21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook

Handbooks

Edited by: John T. Ishiyama & Marijke Breuning

Abstract

 Via 99 entries or "mini-chapters," the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series volumes on political science highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook serves as an authoritative reference source that meets students' research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or a research handbook chapter. An editorial advisory board comprised of eminent scholars from various subfields, many of whom are also award-winning teachers, selected the most important general topics in the discipline. The two volumes are divided into six major parts: 1) General Approaches of Political Science; 2) ...

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  • Part I: General Approaches in Political Science

    Part II: Comparative Politics

    Part III: International Relations

    Part IV: Political Science Methodology

    Part V: Political Thought

    Part VI: American Politics

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    Reader's Guide

    Preface

    These two volumes of 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook were the product of many discussions that we, the editors, have had over the years concerning how to make fairly complex approaches in political science accessible to advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students. There is very little in the way of reference works in political science that are sufficiently accessible that undergraduate students can profitably use them to assist the pursuit of their research interests. In particular, we have sought to produce a single work that would provide students with the essentials of various approaches (both theoretical and methodological) in political science. Needless to say, our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to undergraduate students.

    In consultation with our editorial advisory board, made up of a number of eminent scholars from a variety of different subfields (who are also award-winning teachers), we selected 99 of the most important general topics in the discipline. Via these 99 entries or chapters, the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series volumes on political science highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates that any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. The purpose is to provide undergraduate majors in political science with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with far more detailed information than short encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail, or density as a journal article or a research handbook chapter.

    To accomplish these goals, the two volumes are divided into six major parts: (I) General Approaches in Political Science, (II) Comparative Politics, (III) International Relations, (IV) Political Science Methodology, (V) Political Thought, and (VI) American Politics. In Part I, we cover the history of the discipline (e.g., the behavioral revolution, the rise of neoinstitutionalism, and the postbehavioral critique), as well as several general approaches in political science (such as rational choice, political psychology, and principal–agent theory).

    Part II, on comparative politics, focuses on topics related to political development (such as modernization theory, dependency and development, statism), political violence (e.g., coups, civil wars, terrorism, ethnic conflict), political institutions (the effects of electoral laws, presidentialism, federalism, comparative judicial politics), political culture and civil society (religion and comparative politics, ethnic identity), and comparative methods (case studies, most-similar and most-different systems approaches).

    Part III deals with essential approaches in international relations, including chapters on realism and neorealism, liberalism, world-systems analysis, and foreign policy analysis. There are also chapters on international conflict and war (e.g., on the balance of power, rivalry and interstate war, and the democratic peace), international political economy (e.g., complex interdependence, trade, and resource scarcity and rentierism), and global governance (international organizations and regimes and international law).

    Political science methodology is covered by Part IV. We begin with chapters on the philosophy of science (including empirical approaches, positivism and its critique, and constructivism), followed by chapters that illustrate commonly used quantitative and qualitative techniques (such as regression analysis, survey research methods, experimentation, and content analysis) and then by chapters on game theory and formal modeling approaches in political science. These chapters in particular are meant to be easily understandable to students who are just beginning to engage in political science research.

    Part V includes chapters on political thought, not only Western political thought but from elsewhere in the world as well. We made a conscious effort to include chapters not only on the Western classics (the “ancients,” enlightenment thinkers, neoclassical liberalism, socialism, anarchism, etc.), but also on Asian political thought, Islamic political thought, and Christian political thought. Thus students will have exposure to points of view that are not entirely rooted in the Western experience. The ability to view fundamental political issues from different points of view is, we believe, an essential skill students must have for the 21st century.

    Finally, in Part VI, we cover American politics. We include chapters on the political structures and institutions of the United States (including chapters that cover research on Congress, the presidency, the bureaucracy, federalism, state and local politics, and the media) and political behavior (including public opinion and voting behavior, as well as policy making and administration). Furthermore, we have included a section on an increasingly important area in the study of American politics (which we believe will only grow in importance in the 21st century): identity politics. There are chapters that cover topics such as race, ethnicity, and politics; gender and politics; religion and politics; and LGBT issues and queer theory.

    We would like to thank our families, particularly our daughters, Fasika and Bedelwa Ishiyama, and John's son, David Ishiyama, for their constant support and patience with Mom and Dad as we finished this project (seemingly permanently tethered to our computers). We would like to thank our editorial advisory board, Larry Baum, Janet Box-Steffensmeier, Michelle Deardorff, Kerstin Hamann, and Pat James, for their wonderful suggestions regarding the topics covered by these volumes and for their constant support and encouragement as we undertook this massive project. We would also like to thank Sanford Robinson, Jim Brace-Thompson, Laura Notton, and Yvette Pollastrini at SAGE for their professionalism, their invaluable assistance, and their patience with us as we struggled through the process. All were incredibly helpful, but we would especially like to single out Sanford as he was an invaluable ally in helping to “bring the herd in.” We cannot thank you all enough.

