryland, where the majority of the population is black.

      Each of these developments demonstrating the great diversity and continuity characterizing African American society is remarked on in some way in the entries that follow this introduction. I could discuss these changes in even greater specificity, but there is of course no better way for the reader to taste these significant developments than to open the pages and start reading.

      Gerald D. Jaynes, General Editor
    • African Americans in Halls of Fame

      The following is a partial list of halls of fame that honor only African Americans as well as African American honorees in other specialized halls of fame. Information on many, but not all, of those mentioned below can be found in the Encyclopedia of African American Society.

      African-American Writers Hall of Fame
      • Alexander, Margaret
      • Baldwin, James
      • Bambara, Toni Cade
      • Baraka, Amiri
      • Bennett, Lerone, Jr.
      • Bontemps, Arna
      • Brooks, Gwendolyn
      • Brown, Frank London
      • Brown, Sterling Allen
      • Clifton, Lucille
      • Colter, Cyrus
      • Cullen, Countee
      • Danner, Margaret
      • Dash, Julie
      • Davis, Arthur Paul
      • Davis, Thulani
      • Du Bois, Shirley Graham
      • Du Bois, W. E. B.
      • Dunbar, Paul Laurence
      • Ellison, Ralph
      • Evans, Mari
      • Forrest, Leon
      • Fuller, Hoyt W.
      • Gaines, Ernest
      • Gilbert, Herman Cromwell
      • Gilbert, Lerman “Zack”
      • Giovanni, Nikki
      • Haley, Alex
      • Hayden, Robert
      • Himes, Chester
      • Hughes, Langston
      • Hurston, Zora Neale
      • Killens, John Oliver
      • Knight, Etheridge
      • Lorde, Audre
      • Madhubuti, Haki
      • Micheaux, Oscar
      • Morrison, Toni
      • Neal, Larry
      • Petry, Ann
      • Randall, Dudley
      • Reed, Ishmael
      • Toomer, Jean
      • Walker, Alice
      • West, Dorothy
      • Wideman, John Edgar
      • Williams, John A.
      • Wilson, August
      • Wright, Richard
      American Nurses Association Hall of Fame
      • Carnegie, Mary Elizabeth, 2000
      • Damer, Annie, 1998
      • Franklin, Martha Minerva, 1976
      • Jacobs, Maggie, 2000
      • Mahoney, Mary Eliza, 1976 (first black professional nurse in the United States.)
      • Osborne, Estelle Massey, 1984
      • Staupers, Mabel Keaton, 1996
      • Thoms, Adah Belle Samuel, 1976
      Basketball Hall of Fame
      • Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 1995
      • Archibald, Nate (“Tiny”), 1991
      • Baylor, Elgin, 1977
      • Bellamy, Walt, 1993
      • Bing, Dave, 1990
      • Chamberlain, Wilt, 1979
      • Cooper, Charles (“Tarzan”), 1977
      • English, Alex, 1997
      • Erving, Julius, 1993
      • Frazier, Walt, 1987
      • Gates, William (“Pop”), 1989
      • Gervin, George, 1996
      • Greer, Harold (“Hal”), 1982
      • Hawkins, Connie (“the Hawk”),
      • 1992
      • Hayes, Elvin, 1990
      • Haynes, Marques, 1998
      • Johnson, Earvin (“Magic”), 2002
      • Jones, K. C., 1989
      • Jones, Sam, 1984
      • Lanier, Bob, 1992
      • Malone, Moses, 2001
      • McAdoo, Robert, 2000
      • Monroe, Earl (“the Pearl”), 1990
      • Murphy, Calvin, 1993
      • Parish, Robert, 2003
      • Reed, Willis, 1982
      • Robertson, Oscar, 1980
      • Russell, William (“Bill”), 1975
      • Thomas, Isiah, 2000
      • Thompson, David, 1996
      • Thurmond, Nate, 1985
      • Unseld, Wes, 1988
      • Wilkens, Leonard (“Lenny”), 1989
      • Worthy, James, 2003
