- Subject index
Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 47: Enlightenment and Secularism
Enlightenment and Secularism
In the broadest sense of the word, enlightenment refers to the development and dissemination of the arts and sciences. Enlightenment entails secularism to a great extent in the Western intellectual tradition, though the two terms are not interchangeable. The entailment of secular ideas distinguishes the European Enlightenment from that of other traditions of the same name, namely the Buddhist Enlightenment of a much earlier period. However, enlightenment can also be described as transcendence, and in this regard, the Western Enlightenment is much less distant from its Buddhist counterpart. Indeed, transcendence is a key component of both enlightenment and secularism. This chapter describes the key components of enlightenment and secularism, and the relationship between the two concepts, as they have developed ...