    John T.Ishiyama and MarijkeBreuning

    About the Editors

    John T. Ishiyama (PhD, Michigan State University) is professor of political science at the University of North Texas. His teaching interests include comparative political development, democratization and political parties, and political methodology. His research interests include democratization and political parties in post-Communist Russian, European, Eurasian, and African (especially Ethiopian) politics; ethnic conflict and ethnic politics; and the scholarship of teaching and learning. He is the author or editor of four books and author or coauthor of more than 100 journal articles (in such journals as the American Political Science Review, Perspectives on Politics, PS: Political Science and Politics, Comparative Political Studies, Comparative Politics, Political Science Quarterly, Political Research Quarterly, Social Science Quarterly, Europe-Asia Studies, Party Politics, and others) and book chapters on democratization, party politics, ethnic politics, and post-Communist Russian, European, and African politics. He has also written widely on curriculum development, educational opportunity, and educational assessment in political science. In addition, he is a research fellow at the University of Kansas's Center for Russian and East European Studies. Currently, he serves as editor-in-chief (and was founding editor) of the Journal of Political Science Education, the journal of the American Political Science Association (APSA) Political Science Education (formerly the Undergraduate Education) section. He was also a member of the APSA Executive Council (2007–2009). He is currently an executive board member of the Midwest Political Science Association (2010–2013) and a member of the executive board of Pi Sigma Alpha (the national political science honorary society) from 2008 to 2012.

    Marijke Breuning (PhD, The Ohio State University) is professor of political science at the University of North Texas. Her teaching interests include international relations, comparative foreign policy, international organization, and European politics. Her research interests include comparative foreign policy, foreign aid and development cooperation, and ethnic politics. She is a member of the International Studies Association (ISA), the American Political Science Association (APSA), the International Society of Political Psychology, and the European Union Studies Association. She has served on the executive committees and is past president of the APSA Foreign Policy Division, the ISA Midwest region, and the ISA Foreign Policy Analysis section. She has published articles in, among other journals, American Political Science Review, International Studies Quarterly, Comparative Political Studies, and International Politics and has coauthored a book with John Ishiyama. Together with Dr. Ishiyama, she edits the Journal of Political Science Education. She was part of the original ISA editorial team of Foreign Policy Analysis.

    About the Contributors

    Richard Arnold is assistant professor of political science at Muskingum University, where he teaches comparative politics and international relations. He received his BA in 2003 from York University in the United Kingdom. In 2009, he graduated from The Ohio State University with a doctorate in political science, with a focus on ethnic conflict in comparative perspective. His research interests include ethnic conflict, neo-Nazi movements, nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, qualitative methodologies, and issues in political theory.

    Jeremy R. Backstrom is a doctoral student of comparative politics, international relations, and political science at the University of North Texas. His research interests include ethnic politics, civil wars, and international relations.

    Anna Batta is a PhD student at the University of North Texas focusing on comparative politics, international relations, post-Communism, and the Middle East.

    Julia Beckett is an associate professor of public administration at The University of Akron. She earned a JD from Washington University in St. Louis and a PhD in public administration from the University of Colorado at Denver. Her research interests are the Hoover Commission reforms, public law, public budgeting, and emergency management.

    Svetla Ben-Itzhak is a PhD student in political science at the University of Kansas. She holds an MA in political science with a certificate in international service from Kansas State University. Her research interests include international relations, foreign policy, and political economy, with a special research focus on the role of foreign aid in promoting development, abating poverty, and mitigating conflict in the Middle East and Africa.

    Elizabeth A. Bennion is associate professor of political science at Indiana University South Bend. She received her BA in American studies from Smith College and her MA and PhD in political science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bennion uses randomized field experiments to test the effectiveness of voter registration and mobilization techniques. She has also published work in the areas of gender politics and the scholarship of teaching and learning.

    Salih Bicakci is an assistant professor in the department of International Relations of Isik University, Istanbul, Turkey. He received his BA from the Department of History at Marmara University in 1994 and his MA from the Turkic and Turkish Studies Institute of Marmara University. He teaches courses on the Middle East in international politics (with a focus on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Lebanon, and Iran), theory of international relations, and Turkish foreign policy. He has field experience in Israel, Palestine, and Central Asia and has published articles on security, nationalism, and international politics. Recently he has focused on security issues of the Middle East and Central Asia, including terrorism and cyberwars.

    Angela L. Bos is assistant professor of political science at the College of Wooster. She received her BA from the University of Minnesota-Morris and her MA and PhD from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Her research interests are gender and racial stereotypes, political nominations and elections, civic engagement and civic education, and pedagogy in political science.

    Vanessa P. Bouché is a PhD candidate at The Ohio State University. She received her master's in public policy from the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas and her BA from Columbia University. Her dissertation is on the identity mechanisms of political engagement, with significant emphasis on identity-centered socialization into the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of political attitudes. Her research and teaching interests include American politics, identity politics, political psychology, public opinion, and American foreign policy.

