Addiction Recovery Tools: A Practical Handbook


Edited by: Robert Holman Coombs

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Motivational Tools

    Part II: Medical-Pharmaceutical Tools

    Part III: Cognitive-Behavioral Tools

    Part IV: Psychosocial Tools

    Part V: Holistic Tools

    Part VI: Using Recovery Tools in Various Settings and Programs

  • Dedication

    For Krista


    View Copyright Page


    Ithank Carla Cronkhite Vera and Carol Jean Coombs for their superb efforts in helping bring this book to publication. Carla networked with each author, provided helpful assistance with revisions, and performed a myriad of tasks with efficiency and good cheer. Carol Jean helped revise manuscripts and provided ongoing support and encouragement. Working together as a team has been an enjoyable experience.

    From Sage Publications, I am grateful to Rolf Janke, Alicia Carter, Claudia Hoffman, and Elizabeth Magnus for improving the manuscript and seeing it through to completion.


    What works?

    No clinical clients are more difficult to successfully treat than those who are chemically dependent or well along the path to addiction. Motivating drug abusers to acknowledge their problem and seek treatment is the first challenge. And once into therapy, they often leave prematurely—“split”—and frequently relapse. Despite their best intentions, and the efforts of their therapists, they typically gravitate back to the same pathological predicaments.

    Narrow competing treatment ideologies also impede successful therapeutic outcomes. Although an impressive array of techniques have proven effective, few addiction specialists are comprehensively trained in them, aware of their variety and usefulness, or open to using them. Worse yet, some doctrinaire clinicians argue against any approach that does not fit within the frameworks taught during their professional training—or, if they were addicted, in their own treatment.

    Acupuncture, for example, a successful 5,000-year-old practice, can't possibly be of any use, some think, because Western medicine's limited scientific model cannot explain it. Spirituality enhancement, another example, is rejected and even assailed by some because it does not fit their intellectual paradigms, whereas others who credit spirituality for their recovery sometimes vilify those who ignore it.

    Politicians and government bureaucrats complicate matters further by imposing draconian drug control policies on the American public, policies that misunderstand the nature of drug problems, are ineffective in their outcomes, and create additional hardships for users, addicts, families, and communities. Amazingly, one out of 147 American citizens is now jailed, most for drug-related offenses. These public funds could be used for, among other useful causes, drug prevention and treatment services. New York City, for example, reportedly spends $8,000 per child yearly in its public schools but $93,000 a year per child in a juvenile detention center in South Bronx (Huffington, 2000).

    Though not an exhaustive review of addiction recovery tools, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the best known therapeutic methods to help addicts and others afflicted with drug problems pull out of their self-defeating lifestyles. Part 1, “Motivational Tools,” discusses three powerful tools to motivate chemically dependent individuals to seek and accept help: motivational interventions, motivational interviewing, and computer-based interventions.

    Part 2, “Medical-Pharmacological Tools,” addresses some tools that have a long history of success in clinical practice: detoxification, pharmacological agents, disease orientation training, and drug screening. A number of effective tools developed by behavioral psychologists, presented in Part 3, “Cognitive-Behavioral Tools,” focus on recovery contracts, contingency management, cue exposure treatment, and affect-regulation coping-skills training. More traditional psychological tools, reviewed in Part 4, “Psychosocial Tools,” include lifestyle planning and monitoring, individual therapy, group therapy, peer support, and family treatment.

    Part 5, “Holistic Tools,” discusses tools that traditionally have been considered beyond the boundaries of Western medicine: nutritional counseling, meditation, spirituality enhancement, and acupuncture. Finally, Part 6, “Utilizing Recovery Tools in Various Settings and Programs,” provides techniques and insights relevant to all these tools: a chapter on harm reduction that explores ways to minimize the impact of drug pathologies while moving the user closer to recovery and a final chapter about selecting appropriate recovery tools for individual clients who vary in circumstances and personality needs.

    Each recovery tool discussed in this book, described by a knowledgeable and experienced addictionologist, will help your drug-abusing clients. Your therapeutic results will improve as you incorporate a wider variety of effective therapeutic tools into your treatment armamentarium. The main questions are “Which recovery tools will work best with each of my addicted clients?” and “How can I effectively incorporate these tools into my practice to better serve them?”