      Hampton Roads African American Sports Hall of Fame
        Baseball
      • Burt, Thomas “Tater Hustler,” 2000
      • Lundy, Walter, 2002
        Basketball
      • Baker, Ashley, 2001
      • Christian, Charles, 2002
      • Dandridge, Robert, 1997
      • Dixon, Medina, 1998
      • Erving, Julius “Dr. J,” 1997
      • Gervin, George, 1998
      • Greene, Vivian, 1998
      • Kellogg, Junius, 2001
      • Scott, Charles, 1999
      • Scott, Ray, 2000
        Coaches
      • Price, William “Dick,” 1997
        Football
      • Brown, Roger, 1997
      • Easley, Kenny, 1998
      • Faison, Earl, 2001
      • Fuller, William, 2002
      • Graves, Tommy, 2000
      • Keyes, Leroy, 1998
      • Langston, Joseph, 2002
      • Quarles, George, 2002
      • Rose, Joseph Holomon, 1999
      • Stephenson, Dwight, 2001
      • Stukes, Charles, 1999
        Track and Field
      • Riddick, Steve, 1997
      International Boxing Hall of Fame
      • Ali, Muhammad, 1990
      • Armstrong, Henry, 1990
      • Brown, Joe, 1996
      • Burley, Charley, 1992
      • Carter, Jimmy, 2000
      • Cokes, Curtis, 2003
      • Ezzard, Charles, 1990
      • Foreman, George, 2003
      • Foster, Bob, 1990
      • Frazier, Joe, 1990
      • Gavilan, Kid, 1990 (Cuba)
      • Griffith, Emile, 1990 (U.S. Virgin Islands)
      • Hagler, Marvin, 1993
      • Jack, Beau, 1991
      • Johnson, Harold, 1993
      • Leonard, Sugar Ray, 1997
      • Liston, Sonny, 1991
      • Louis, Joe, 1990
      • Montgomery, Bob, 1995
      • Moore, Archie, 1990
      • Norton, Ken, 1992
      • Patterson, Floyd, 1991
      • Qawi, Dwight Muhammad, 2004
      • Robinson, Sugar Ray, 1990
      • Saad Muhammad, Matthew, 1998
      • Spinks, Michael, 1994
      • Walcott, Jersey Joe, 1990
      • Williams, Ike, 1990
      • Wright, Albert “Chalky,” 1997
      International Tennis Hall of Fame
      • Ashe, Arthur, 1985
      • Gibson, Althea, 1971
      National Baseball Hall of Fame
      • Aaron, Hank, 1982
      • Banks, Ernie, 1977
      • Bell, “Cool Papa”
      • (James Thomas Bell), 1974
      • Brock, Lou, 1985
      • Carew, Rod, 1991
      • Charleston, Oscar, 1976
      • Clemente, Roberto, 1973
      • (Puerto Rico)
      • Dandridge, Ray, 1987
      • Day, Leon, 1995
      • Dihigo, Martin, 1977
      • Doby, Larry, 1998
      • Foster, Bill, 1996
      • Gibson, Bob, 1981
      • Gibson, Josh, 1972
      • Irvin, Monte, 1973
      • Jackson, Reggie, 1993
      • Jenkins, Fergie, 1991
      • Johnson, Judy (Julius), 1975
      • Leonard, Buck
      • (Walter Fenner), 1972
      • Lloyd, Pop (John Henry), 1977
      • Marichal, Juan, 1983
      • (Dominican Republic)
      • Mays, Willie, 1979
      • McCovey, Willie, 1986
      • Miller, Cheryl, 1995
      • Morgan, Joe, 1990
      • Murray, Eddie, 2003
      • Paige, Satchel, 1971
      • Perez, Tony, 2000 (Cuba)
      • Puckett, Kirby, 2001
      • Robinson, Frank, 1982
      • Robinson, Jackie, 1962
      • Rogan, Bullet (Wilber), 1998
      • Smith, Hilton, 2001
      • Smith, Ozzie, 2002
      • Stargell, Willie, 1988
      • Stearnes, Turkey (Norman
      • Thomas), 2000
      • Stewart, Lusia Harris, 1992
      • Wells, Willie, 1997
      • Williams, Billy, 1987
      • Williams, Joe, 1999
      • Winfield, Dave, 2001
      National Museum of Dance Hall of Fame
      • Ailey, Alvin, 1992
      • Dunham, Katherine, 1987
      • Mitchell, Arthur, 1999
      • Robinson, Bill “Bojangles,” 1987
      National Track and Field Hall of Fame
      • Ashford, Evelyn, 1997
      • Banks, Willie, 1999
      • Beamon, Bob, 1977
      • Bell, Earl, 2002