    Frank A. Boyd Jr. is associate provost and associate professor of political science at Illinois Wesleyan University. His research interests include the political economy of development and the political economy of common pool resources.

    Erik S. Case is a graduate student at the University of North Texas at Denton. He currently holds an MS in political science and is pursuing an MS in economic research. He received his bachelor's degree in political science from St. Edwards University at Austin in 2005, and his work as a counterterrorism analyst for the Texas Department of Public Safety led him to focus on terrorism-related issues during his graduate studies.

    Walter Thomas Casey II is a research associate-postdoctoral fellow in electoral behavior research at the School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas. His work focuses on the intersection of gender and political violence, the results of harmful tax competition, and modern praetorianist problems in developed democracies.

    Hyunsun Choi is assistant professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at the University of North Florida. He specializes in community development and urban planning related to regional governance, smart growth, housing, faith initiatives, minority communities, and public policy and, as minor fields, comparative and international development and geographic information systems. He received his PhD and a master's degree in planning from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and his BA and MA in public administration from Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. He has published peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and professional reports and has presented a number of papers at national and international academic conferences.

    Alexandra Cole is an associate professor of political science at California State University, Northridge. She received her PhD from the University of California at Irvine, and her interests include political parties and party systems. She has written about parties of the far right in Europe and most recently about changes in the German political party system.

    Eric Cox received his BA from Austin College in Sherman, Texas, in 1997 and his MA (2000) and PhD (2006) from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He is currently an assistant professor at Texas Christian University. His research interests include the resolution of enduring rivalries, diplomacy at the United Nations, and domestic influences on the foreign policy of states.

    Michael D'Amore is an Assistant Professor of Political Science and History at Sussex County Community College. He received his BA in Political Science from Moravian College in 1992, his MA in Political Science from the University of Vermont in 1998, and his PhD in Political Science from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2009. His dissertation was titled “The Influence of American Exceptionalist Thought on the Role of the United States in the Contemporary War on Terrorism.”

    Michelle D. Deardorff is associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi. Since earning her PhD from Miami University in 1993, her teaching and research have focused on the constitutional protections surrounding gender, race, and religion, as well as on political theory. Prior to her relocation to Jackson State in 2003, she was the Griswold Distinguished Professor of Political Science at Millikin University in Decatur, Illinois. In 2009, Assessment in Political Science, a primer on programmatic and classroom assessment within the discipline, which she coedited with Kerstin Hamann and John Ishiyama, was published. The two-volume set Constitutional Law in Contemporary America, which she coauthored with David Schultz and John R. Vile, is being published in 2010. She has been teaching political philosophy at the graduate and undergraduate levels since 2004.

    Rebecca E. Deen earned her doctorate in political science from The Ohio State University in 1997. She is an associate professor of political science at the University of Texas at Arlington and chair of the Department of Political Science. Her publication and research fields include the American presidency and pedagogies in political science. She has published articles in Congress & The Presidency, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Judicature, PS: Political Science & Politics, and Spectrum: The Journal of State Government. The George Bush Presidential Library Foundation and the Gerald R. Ford Foundation have supported her work with travel grants. She serves as a reviewer for many scholarly journals and publishers.

    William M. Downs (PhD, Emory University) is chair of the Department of Political Science at Georgia State University and codirector of the Center for Human Rights and Democracy. His research and teaching interests are in the field of comparative politics, with a specific regional focus on Europe and the member states of the European Union. He has particular research foci on parties in legislatures, federalist remedies to regional nationalism, coalition behavior, and extremist political parties. He is the author of Coalition Government, Subnational Style: Multiparty Politics in Europe's Regional Parliaments, which investigates the machinations of postelection alliance building in the subnational legislatures of Germany, France, and Belgium. He is editor of as well as contributor to “Regionalism in the European Union,” a special issue of The Journal of European Integration, and has published research articles on political parties in a long list of scholarly journals. He is coeditor of e-Extreme, a newsletter of the European Consortium of Political Research's Standing Group on Extremism and Democracy.

    John R. Fisher is an assistant professor of communications at Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, Missouri. He received his PhD from the University of Alberta (Canada), where he studied the impact of mass communication on political decision making. His current research interests include crisis communication and media bias.

    Michelle C. Flores is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at the University of Southern California and a visiting instructor at the University of Northern Iowa. Her dissertation analyzes institutional change in Lebanon's state-recognized religious institutions.

    Stefan Fritsch is an assistant professor of political science at Bowling Green State University. His research focuses on global political economy, technology and global affairs, multinational corporations, and European integration. Recent publications have appeared in Global Society, Review of International Political Economy, and International Studies Perspectives. His current research focuses on fair trade, multinational corporations, and technological evolution and the global governance of technological standards.