    Huffington, A. (2000, June 25). Little ones overlooked amid the prosperity. Los Angeles Times, p.M5.
  • About the Editor

    Robert H. Coombs, PhD, Professor of Biobehavioral Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), School of Medicine, is trained as a sociologist (doctorate), counseling psychologist (postdoctoral master's), family therapist (California licensed), and group psychotherapist (nationally certified). He has authored 14 books and 175 other publications; his latest books include Handbook on Drug-Abuse Prevention (with D. Ziedonis, Allyn & Bacon, 1995), Drug-Impaired Professionals (Harvard University Press, 1997), Surviving Medical School (Sage, 1998) and Cool Parents, Drug-Free Kids: A Family Survival Guide (Allyn & Bacon, 2001). The National Science Foundation partially supported his graduate training, and his research has been funded by grants from the National Institute on Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Justice, the U.S. Department of Labor, the National Fund for Medical Education, the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, Father Flanagan's Boys' Foundation, and the UCLA Chancellor's Office. The U.S. Congress cited one of his applied research endeavors as an Exemplary Project. A Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Society, and the American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology, he teaches UCLA courses on addiction, where he received the Award for Excellence in Education from the UCLA School of Medicine and the Distinguished Faculty Educator Award from the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital.

    About the Contributors

    Britt K. Anderson, PhC, a doctoral candidate in the clinical psychology program at the University of Washington, received specialized training in the assessment and treatment of addictive behaviors. The focus of her current research involves the development and evaluation of preventive intervention programs for addictive behaviors. Her current applied research involves clinical interaction with college-aged students and adults who are either problem drinkers or alcohol dependent, as well as the promotion of optimal health practices among lighter and moderate drinkers.

    Joseph D. Beasley, MD, Director of the Addiction Project at the Mother and Child Corporation in Amityville, New York, is a consulting physician, educator, author, and policy advisor. He served as Professor and Department Head at Harvard and Tulane Universities, as Dean of the School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine at Tulane University, as Chairman of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, and as a member of the National Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. Currently he directs a nonprofit international project to provide the latest scientific information on alcoholism and chemical dependency prevention and treatment. His fourth edition of Diagnosing and Managing Chemical Dependency will be published in 2001.

    Arthur W. Blume, PhD, a clinical psychology resident at the University of Washington School of Medicine, did his graduate work in the Addictive Behaviors Research Center at the University of Washington. A certified chemical dependency counselor, he formerly worked at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle with clients having co-occurring disorders and traumatic substance-related injuries. As a faculty member of the State of Washington Institute, he trains mental health, corrections, and addiction service professionals to use motivational enhancement therapy in a variety of treatment environments. His research in addictive behaviors focuses primarily upon harm reduction, ethnic-cultural considerations, co-occurring disorders, the transtheoretical model, and neuropsychological aspects of addictive behaviors.

    Stephanie Brown, PhD, a clinician, teacher, researcher, consultant, and author in the field of alcoholism, founded the Alcohol Clinic at Stanford University Medical Center in 1977 and served as its director for 8 years. She is a Research Associate and Co-Director of the Family Recovery Project at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. She directs the Addictions Institute in Menlo Park, California, and also maintains a private practice as a licensed psychologist. The National Council on Alcoholism recognized her with the Bronze Key Award and the Humanitarian Award. Her latest coauthored books include Treating Alcoholism, The Alcoholic Family in Recovery: A Developmental Model and The Family Recovery Guide: A Map for Healthy Growth.

    Alan J. Budney, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Vermont, completed his doctoral studies in clinical psychology at Rutgers University and his postdoctoral studies at the University of Vermont, where he assisted in the development and evaluation of the community reinforcement approach (CRA) plus vouchers treatment for cocaine dependence. He directs the Marijuana Treatment Research Center at the University of Vermont and is Clinical Director of the teaching hospital's substance abuse treatment clinic. Funded primarily by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, his current research focuses on behavioral treatments for marijuana dependence and understanding marijuana withdrawal. He has authored numerous scientific articles and book chapters addressing cocaine and marijuana dependence.

    Cynthia A. Conklin, PhD, a clinical psychologist trained at Purdue University and the Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic in Pittsburgh, served as Senior Research Coordinator of the Psychopharmacology Laboratory and the Purdue Smoking Project and conducted psychotherapy with a variety of patient groups, including clients diagnosed with drug abuse disorders, personality disorders, and anxiety disorders. She also worked as a counselor conducting both individual and group therapy at the Center for Drug Free Living in Orlando, Florida and as a therapist in the Nicotine Cessation Program at the Indiana University Cancer Research Center in Indianapolis. She received the 2000 James Linden Award from the Purdue Department of Psychological Sciences in recognition of her outstanding academic and clinical accomplishments in clinical psychology.

