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Vidisha Barua Worley

In: 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook

Chapter 84: Violence and Warfare

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Violence and Warfare
Violence and warfare

Warfare is an organized, socially sanctioned armed conflict that takes place between two independent political units, groups, or communities using military force (Malinowski, 1941; Mead, 1940, 1968; Otterbein, 1994). Otterbein (1994) has categorized warfare into three types: (1) internal war and two types of external war, (2) offensive war and (3) defensive war. While internal warfare is between political groups within the same cultural unit or larger aggregates within society, external war is between culturally different units or between the society under study and other societies (Ember & Ember, 1997; Otterbein, 1994). Of the two types of external war, offensive is attacking and defensive is being attacked (Otterbein, 1994).

Violence, a ubiquitous aspect of warfare, is a part of everyday life ...

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