    Christian Göbel is research fellow at the Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies at Lund University. He received his PhD from the University of Duisburg-Essen. Göbel is the author of The Politics of Rural Reform in China: State Policy and Village Predicament in the Early 2000s and is currently leading a research project on the consolidation of authoritarian regimes. His research interests include the change and persistence of democratic and authoritarian systems, central-local relations and governance in China's multitiered administration, and the comparative study of corruption.

    Johnny Goldfinger is an assistant professor of political science at Marian University. His research interests include deliberative democracy, political engagement, and social choice theory. He teaches courses on the history of political theory and democratic decision making.

    Seth M. Goldstein is a PhD candidate in political science at The Ohio State University, where he specializes in international security, political psychology, and foreign policy. He received his BA in 2003 from the University of Rochester. His research interests include signaling and perception in coercive diplomacy, the effects of domestic politics and leaders on foreign policy credibility, the psychology of threat perception in the post-September 11 era, the effect of group ideologies on risk taking in foreign policy decision making, and contemporary issues in American political life.

    Donald M. Gooch is an assistant professor of political science in the Department of History and Political Science at Arkansas Tech University. He earned his PhD in political science from the University of Missouri, Columbia, in 2009. Dr. Gooch is an expert in American politics and public policy. His current research agenda involves studying trends in political polarization in the American electorate and developing empirical tests of formal voting models consistent with theoretical expectations.

    Ellen Grigsby (PhD, University of North Carolina, 1987) teaches political theory at the University of New Mexico. She is the author ofAnalyzing Politics (4th ed.).

    Richard J. Hardy is professor and chair of the Department of Political Science at Western Illinois University. He earned his BA from Western Illinois University, MA from the University of North Dakota, and PhD from the University of Iowa. He has served on the faculties of Northern State University, Duke University, and the University of Missouri-Columbia and has taught courses in American politics, constitutional law, civil rights, the Supreme Court, federalism, state government, policy evaluation methods, and civic leadership. He has received more than 50 significant teaching and civic leadership awards, has conducted nearly 100 workshops on constitutional law, was a member of the Electoral College, and has served as a political analyst for numerous media outlets. He has published or edited seven books, including Government in America and Civic Education, and his articles have appeared in the American Journal of Political Science, Law and Policy Quarterly, and Publius.

    Steve G Hartlaub completed his PhD at Michigan State University and has taught at Frostburg State University for the past 15 years. He has taught a number of honors seminars relating aspects of ancient political philosophy to modern society, including seminars on education, the regulation of sexuality, the use of rhetoric, and the understanding of tyranny. He has published a number of articles on teaching in political science and presented conference papers relating Aristotle's best regime to new urbanism, and reading Machiavelli's Prince from the perspective of Aristotle's teaching on tyranny.

    Eric A. Heinze is assistant professor of political science and international studies at the University of Oklahoma. He holds a PhD in political science from the University of Nebraska, where he studied international relations and political theory. His current and recent research is on humanitarian intervention, liberal international theory, global governance, nonstate actors in armed conflict, and the legal and ethical implications of the war on terrorism. He is the author of Waging Humanitarian War: The Ethics, Law and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention (and coeditor of Ethics, Authority and War: Non-State Actors and the Just War Tradition.

    Jutta A. Helm earned her PhD at the University of North Carolina. She is currently professor emerita of political science at Western Illinois University. Her teaching interests include European politics, German politics, and the comparative study of genocide. Most of her publications focus on political participation, broadly defined: new social movements, workplace democracy, and the role of trade unions in hard times.

    Jeffrey D. Hilmer is a postdoctoral teaching fellow at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. He received his PhD in political science, with an emphasis on democratic theory, from the University at Albany, State University of New York, in 2007. His current research interests include differentiating participatory and deliberative theories of democracy, exploring participatory democratic institutions in Brazil, theorizing agonistic democratic institutions, and contrasting old and new theories of pluralism.

    Marc Hooghe is a professor of political science at the University of Leuven (Belgium). He obtained his PhD in political science in 1997 from the University of Brussels (Belgium), with a dissertation on the political impact of new social movements. His work focuses mainly on political participation, social movements, and social capital, and it has appeared in various scientific journals, such as the European Journal for Political Research, Political Behavior, and Comparative Political Studies. At Leuven University, he is head of the Centre for Political Science Research.

    David Patrick Houghton is an associate professor of political science at the University of Central Florida. His published books include U.S. Foreign Policy and the Iran Hostage Crisis and Political Psychology: Situations, Individuals, and Cases. His latest book, The Decision Point, is due to be published in 2011. His area of expertise is political psychology and decision making in international relations, and he has published refereed articles in a variety of top journals. He received his PhD in political science in 1996 from the University of Pittsburgh and has also taught there and at the University of Essex. From 2001 to 2002, he was a visiting scholar at the Mershon Center for International Security Studies at The Ohio State University.

    Brian P. Janiskee is professor of political science and department chair at California State University, San Bernardino. He received his PhD from Michigan State University. Janiskee is coauthor of Democracy in California (2008), coeditor of The California Republic (2003), and author of numerous articles in such areas as crime policy, local government, and presidential elections. His current research interests include local government in the American colonial period, research methodology, and national security policy.