    Linda R. Crosby, MSN, RN, Director of Business Development at the Talbott Recovery Center in Atlanta, Georgia, formerly worked at the American Dental Association, where she was a pioneer in providing recovery programs for addicted professionals. She has authored or coauthored many professional chemical dependency publications, including To Care Enough: Intervention With Chemically Dependent Colleagues and Peer Assistance for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors.

    Jonathan S. Fader, a researcher at the University of Washington pursuing a doctorate in clinical psychology, has worked with adults and adolescents in the area of addictions in many arenas, including inpatient, outpatient, and detoxification settings. His current research and clinical work focuses on the prevention of alcohol-related problems in children and adolescents. Actively seeing a wide range of clients who present with a variety of addictive behaviors, he is currently designing a prevention program that seeks to fully utilize the principles of harm reduction in the prevention of addictions problems among young adults.

    Steven L. Fahrion, PhD, Research Director at the Life Sciences Institute of Mind-Body Health in Topeka, Kansas, is a clinical psychologist with over 30 years of professional experience in biofeedback and psychophysiologic self-regulation. A former faculty member of the Karl Menninger School of Psychiatry, he served as Adjunct Professor of Psychology at the Union Graduate School and was Director of the Menninger Center for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. Formerly President of the Biofeedback Society of America and of the Biofeedback Society of Kansas, he is the current editor of Subtle Energies.

    Reid Hester, PhD, Director of the Research Division of Behavior Therapy Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico (, is a Fellow in the Addictions Division in the American Psychological Association and senior editor of the Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives. He has published reviews of treatment outcome literature and developed computer-based treatment interventions for drinkers. Recently he developed a program that interactively teaches moderate drinking skills to nonalcoholic problem drinkers. Currently he is developing a computer-based brief motivational intervention for drinkers.

    Stephen T. Higgins, PhD, Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Vermont, earned his PhD from the University of Kansas and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. A recipient of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence's Joseph Cochin Young Investigator Award (1993), he also won the Hazelden Foundation's Dan Anderson Research Award (1996) and the University of Vermont's University Scholar Award (1997). Past President of the Division of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse of the American Psychological Association, he is currently Principal and Co-Investigator on five grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and has more than 160 publications, including two edited books and a treatment manual on drug dependence.

    Marc F. Kern, PhD, Founding Director and Chief Executive Officer of Life Management Skills, Inc., a corporation that houses his private psychological practice and professional training programs called Addiction Alternatives, hosts two national nonprofit self-help networks in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California: S.M.A.R.T. Recovery and Moderation Management. A licensed clinical psychologist, he is certified by the American Psychological Association as a certified addictions specialist. Author of Take Control Now! A Do-It-Yourself Blueprint for Breaking Unwanted Habits, he provides scientifically based treatment alternatives to those facing a broad spectrum of addiction problems.

    Jonathan Krejci, PhD, Project Director and Clinical Instructor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, earned a major in clinical psychology and a minor in addictive behaviors at the University of New Mexico, where he worked on a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) investigating the community reinforcement approach with homeless alcoholic men. Current research activities include acting as Project Director, both for UMDNJ's role in NIDA's Clinical Trials Network and for a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment grant investigating dual diagnosis treatment approaches. He is a certified motivational interviewing trainer and has been involved in curriculum development and training initiatives at UMDNJ.

    Linda Farris Kurtz, DPA, Professor in the Department of Social Work at Eastern Michigan University, teaches courses in chemical dependency and mental health/substance abuse policy. She completed her doctorate in public administration at the University of Georgia, her dissertation focusing on Alcoholics Anonymous and the interorganizational relationships between 12-step groups and mental health professionals. She previously worked as a social worker in the Georgia mental health system giving direct service to substance abusers. Her research focuses on self-help groups, particularly 12-step programs. Author of numerous articles and book chapters dealing with substance abuse, self-help groups, and mental health, she published Self-Help and Support Groups: A Handbook for Practitioners (Sage, 1997).