      • Boston, Ralph, 1974
      • Brisco, Valerie, 1995
      • Calhoun, Lee, 1974
      • Campbell, Milt, 1989
      • Carlos, John, 2003
      • Carr, Henry, 1997
      • Cheesdborough, Chandra, 2000
      • Davenport, Willie, 1982
      • Dillard, Harrison, 1974
      • Dumas, Charles, 1990
      • Evans, Lee, 1983
      • Ewell, Norwood, 1986
      • Faggs, Mae, 1976
      • Ferrell, Barbara, 1988
      • Foster, Greg, 1998
      • Greene, Charles, 1992
      • Joyner, Florence Griffith, 1995
      • Hayes, Bob, 1976
      • Hines, Jim, 1979
      • Hubbard, DeHart, 1979
      • Hurt, Edward, 1975
      • Jackson, Nell, 1989
      • James, Larry, 2003
      • Johnson, Rafer, 1974
      • Jones, Hayes, 1976
      • Lewis, Carl, 2001
      • Long, Dallas, 1996
      • Manning, Madeline, 1984
      • McGuire, Edith, 1979
      • Metcalfe, Ralph, 1975
      • Milburn, Rod, 1993
      • Moses, Edwin, 1994
      • Myricks, Larry, 2001
      • Nehemiah, Renaldo, 1997
      • Owens, Jesse, 1974
      • Peacock, Eulace, 1987
      • Rudolph, Wilma, 1974
      • Sime, Dave, 1981
      • Smith, Tommie, 1978
      • Stanfield, Andy, 1977
      • Temple, Ed, 1989
      • Thomas, John, 1985
      • Tolan, Eddie, 1982
      • Torrence, Gwen, 2002
      • Tyus, Wyomia, 1980
      • Watson, Martha, 1987
      • White, Willye, 1981
      • Whitfield, Mal, 1974
      • Williams, Archie, 1992
      • Wright, Stan, 1993
      National Women's Hall of Fame
      • Anderson, Marian, 1973
      • Angelou, Maya, 1998
      • Baker, Ella, 1994
      • McLeod Bethune, Mary, 1973
      • Brooks, Gwendolyn, 1988
      • Chisholm, Shirley, 1993
      • Coleman, Bessie, 2002
      • Fitzgerald, Ella, 1995
      • Gibson, Althea, 2002
      • Hamer, Fannie Lou, 1993
      • Height, Dorothy, 1993
      • Hurston, Zora Neale, 1994
      • Jemison, Mae, 1993
      • Jordan, Barbara, 1990
      • Kelly, Bishop Leontine, 2000
      • Mahoney, Mary, 1993
      • Motley, Constance Baker, 1993
      • Parks, Rosa, 1993
      • Roberts Harris, Patricia, 2003
      • Rudolph, Wilma, 1994
      • Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre, 1995
      • Shadd Cary, Mary Ann, 1998
      • Smith, Bessie, 1984
      • Truth, Sojourner, 1981
      • Tubman, Harriet, 1973
      • Walker, Madam C. J., 1993
      • Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 1988
      • Winfrey, Oprah, 1994
      • Wright Edelman, Marian, 1993
      Pro Football Hall of Fame
      • Adderley, Herb, 1980
      • Allen, Marcus, 2003
      • Barney, Lem, 1992
      • Bell, Bobby, 1983
      • Bethea, Elvin, 2003
      • Blount, Mel, 1989
      • Brown, Bob “Boomer,” 2004
      • Brown, Jim, 1971
      • Brown, Roosevelt, 1975
      • Brown, Willie, 1984
      • Buchanan, Junious, 1990
      • Campbell, Earl, 1991
      • Davis, Willie, 1981
      • Dickerson, Eric, 1999
      • Dorsett, Tony, 1994
      • Eller, Carl, 2004
      • Ford, Len, 1976
      • Greene, Joe, 1987
      • Haynes, Mike, 1997
      • Houston, Ken, 1986
      • Johnson, Jimmy, 1994
      • Johnson, John Henry, 1987
      • Joiner, Charlie, 1996
      • Jones, David “Deacon,” 1980
      • Kelly, Leroy, 1994
      • Lane, Dick (“Night Train”), 1974
      • Lanier, Willie, 1986
      • Little, Larry, 1993
      • Lofton, James, 2003
      • Lott, Ronnie, 2000
      • Mackey, John, 1992
      • Matson, Ollie, 1972
      • Mitchell, Bobby, 1983
      • Moore, Lenny, 1975
      • Motley, Marion, 1968
      • Newsome, Ozzie, 1999
      • Page, Alan, 1988
      • Parker, Jim, 1973
      • Payton, Walter, 1993
      • Perry, Joe, 1969