    Alicia Jencik is a PhD candidate in the department of political science at the University of New Orleans. She specializes in political behavior, gender politics, and political institutions. Her dissertation examines how women and men are affected differently by natural disasters and uses the city of New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina as a case study. She obtained her BA, MA, and a certificate in women's studies at Florida Atlantic University. She is the author of A Woman in the White House? The Effects of Gender on Female Politicians, as well as “Survey Research in Post Katrina New Orleans: ‘I Can't Imagine It,’ ” with Susan Howell. She worked with the University of New Orleans Survey Research Center from 2005 through 2008, conducting research on quality of life and recovery issues in post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans. She has focused on survey research methodology and has taught research methods courses to undergraduate students.

    Eric M. Jepsen is an assistant professor at the University of South Dakota. His teaching and research interests include political economy, democratization, globalization, Latin American politics, and South Asian politics. His research on subnational economic development and democracy in India and Mexico has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Social Science Research Council and has appeared in a number of books and journals.

    Catherine L. Johnson is a PhD candidate and teaching fellow in the Department of Political Science at the University of North Texas. She earned an MPA from the University of North Texas in 2003. Her dissertation topic involves the influences of military service on political attitudes, voting, and participation.

    Brandy J. Jolliff is a PhD student in political science at the University of Colorado, where she is studying comparative politics and international relations. She holds an MA in international studies from the University of Oklahoma. Her current work deals with comparative European foreign policy, European integration, and democracy promotion to third world countries in European Union foreign policy.

    Tatyana Kelman is a graduate student in the PhD program in political science at the University of North Texas.

    Baris Kesgin is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Kansas. His work (with Juliet Kaarbo) has appeared in International Studies Perspectives. Presently, his research concentrates on tracing leadership effects in Israel's and Turkey's relations with the United States.

    H. Whitt Kilburn is assistant professor of political science at Grand Valley State University. He received his PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2005. His research interests center on the study of mass public opinion, elections, and voting behavior.

    Brian R. King is assistant professor of political science at Muskingum University. He received his BA in 1992 from Ohio Northern University and his PhD in 2005 from the University of Cincinnati, where he studied both American politics and international relations. His research interests include presidential management and policy, organizational learning in government, American political institutions, international security issues, international crisis decision making and management, and issues related to American foreign policy and national security.

    Jeffrey Kraus is associate provost and professor of government and politics at Wagner College, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1988. Prior to coming to Wagner, he taught at Kingsborough Community College (1980–1987) and Baruch College (1987–1988). His research has focused on political parties, elections, and campaign finance. He has also been a consultant to a number of political campaigns in New York and since 2001 has chaired the New York City Voter Assistance Commission.

    Michael Kuchinsky is an assistant professor of political science at Gardner-Webb University (North Carolina), where he teaches international relations, comparative politics, political economy and development studies, and other courses in global politics. Before college teaching, he served as a program associate and executive in several public policy nongovernmental organizations, as well as being an ordained clergyperson.

    Robert Kulpa is a PhD candidate at Birkbeck College, London, United Kingdom. His research focus is on the formation of gay identities and their interwoven connections with a national identity in post-Communist Poland. He has an interest in a comparative study of Western and Central European lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender movements, queer theories, nationalism, and links between power and knowledge. He teaches politics at University College London and has published in a number of scholarly journals.

    Djamel Eddine Laouisset earned his PhD in 1983 from the University of Miami (Florida). He is CEO of Canada Consulting Group in Ottawa and was director of studies and research at the National Institute for Global Strategic Studies in Algiers, Algeria, from 1987 to 1990. He is also a former member of the National Research Council in Algiers and advised the minister of economy and commerce of the United Arab Emirates from 2001 to 2004. He is a fellow of the Salzburg Seminar (Austria) and a Gerson Lehrman Group council member. He has published several books, papers, and articles in his fields of expertise and has spoken at various international academic and professional forums. He is a founding and active member of a number of international academic and professional societies.

    Steven R. Liebel is a PhD candidate in international relations and political science at the University of North Texas. His research interests include conflict management and processes, and human rights.

    Timothy J. Lomperis is professor of political science at Saint Louis University in Missouri. He grew up in India as the son of missionaries. He received his PhD from Duke University and has taught at Louisiana State University, Duke University, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and Saint Louis University. He has published four major books, The Hindu Influence on Greek Philosophy (1984) and three books on the Vietnam War: The War Everyone Lost—and Won (1984, 1986, and rev. ed., 1993), “Reading the Wind” (1987), and From People's War to People's Rule (1996). He has published numerous articles on Vietnam and on the War on Terror. His current research interests are Asian political thought and the foreign policy of comparative military interventions.

