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Cynthia Crosser

In: 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook

Chapter 96: IQ: Viewpoints and Controversies

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IQ: Viewpoints and Controversies
IQ: Viewpoints and controversies

All cultures value intelligence; however, definitions of what constitutes intelligence vary across cultures. The term intelligence quotient (IQ) was coined by German psychologist William Stern (1871–1938) in 1912. IQ tests measure specific skills and specific knowledge that have been used to represent overall intelligence. The exporting and translation of Western measurements of intelligence through IQ testing has influenced views of intelligence globally. In the West, IQ testing has generated controversy as beliefs and assumptions have been challenged. There are three major issues for IQ testing: the question of whether there is a single general intelligence or multiple intelligences, the nature-nurture debate, and the use of IQ tests in policy and legal decisions.

Western psychometric IQ testing is based on ...

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