- Subject index
Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, physical and biological anthropology, primate studies, and more.- Offers uniform chapter structure so students can easily locate key information, within these sections: Introduction, Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, Bibliography & Suggestions for Further Reading, and Cross References.- Available in print or electronically at SAGE Reference Online, providing students with convenient, easy access to its contents.
Chapter 45: Theoretical Anthropology
To understand the history of anthropology, it must be remembered that anthropology occurred as a response to twin events. First, it became apparent that Europeans were not alone on earth; and second, their initial theological view of humanity could not answer all questions about the “other.” This questioning accelerated during a period of time we call the Enlightenment, from around 1689 to 1789.
In the 1500s, the European awareness of the “other” greatly expanded. Travelers told of distant, radically different and exotic peoples. The first question was whether these surprising, remote, and alien peoples were, in fact, people. People had souls and could become Christian, from the European viewpoint. Europeans wondered if they were indeed people, then how could ...