      • Renfro, Mel, 1996
      • Sanders, Barry, 2004
      • Sayers, Gale, 1977
      • Selmon, Lee Roy, 1995
      • Shell, Art, 1989
      • Simpson, O. J., 1985
      • Singletary, Mike, 1998
      • Slater, Jackie, 2001
      • Stallworth, John, 2002
      • Stephenson, Dwight, 1998
      • Swann, Lynn, 2001
      • Taylor, Charley, 1984
      • Taylor, Lawrence, 1999
      • Tunnell, Emlen, 1967
      • Upshaw, Gene, 1987
      • Warfield, Paul, 1983
      • Willis, Bill, 1977
      • Winslow, Kellen, 1995
      • Wood, Willie, 1989
      Radio Hall of Fame
      • Anderson, Eddie, 2001
      • Blayton, Jesse B., Sr., 1995
      • Carter, Andrew, 1995
      • Daniels, Yvonne, 1995
      • Jackson, Hal, 1995
      • Joyner, Tom, 1998
      • Kent, Herb, 1995
      • Pate, Edward, Jr.,1995
      Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
        1986
      • Berry, Chuck
      • Brown, James
      • Charles, Ray
      • Cooke, Sam
      • Domino, Fats
      • Richard, Little
        1987
      • The Coasters
      • Diddley, Bo
      • Franklin, Aretha
      • Gaye, Marvin
      • Jordan, Louis
      • King, B. B.
      • McPhatter, Clyde
      • Robinson, Smokey
      • Turner, Big Joe
      • Walker, T-Bone
      • Waters, Muddy
      • Wilson, Jackie
        1988
      • Ledbetter, Huddie (Lead Belly)
      • The Drifters
      • The Supremes
        1989
      • The Inkspots
      • Redding, Otis
      • Smith, Bessie
      • The Soul Stirrers
      • The Temptations
      • Wonder, Stevie
        1990
      • Armstrong, Louis
      • The Four Tops
      • The Platters
      • Rainey, Ma
        1991
      • Baker, LaVern
      • Hooker, John Lee
      • Howling Wolf
      • The Impressions
      • Pickett, Wilson
      • Reed, Jimmy
      • Turner, Ike and Tina
        1992
      • Booker T and the M.G.s
      • Jimi Hendrix Experience
        1993
      • James, Etta
      • Sly and the Family Stone
      • Washington, Dinah
        1994
      • Dixon, Willie
      • Marley, Bob
        1995
      • Green, Al
      • Martha and the Vandellas
      • The Orioles
        1996
      • Gladys Knight and the Pips
      • John, Little Willie
      • The Shirelles
        1997
      • Jackson, Mahalia
      • The Jackson Five
      • Monroe, Bill
      • Parliament-Funkadelic
        1998
      • Morton, Jelly Roll
      • Price, Lloyd
        1999
      • Mayfield, Curtis
      • The Staple Singers
        2000
      • Cole, Nat King
      • Holiday, Billie
        2001
      • The Flamingos
      • Jackson, Michael
        2002
      • Hayes, Isaac
        2003
      • Benjamin, Benny
        2004
      • Prince
      Songwriter's Hall of Fame
      • Benjamin, Claude A. (“Bennie”), 1984
      • Berry, Chuck, 1986
      • Blackwell, Otis, 1991
      • Bland, James, 1970
      • Brown, James, 2000
      • Cooke, Sam, 1987
      • Domino, Antoine Fats, Jr., 1998
      • Dozier, Lamont, 1988
      • Ellington, Duke, 1971
      • Gamble, Kenneth, 1995
      • Handy, W. C., 1970
      • Huff, Leon, 1995
      • Jackson, Michael, 2002
      • Johnson, James P., 1970
      • Johnson, James Weldon, 1970
      • Joplin, Scott, 1970
      • Ledbetter, Huddie (“Lead Belly”), 1970
      • Mayfield, Curtis, 2000
      • Muir, Lewis F., 1970
      • Redding, Otis, 1994
      • Richard, Little
      • Richie, Lionel, 1994
      • Robinson, Smokey, 1990
      • Simpson, Valerie, 2002
      • Turk, Roy, 1970
      • Waller, Thomas (“Fats”), 1970
      • Williams, Clarence, 1970
      • Williams, Spencer, 1970
      • Wonder, Stevie, 1983