    Robert J. Kus, RN, PhD, a Catholic priest since 1998, previously earned a PhD in sociology and postdoctoral master's degrees in psychiatric-mental health nursing and in divinity. He taught at the University of Iowa for 10 years and conducted research in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the United States in alcohol studies and gay men's issues. Pastor of St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church in Wake Forest, North Carolina, he is also an adjunct faculty member in the School of Nursing at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington and a Visiting Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. He has edited four books about spirituality and sobriety and is currently working on autobiographical works in nursing and priesthood, including his forthcoming book, Scattered Marbles: Tales of a Psych Nurse.

    G. Alan Marlatt, PhD, Professor of Psychology and Director of the Addictive Behaviors Research Center at the University of Washington, previously served on the faculties of the University of British Columbia (1968–69) and the University of Wisconsin (1969–72). His basic research focuses on cognitive-behavioral factors in addiction and his applied research on relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behavior problems. His most recent work investigated the harm reduction approach to reducing alcohol problems in young adults, including high-risk college students. Author of over 150 journal articles and book chapters, a few of his books include Alcoholism: New Directions in Behavioral Research and Treatment, Relapse Prevention, Assessment of Addictive Behaviors, Addictive Behaviors Across the Lifespan (Sage, 1993), and Harm Reduction: Pragmatic Strategies for Managing High Risk Behaviors. He has served on the editorial boards of 15 professional journals and consulted with a wide variety of national organizations, including the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the Institute of Medicine. In 1996, he was appointed a member of the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse for the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    Tom Mieczkowski, PhD, Professor of Criminology at the University of South Florida, has published more than 50 scholarly articles, 10 book chapters, and two books on drug policy and drug-testing technology. A member of the International Association of Forensic Toxicology, the British Academy of Forensic Sciences, the European Hair Research Society, and the American Society of Criminology, he is recognized as an authority on the use of human hair for the detection of psychoactive drugs. His research interests include smuggling theories of syndicated criminal organizations, drug distribution organizations and methods, and drug epidemiology, especially drug prevalence estimation using bioassays. His current research includes an assessment of the toxicity of environmental exposure to cocaine, the analysis of patters of drug use in juvenile arrestees by various bioassay methods, the recovery of LSD and nor-LSD from human hair, and the use of ion mobility spectrometry in drug detection in various analytic matrices.

    Norman S. Miller, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine and Director of Addiction Medicine at Michigan State University's College of Human Medicine, is Medical Consultant for the Division of Substance Abuse Services for the State of Michigan. A member of Alpha Omega Alpha at Howard University Medical College, he is certified in Addiction Medicine and is a Diplomate in Psychiatry, Neurology, Addiction Psychiatry, and Forensic Psychiatry with the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. Currently a law student at Michigan State University, he is author of 12 books on addiction medicine and 250 other publications. He was a member of the Task Force on Treatment for the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), and chair of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) on Detoxification and Engagement for Treatment Improvement Protocols.

    Theresa Moyers, PhD, Assistant Research Professor at the University of New Mexico and the Training Coordinator at the Center for Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Addictions, received her doctorate from the University of New Mexico and worked for 9 years as Clinical Director of the Substance Abuse Treatment Program at the VA Medical Center in Albuquerque. Her research interests focus on therapist characteristics in substance abuse treatment. A founding member of the Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers (MINT), she has produced a set of instructional videotapes about motivational interviewing.

    Patricia A. Norris, PhD, Clinical Director at Life Sciences Institute of Mind-Body Health in Topeka, Kansas, has been a faculty member at the Union Graduate School and the Karl Menninger School of Psychiatry, where she was Clinical Director of the Center for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. President of the Biofeedback Society of America and also the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energy and Energy Medicine, she has used biofeedback and psychophysiologic psychotherapy in her therapeutic work since 1970. She emphasizes integration of body, emotions, mind, and spirit; psychosynthesis; imagery and visualization; and psychoneuroimmunology.

    Christopher P. Rice, PhD, Assistant Professor in the School of Social Work at Florida International University, was coinvestigator with Project MATCH, a national multisite clinical trial of treatment for alcoholics, and MATCH Site Manager at Brown University's Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies. He has published in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Project MATCH Monograph Series (1998). His other addiction related work appears in leading academic journals. He won several awards during his graduate training, including the William E. Gordon Research Excellence Award from Washington University.

    David B. Rosengren, PhD, a clinical psychologist in Seattle, Washington, divides his time between private practice, research at the University of Washington's Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, and community-based motivational interviewing (MI) training. His research focus is on the application of MI in both addiction and nonaddiction settings. The initial Director of the International Association of MI Trainers (MINT), he is former editor of the MINT newsletter.