    Anthony D. Lott is an associate professor of political science at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. He earned his PhD in international studies in 2002 from the Graduate School of International Studies at the University of Denver. His research interests include developments in international relations theory, the history of international law and cooperation, and challenges to international security. He is the author of Creating Insecurity: Realism, Constructivism and U.S. Security Policy and numerous articles on international relations theory and international law.

    Lilly Kelan Lu is a PhD student at the University of North Texas. She received her BA in law in 2005 from Qingdao University, and in 2007 she completed a master's degree in international affairs and administration at Missouri State University. Her research interests include comparative politics and economy, as well as the application of quantitative methodology.

    Anna N. Makhova-Gregg is an assistant professor of political science at Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. She received her PhD from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale (2008). Her current research interests include Russian and post-Soviet politics, Chinese politics, bureaucracy in post-Communist states, and the political economy of transition to capitalism.

    Jerald Mast has a bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a PhD in political science from Northern Arizona University. He has conducted research on economic valuation of environmental aesthetics, environmental security, and natural resource policy on the Great Lakes. He is the chair of the political science department at Carthage College.

    Gerald L. McCallister is a PhD student of political science at the University of North Texas. He received his MA in 2006 from the University of Texas at Arlington. His research interests include China-Taiwan relations, international conflict, international trade, the former Soviet Union, Mexican politics, diplomacy, terrorist groups, and U.S. foreign policy.

    Tom Miles is a PhD student at the University of North Texas and holds a master's degree in political science from Texas State University. He specializes in American politics and has done extensive research on the interactions between Congress and the president. His research, with Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha (University of North Texas), on the congressional agenda setting of President George W. Bush, has been published in American Review of Politics.

    Mark C. Miller is a professor of American government and director of the Law and Society Program at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. He received his PhD from The Ohio State University and his JD from The George Washington University. He is the author of The High Priests of American Politics: The Role of Lawyers in American Political Institutions (1995), coeditor of Making Policy, Making Law: An Interbranch Perspective (2004), editor of Exploring Judicial Politics (2008), and author of The View of the Courts From the Hill: Interactions Between Congress and the Federal Judiciary (2009). His current research interests include the interactions between legislatures and courts in the United States and abroad, as well as the role of lawyers in American political institutions.

    William J. Miller is an assistant professor of political science at Southeast Missouri State University. He earned his PhD in public administration and urban studies at The University of Akron. His research focuses on comparative public opinion regarding various public policies, the pedagogy of political science, and public perceptions of bureaucracy.

    Anthony DeForest Molina, PhD, is director of the Master of Science in Administration program and assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of South Dakota. He earned his doctorate in urban studies and public affairs at Cleveland State University, where he taught courses in urban theory, American government, and urban politics and the African American experience. His current teaching and research interests include public administration ethics, organization theory, and the role of values in administrative decision making.

    Christopher D. Moore is an assistant professor of political science at Bethel University, St. Paul, Minnesota. He received his PhD from The Ohio State University in 2008. His research interests include foreign policy decision making, political psychology, and nonstate political violence, including terrorism and insurgency.

    Shane Nordyke is assistant professor of political science at the University of South Dakota. She received her PhD in public policy from Indiana University in 2008. Her research interests include a variety of public policy problems but focus on those related to homeland security, terrorism, aviation security, aviation safety, and intergovernmental relations. Most recently she has completed a longitudinal analysis of spending by the Department of Homeland Security at the state level from 2002 to 2007. Currently she enjoys teaching courses in public policy, policy analysis, and research methods to students in undergraduate, MPA, and PhD programs.

    Paula L. O'Loughlin is professor of political science at the University of Minnesota-Morris. She received her BA from Smith College and completed her PhD at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Her research interests include gender and politics, civic education, political behavior, media, and political psychology.

    Mariya Y. Omelicheva is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Kansas. She holds a PhD (2007) in political science from Purdue University and a JD in international law (2000) from Moscow's National Law Academy. Her research and teaching interests include international and Eurasian security, counterterrorism and human rights, and Russia's foreign policy. She has also published on the issues of students’ assessment and application of various research techniques to the analysis of learning outcomes.

    Anna Pechenina is a graduate student in the PhD program in political science at the University of North Texas.

    John James Quinn is a professor of political science at Truman State University, where he teaches classes on comparative politics, African politics, international relations, international political economy, and methodology. His recent publications have centered on divergent aspects of the political economy of African development, African foreign policy, African political parties, corruption and its tie to majority state ownership, and the links between the Rwandan genocide and the later disorder in Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo). He is author of The Road Often Traveled: Development Policies and Majority State Ownership of Industry in Africa (2002).

    Chapman Rackaway is associate professor of political science, Fort Hays State University. He received his PhD from the University of Missouri in 2002. His specialty is in the area of campaign processes and political organizations, specifically the intersection of political parties and their affiliated campaigns at the state and local levels. His work has been featured in Politicking Online (2009, Rutgers University Press) and in the Social Science Computer Review.

    Bryan A. S. Rasmussen is a professor of political science at Collin College in Frisco, Texas. He received his MA from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. He has continued his graduate work and his study of religion and politics at the University of North Texas in Denton. He has a passion for teaching undergraduates the importance of their government.