      Colleges and Universities with African American/Black Studies Programs, by State

      Alabama
      • Tuskegee University
      • University of Alabama
      California
      • California State University at Fullerton
      • California State University at Long Beach
      • California State University at Sacramento
      • California State University at San Diego
      • California State University at San Francisco
      • Claremont College
      • San Francisco State University
      • Stanford University
      • University of California at Berkeley
      • University of California at Davis
      • University of California at Irvine
      • University of California at Los Angeles
      • University of California at San Jose
      • University of California at Santa Barbara
      Connecticut
      • Central Connecticut State University
      • Yale University
      Delaware
      • Delaware State University
      District of Columbia
      • Howard University
      Florida
      • Florida International
      • University
      • Florida State University
      • University of Florida
      Georgia
      • Emory University
      • Georgia Southern University
      • Georgia State University
      • University of Georgia
      Illinois
      • Bradley University
      • Eastern Illinois University
      • Northern Illinois University
      • Northwestern University
      • Southern Illinois University
      • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
      • West Illinois University
      Indiana
      • Indiana State University
      • Indiana University at Bloomington
      • University of Notre Dame
      • Wabash College
      Iowa
      • University of Iowa
      Kansas
      • University of Kansas
      Kentucky
      • Northern Kentucky University
      • University of Louisville
      • Western Kentucky University
      Maine
      • Bowdoin College
      • Colby College
      Maryland
      • Morgan State University
      • University of Maryland
      Massachusetts
      • Amherst College
      • Boston University
      • Brandeis University
      • Hampshire College
      • Harvard University
      • Mount Holyoke College
      • Northeastern University
      • Tufts University
      • University of Massachusetts at Amherst
      • Wellesley College
      • Williams College
      Michigan
      • Eastern Michigan University
      • Michigan State University
      • University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
      • University of Michigan at Flint
      Minnesota
      • Carleton College
      • St. Cloud State University
      • University of Minnesota at Duluth
      • University of Minnesota at Minneapolis/St. Paul
      Missouri
      • St. Louis University
      • University of Missouri at Columbia
      • University of Missouri at St. Louis
      • Washington University
      Nebraska
      • Creighton University
      • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      New Jersey
      • Princeton University
      • Rowan University
      • Rutgers University
      • Seton Hall University
      • William Paterson University
      New York
      • Bard College
      • City University of New York, Brooklyn College
      • Colgate University
      • Columbia University
      • Cornell University
      • Hamilton College
      • New York University
      • St. Lawrence University
      • State University of New York at Albany
      • State University of New York at Binghamton
      • State University of New York at Buffalo
      • State University of New York at Stony Brook
      • State University of New York, College at Cortland
      • State University of New York, College at New Paltz
      • Syracuse University
      • University of Rochester
      • Vassar College
      North Carolina
      • Duke University
      • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • University of North Carolina at Greensboro
      Ohio
      • Central State University at Wilberforce
      • Cleveland State University
      • College of Wooster
      • Kent State University
      • Miami University of Ohio
      • Oberlin College
      • Ohio State University at Columbus
      • Ohio University
      • Ohio Wesleyan University
      • University of Toledo
      • Youngstown State University
      Oklahoma
      • University of Oklahoma
      Oregon
      • Portland State University
      Pennsylvania
      • Bryn Mawr College
      • Haverford College
      • Lehigh University
      • Pennsylvania State University
      • Swarthmore College
      • Temple University
      • University of Pennsylvania
      • University of Pittsburgh
      Rhode Island
      • Brown University
      • Providence College
      • Rhode Island College
      • University of Rhode Island
      South Carolina
      • Citadel, The
      • Clemson University
      • College of Charleston
      • University of South Carolina at
      • Columbia
      Tennessee
      • Tennessee State University
      • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
      • Vanderbilt University
      Texas
      • Texas A&M
      • University of Texas at Arlington
      • University of Texas at Austin
      Virginia
      • George Mason University
      • University of Virginia
      • Virginia Commonwealth University
      Washington
      • Eastern Washington University
      • University of Washington
      Wisconsin
      • University of Wisconsin at Madison

