This chapter looks at the contribution of French Marxist anthropology and modes of production theory to the development of economic anthropology. Mode of production theory represents an alternative approach to earlier substantivist and formalist frameworks for the study of economy and society. By the late 1970s, most economic anthropologists agreed that the expanding world's capitalist system had a deteriorating effect on precapitalist societies and cultures. What they did not agree on was the question as to how these societies were transformed and changed. Substantivists argued that spread of capitalism disrupted traditional values, agricultural practices, and the social relations of production by forming both new classes and outside alliances that undermined the preexisting system at the expense of the commonweal. In contrast, formalists ...