    Tina Kempin Reuter, PhD, is assistant professor of international and comparative politics at Christopher Newport University, Newport News, Virginia, and director of the program in international conflict management. She received her MA (2002) in contemporary history, economics, and international law and her PhD (2006) in international law and international relations, both with distinction, from the University of Zurich in Switzerland. She was a visiting researcher at the Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict at the University of Pennsylvania (2005–2006), a research fellow at the Institute of Public International Law at the University of Zurich Law School (2003–2005), and a research assistant at the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (1999–2002). She is the author of Ethnic Conflict and International Law: Group Claims and Conflict Resolution Within the International Legal System (forthcoming) and Ready for Peace? The Implementation of the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland, 1998–2002 (2003). She has also published various articles on ethnic conflict, human rights, and minority issues.

    Joseph W. Robbins is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at Shepherd University. He received his PhD from the Department of Political Science at Texas Tech University in 2008. His work has focused on fiscal policy making, political institutions, and the development of political party systems in former Communist countries. His work has appeared in a number of journals, including Comparative Politics, Party Politics, and Europe-Asia Studies.

    William Rose is associate professor and chair of the Department of Political Science at Albion College in Michigan. He holds a JD from the University of Toledo and a PhD in political science from the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. His scholarly and teaching interests lie in the areas of contemporary legal and political theory, the history of American legal and political thought, and jurisprudence.

    Amanda M. Rosen is an assistant professor of politics and international relations at Webster University. She earned a bachelor's degree from Duke University in political and economic studies of Europe and a master's degree and PhD (2009) in political science from The Ohio State University, where her dissertation was titled Emission Impossible? The Impact of the International Climate Regime on Sub-National Climate Change Policymaking. In addition to climate change policy making, she is interested in American foreign policy, international security, and American political behavior. She has received several grants for her research, including a grant from the Mershon Center for International Security Studies, and has presented papers at the Midwest Political Science Association and the Joint Sessions of the European Consortium for Political Research.

    Giray Sadik earned his PhD (2008) in political science from the University of Georgia, specializing in international relations and comparative politics. His research interests encompass the interaction of domestic politics and foreign policy, focusing on areas such as American foreign policy and comparative Middle Eastern political systems. He was recently a visiting assistant professor of political science at Truman State University, teaching courses on American foreign policy and international security, and is now in the Department of International Relations at Gazi University, in Ankara, Turkey.

    Ryan Salzman is a PhD candidate studying political science at the University of North Texas, Denton. His research interests include the comparative politics of political culture in developing countries. He is currently studying the effects of media consumption on democratic norms and behavior in the Latin American region.

    David Schultz is professor in the School of Business at Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota. He is the author or editor of more than 25 books and 70 articles on various aspects of political theory, law, and American politics, including Inventors of Ideas: An Introduction to Western Political Philosophy.

    Shannon Ishiyama Smithey is associate professor in the Department of Political Science and Sociology at Westminster College in New Wilmington, Pennsylvania. She received her PhD in political science from The Ohio State University in 1994. Her research focuses primarily on courts in countries making transitions to democracy, with particular emphasis on judicial interpretation of electoral rights, civil liberties, and court powers.

    Sarah Wilson Sokhey is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at The Ohio State University. In the fall of 2010, she will be an assistant professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Her research interests focus on comparative political economy, economic development, interest group politics, business-state relations, and the post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia.

    June Sager Speakman, PhD, is professor of political science at Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island, where she teaches American politics and public administration. She has a PhD in political science from City University of New York and an MA in economics from the New School for Social Research. She has done research on politics and public policy at the municipal level and is currently serving her third term of office on her local town council.

    M. Israel Stephens has a MPSA from The Bush School at Texas A&M University and currently is a PhD (ABD) student at the University of North Texas. His research interests include international politics at the systemic level and conflict, broadly defined. He should finish his dissertation in 2011 and will look to continue in the ranks of academia.

    Stephen Sussman is an assistant professor of public administration and academic coordinator at Barry University's School of Adult and Continuing Education, where he teaches in the MPA and BPA programs. He earned his MPA and his PhD in political science from Georgia State University. He serves on the Graduate Council and the Faculty Senate. In 2007, he was appointed to a Department of Education Federal Rulemaking Committee as a primary negotiator for regulations relating to the General Provisions for the Title IV programs of the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 2010, he coauthored a poster presentation for the International Preparedness and Response to Emergencies and Disasters conference in Tel Aviv, Israel, titled Disaster Planning and Analysis: An Evaluation of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness Education.

    Robert Swan is an assistant professor of criminal justice at the Western Oregon University. He received his BS in political science, his MS in criminology and criminal justice, and his PhD in public administration and policy from the Hatfield School of Government at Portland State University, Portland, Oregon. His research interests include an exploration of the presence (or absence) of the new penology in the American criminal justice system; the study and use of interstate inmate transfers by American corrections officials; decision-making influences on correctional management, especially among prison wardens and superintendents; and the impact of vicarious trauma on prosecutorial decision making among prosecutors tasked with prosecuting sex offenders.