      Selected African American Heritage Sites

      Thousands of sites around the country commemorate the history and heritage of African Americans, from the African Burying Ground in New York City to the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, Georgia. Many of these sites are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the nation's official list of places that have played important roles in American history or culture. The numerous “Heritage Sites” found throughout this Encyclopedia, along with the selected sites listed below, serve to help represent the country's long heritage of cultural diversity, particularly as is evident in the origins of African Americans.

      369th Regiment Armory

      2366 Fifth Avenue

      New York, New York

      African Burying Ground

      Vicinity of Broadway and Reade Streets, New York City

      African Meeting House

      8 Smith Street

      Boston, Massachusetts

      Arna Wendell Bontemps House

      1327 Third Street

      Alexandria, Louisiana

      • See Bontemps, Arna Wendell*

      NOTES

      *Entry in this encyclopedia.

      Barren Fork Coal Camp and Mine Archeological District

      Whitley City, Kentucky

      Battle of Rhode Island Site

      Lehigh Hill and both sides of RI 21 between Medley and Dexter Streets

      Portsmouth, Rhode Island

      Benjamin Banneker Survey Boundary Stone

      18th and Van Buren Streets

      Arlington, Virginia

      Blanche K. Bruce House

      909 M Street NW

      Washington, D.C.

      Booker T. Washington National Monument

      Rocky Mount, Virginia

      Boston African American National Historic Site

      Museum of Afro-American History

      Boston, Massachusetts

      Charles Street African Methodist Episcopal Church

      551 Warren Street

      Boston, Massachusetts

      Charlie Parker Residence

      151 Charlie Parker Place (Avenue B)

      New York, New York

      Charlotte Forten Grimké House

      Claude McKay Residence

      180 West 135th Street

      New York, New York

      • See Harlem Renaissance*

      Congo Square

      New Orleans, Louisiana

      Denmark Vesey House

      56 Bull Street

      Charleston, South Carolina

      Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

      454 Dexter Avenue

      Montgomery, Alabama

      Eatonville Historic District

      Eatonville, Florida

      • See Segregation, Residential*

      Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington House

      935 St. Nicholas Avenue

      New York, New York

      • See Ellington, Duke; Jazz*

      Eighth Regiment Armory

      3533 South Giles Avenue

      Chicago, Illinois

      Fisk University Historic District

      Nashville, Tennessee

      Frances Ellen Watkins Harper House

      1006 Bainbridge Street

      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      • See Activists; Harper, Francis Watkins; Poetry, African American*