    Joyce Schmid, PhD, a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in private practice in Menlo Park, California, does psychodynamically oriented individual and couples therapy with addicts and their families. While a staff psychotherapist at the Stanford Alcohol and Drug Treatment Center, she was Coordinator of Psychotherapy Groups for Adult Children of Alcoholics. She has taught classes for psychotherapists on the treatment of addicts and their families at the University of California, Santa Cruz Extension, and at the Santa Clara University Lifelong Learning Center, and is an Associate of the Addictions Institute.

    Raymond L. Scott, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science in Los Angeles, has worked for 10 years in the field of chemical dependency as a clinician and researcher. He served as the initial research coordinator and interview coordinator for two projects funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT). Additionally, he was Principal Investigator for “An Ethnography of the Relationships Between Crack Use, Sexuality, and Engaging in HIV Risk Behaviors Among Persons of African Decent,” funded by the City of Los Angeles Office of AIDS.

    Richard B. Seymour, MA, Manager of Information and Education at the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics Office of the President, is also Director of Haight-Ashbury Publications; Managing Editor of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs and the International Addictions Infoline. He serves as Executive Editor of, board member and treasurer of the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors. He has authored 10 books and over 40 articles on addiction and other related substance abuse topics.

    Stacey C. Sigmon, a predoctoral fellow at the University of Vermont in experimental psychology/behavioral pharmacology, did her master's research focusing on using a contingency management intervention to reduce marijuana use among individuals with schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. For the past several years, she comanaged a treatment research project evaluating voucher-based incentives for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

    David E. Smith, MD, Founder, President, and Medical Director of the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics, is Professor at the University of California Medical School at San Francisco, Medical Director for the State of California Alcohol and Drug Abuse Programs, and Medical Director of the California Collaborative Center for Substance Abuse Policy Research. He is also publisher of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Editor-in-Chief of, member and past president of the American Society on Addiction Medicine. He has authored over a dozen books and hundreds of articles on addiction treatment and recovery.

    Michael O. Smith, MD, Director of Lincoln Hospital Substance Abuse Division since 1974, is a psychiatrist, acupuncture addiction specialist, and public health planner. Assistant Professor at Cornell University Medical School, he is certified by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. As Founding Chairperson of the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA), he provided consultation to city, county, state, federal, and United Nations agencies in more than 100 settings. A principal coinvestigator on research studies conducted by the New York State Department of Health, Columbia University, and private research institutions, he is also known for his expertise in clinical toxicology, herbology, community psychiatry, medical information systems, treatment of multiple sclerosis, Chinese philosophy, and addiction treatment planning. His 5-year study on the use of Chinese medicine in the treatment of AIDS has been published in many countries. He is a recipient of the Samuel and May Rudin Community Service Award by Mayor Dinkins, serves on the Governor's Advisory Council on Substance Abuse, and was named Acupuncturist of the Year by the American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine.

    Carol A. Snarr, RN, BA, Director of Education at Life Sciences Institute of Mind-Body Health in Topeka, Kansas, is past president of the Biofeedback Society of Kansas and was Associate Director of Education of the Menninger Center for Applied Psychophysiology. With over 20 years' experience in psychophysiologic therapy and biofeedback, her treatment focuses on integrating mind, body, emotions, and spirit to achieve optimum health and enhance self-esteem and personal growth.

    Edward Storti, BA, an internationally and California-certified alcohol and drug abuse counselor and registered addiction specialist, has choreographed over 3,000 motivational interventions throughout the world and maintains admitting privileges at numerous domestic and international treatment facilities. He did graduate work in the Rehabilitation Program at the University of Southern California and lectures at both the University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center and School of Dentistry. A member of the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, the California Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, and the Association of Intervention Specialists, his books include Crisis Intervention: Acting Against Addiction and Heart to Heart, the Honorable Approach to Motivational Intervention.

    G. Douglas Talbott, MD, Founder and Medical Director of the Talbott Recovery Campus, a national Impaired Health Professions Treatment Program in Atlanta, Georgia, has treated more than 5,000 health professionals. Past president of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) and vice-president of the International Society of Addiction Medicine, he is Clinical Professor of Family Practice at the Morehouse School of Medicine, Adjunct Professor of Pharmacology at the Mercer University School of Pharmacy, and medical consultant to the Atlanta Braves, the National Football League, and the National Basketball Association. He coauthored Healing the Healer: The Addicted Physician.

