Karl Raimund Popper first suggested the distinction between open and closed societies in his social philosophical work The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945/1993). He aimed to formulate a plea for rationality and freedom-one against all kinds of totalitarianism. Popper wrote as follows:
Neither the war nor any other contemporary event was explicitly mentioned in this book; but it was an attempt to understand those events and their background, and some of the issues which were likely to arise after the war was won. (1945/1993, Vol. 1, p. 6)
His considerations are, to a large degree, shaped by the examination of national socialism, as well as Stalinist totalitarianism.
Above all, Popper (1945/1993) radically opposed historicism and broke with the tradition of ...