      Frederick Douglass Summer House

      3200 Wayman Avenue

      Highland Beach, Maryland

      George Washington Carver Homestead Site

      Beeler, Kansas

      George Washington Carver National Monument

      5646 Carver Road

      Diamond, Missouri

      Gertrude Pridgett “Ma” Rainey House

      805 5th Avenue

      Columbus, Georgia

      Hamilton Plantation Slave Cabins

      St. Simons Island, Georgia

      Harriet Tubman Grave

      Fort Hill Cemetery

      Auburn, New York

      Harriet Tubman House

      182 South Street

      Auburn, New York

      Homer G. Phillips Hospital, 26101 Whittier Street, St. Louis, Missouri

      Ida B. Wells-Barnett House

      3624 South Martin Luther King Drive

      Chicago, Illinois

      • See Anti-Lynching Bill*

      James Weldon Johnson House

      187 West 135th Street

      New York, New York

      • See Harlem Renaissance; Johnson, James Weldon*

      Jean Baptiste Point du Sable Homesite

      401 North Michigan Avenue

      Chicago, Illinois

      John Brown Farm and Gravesite

      John Brown Road

      Lake Placid, New York

      John Roosevelt “Jackie” Robinson House

      5224 Tilden Street

      New York, New York

      • See Baseball; Robinson, Jack Roosevelt “Jackie”*

      Little Rock High School

      14th and Park Streets

      Little Rock, Arkansas

      Louis Armstrong House

      34–56 107th Street

      New York, New York

      Madam C. J. Walker Building

      617 Indiana Avenue

      Indianapolis, Indiana

      Malcolm X House Site

      3448 Pinkney Street

      Omaha, Nebraska

      Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site and Preservation District

      Atlanta, Georgia

      Mary Church Terrell House

      326 T Street NW

      Washington, D.C.

      Medgar Evers House

      2332 Margaret Walker Alexander Drive

      Jackson, Mississippi

      • See Evers, Medgar Wylie*

      Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church

      419 6th Street

      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      Mount Morris Park Historic District

      Bounded roughly by Lenox Avenue, Mount Morris Park West, and West 124th and West 119th Streets

      New York City, New York

      Mutual Musicians' Foundation Building

      1823 Highland Avenue

      Kansas City, Missouri

      New York

      Amsterdam News

      Building

      2293 7th Avenue

      New York City, New York

      • See Amsterdam News; Media, Black*

      Old Slave Mart

      6 Chalmers Street

      Charleston, South Carolina

      Paul Cuffe Farm

      1504 Drift Road

      Westport, Massachusetts

      • See Cuffe, Paul*

      Paul Robeson House

      4951 Walnut Street

      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      Paul Robeson Residence

      555 Edgecombe Avenue

      New York City, New York

      • See Robeson, Paul

      Point of Pines Plantation Slave Cabin

      Point of Pines Road

      Edisto Island, South Carolina

      • See Slavery, Economic System of*

      Prince Hall Masonic Temple

      1000 U Street NW

      Washington, D.C.

      Prince Hall Cemetery

      Arlington, Massachusetts

      Ralph Bunche House

      1510 Jackson Street NE

      Washington, D.C.

      Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

      103 West 135th Street

      New York, New York

      Scott Joplin House

      2658 Delmar Boulevard

      St. Louis, Missouri

      Shotgun Row

      366–376 Barber Street

      Athens, Georgia

      • See Architecture; Shotgun Houses*

      Sixteenth Street Baptist Church

      6th Avenue and 16th Street

      Birmingham, Alabama

      St. Louis Colored Orphans Home

      2612 Annie Malone Drive

      St. Louis, Missouri

      • See Adoption*

      Stono River Slave Rebellion Site

      Off U.S. 17 on West bank of Wallace River

      Rantowles, Souh Carolina

      • See Slave Revolts; Stono Rebellion of 1739*

      Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site

      Tuskegee, Alabama

      Wesley AME Zion Church

      1500 Lombard Street

      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

      • See African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church*

      W. E. B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite

      Great Barrington, Massachusetts

      WROX Building

      257 Delta Avenue

      Clarksdale, Mississippi

      Zora Neale Hurston House

      1734 School Court

      Fort Pierce, Florida

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