    Mark Zachary Taylor is an assistant professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs. Formerly a solid-state physicist, he earned his PhD in political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In his research, he uses regression analyses of patents, scholarly publications, and high technology production data to test hypotheses about the political economy of science, technology, and economic competitiveness. His research can be found in the journals Foreign Affairs, Harvard International Review, International Organization, Journal of Political Science Education, and Review of Policy Research.

    Tobias Van Assche is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Antwerp. He received his PhD in political science from Syracuse University. He has published a number of articles on political leadership and foreign policy decision making. His main focuses are leadership in international organizations and the study of groupthink and sequential decision making. He is also interested in the agenda-setting capabilities of political leaders.

    Bas W. van Doorn is assistant professor at the College of Wooster. He received an MA in American studies from the University of Amsterdam in 2000 and a PhD in political science from the University of Minnesota in 2008. His research focuses on public opinion, political psychology, media and politics, and the presidency.

    Dwight Vick is the graduate director of political science programs at West Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University system. His research focuses on issues relating to public administration and the policies surrounding addiction as well as social equity issues. Dr. Vick is the author of two books focusing on substance abuse, drug courts, and public administration. A member of the National Council for the American Society for Public Administration, he has written articles and participated in research that has been published in Public Administration Review, PA Times, JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, and Addiction. He is the faculty advisor for the academic student-managed journal, PB&J: Politics, Bureaucracy and Justice.

    Karen J. Vogel is professor of political science at Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota. She received her PhD from the Department of Political Science at the University of Oregon. She teaches courses in international organizations, gender politics, and European politics. Her publications include articles on feminist pedagogy and experiential education, as well as numerous conference papers on gender and European politics.

    Gloria C. Walker is assistant professor of political science at Centenary College of Louisiana. She received her PhD from the University of California at Davis. Her research interests include political development, human rights, democratic consolidation and the quality of democracy, regional integration, and the role of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations in promoting liberalization.

    Richard A. Wandling (PhD, Miami University) is a professor in the Political Science Department of Eastern Illinois University, where his primary teaching areas are public organization theory, government budgeting, and state and local politics and policy. His current research agenda focuses on environmental politics and policy making, which provides a rich set of opportunities for applying and testing alternative conceptions of political rationality and governmental decision making.

    Edward Webb is assistant professor of political science and international studies at Dickinson College. After graduating from the University of Cambridge in 1992, he worked for several years in the British Diplomatic Service before leaving to pursue his PhD in political science at the University of Pennsylvania (2007). His research interests include religion and politics, cultural authoritarianism, and empires, with a focus on Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa.

    David L. Weiden is assistant professor of political science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. He received his PhD from the University of Texas at Austin and his JD from the University of Denver College of Law. His research interests include comparative judicial decision making, the role of law clerks at the high courts of the United States and Canada, and trial courts. He is the coauthor of Sorcerers’ Apprentices: 100 Years of Law Clerks at the United States Supreme Court (2006).

    C. J. Williams is a doctoral student in political science at the University of North Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Mary Washington and his master's degree in political science from the University of North Texas. His area of study is comparative politics. His main focus is political culture and its effect on individual-level attitudes and behaviors.

    Leonard Williams is professor of political science at Manchester College in North Manchester, Indiana. He received his BA and MA from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1974 and 1976, respectively, and his PhD from The Ohio State University in 1981. His primary research interests concern political ideologies. He has written a number of journal and popular articles on this and other topics. He also authored American Liberalism and Ideological Change and coedited (with Joseph Losco) Political Theory: Classic and Contemporary Readings.

    James K. L. Wong is a PhD candidate and graduate teaching assistant at the Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science. He obtained his BS (with first-class honors) in government and public administration from the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2005 and his MS in political theory from the London School of Economics in 2006. He is specializing in judgment aggregation, democracy, and environmental political theory for his PhD thesis, and his research interests also extend to contemporary moral and political philosophy, as well as the nature and methods of political theory and political and social science.

    Byungwon Woo is a PhD candidate in political science at The Ohio State University. He specializes in international organizations and international political economy and has strong game theoretic and methodological skills.

    Candace C. Young has been a professor of political science at Truman State University since 1980. She holds a bachelor's degree from Columbia College and earned her doctorate in 1982 from the University of Missouri. Her current research focuses on higher education policy, assessment of student learning, program evaluation, and legislators’ use of information. She teaches courses in public policy, the presidency, and public administration and administers an internship program in Missouri state government. She has served on numerous statewide panels related to issues of higher education, including the Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education.

    Scot J. Zentner is professor of political science at California State University, San Bernardino. He received his PhD from Michigan State University. He is the author of numerous reviews, journal articles, and book chapters. His research interests include political philosophy and American politics.


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