    Stephen T. Tiffany, PhD, Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University in West Lafayette and a member of the Neuroscience Program at Purdue University directs the Smoking Clinic in the Purdue Psychological Sciences Treatment Research Clinics. He has conducted extensive animal and human research on addictive disorders and has authored over 70 professional publications. His research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. On the editorial board of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, he received in 1993 the American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology and in 1999 was named a Purdue University Faculty Scholar in recognition of outstanding academic achievement.

    Christopher C. Wagner, PhD, Assistant Professor of Rehabilitation Counseling, Psychology and Psychiatry at Virginia Commonwealth University, is a clinical psychologist who works with the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center (funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment) in providing training and consultation services to community-based agencies. His research has focused primarily on interpersonal elements of psychopathology and psychotherapy. He hosts the motivational interviewing Web site at

    Arnold M. Washton, PhD, an addiction psychologist in private practice in New York City and Princeton, New Jersey, is an internationally known clinician, researcher, and author, who has specialized in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse for over 25 years. His publications include over 40 articles in medical/scientific journals and nine books, including Cocaine Addiction: Treatment, Recovery, and Relapse Prevention; Psychotherapy and Substance Abuse: A Practitioner's Handbook; and Substance Abuse Therapy in Office Practice: A Clinician's Guide to Doing What Works.

    Kathryn P. White, PhD, LAc, a licensed psychologist, acupuncturist, board-certified herbologist, and doctor of homeopathic medicine who practices psychology and complementary medicine in West Los Angeles, California, is Assistant Clinical Professor of Medical Psychology at the UCLA Medical School and Professor at the California School of Professional Psychology (Los Angeles). Her PhD in clinical psychology was earned at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She later interned at Harvard Medical School and completed a National Institute of Mental Health Postdoctoral Fellowship in Clinical Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital. She earned a Master of Traditional Oriental Medicine degree from Emperor's College of Traditional Chinese Medicine and interned at Shanghai People's Hospital Number Six and Shanghai Mental Health Center. She also completed a Doctor of Homeopathic Medicine degree at Hahnemann College of Homeopathy in the United Kingdom, interned in homeopathic clinics in Bombay, India, and completed courses in Ayurvedic medicine. She has presented at national and international conferences on psychology and complementary and alternative medicine, has authored articles on these subjects, and is currently writing a book.

    Fred Zackon, MEd, Senior Program Designer for CiviGenics, Inc., the nation's largest private provider of rehabilitative services to offenders in correctional settings, currently is developing interactive multimedia interventions for incarcerated addicts. He has worked with hard-core addicts for more than two decades, directing both an inner-city therapeutic community and, later, a large methadone program. Under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the Harvard School of Public Health, he designed and implemented innovative relapse prevention and aftercare curricula. With the United Nations, he served as a principal program consultant and trainer in addiction rehabilitation to developing nations.

    Douglas Ziedonis, MD, Director of the Division of Addiction Psychiatry and Associate Professor at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, is also Director of the UMDNJ-University Behavioral HealthCare's Addiction Services. On the faculty at Rutgers University's Center for Alcohol Studies and the Princeton Theological Seminary, he has worked in the field of addiction psychiatry for over 15 years and is an expert on co-occurring disorders and both therapy and medication development. Certified as a Diplomate in both General Psychiatry and Addiction Psychiatry, he serves on the American Psychiatric Association's (APA's) Addiction Council and helped develop the APA's Treatment Guidelines for Individuals with Nicotine Dependence. A principal investigator or coinvestigator on numerous National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Mental Health, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and other funded research grants, he has published extensively in the area of addiction and dual diagnosis and consulted with numerous community recovery-oriented addiction treatment programs.

    Joan E. Zweben, PhD, Founder and Executive Director of the East Bay Community Recovery Project and the 14th Street Clinic and Medical Group in Oakland, California, developed the medical and psychological services of both affiliated organizations. A clinical psychologist with over 30 years' experience in treating addiction and training treatment practitioners (peer counselors, social workers, marriage and family counselors, psychologists, probation officers, nurses and physicians), she is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine. Author of two books and over 40 articles or book chapters, she is the editor of 12 monographs on treating addiction.

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