• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Via 100 entries or "mini-chapters," 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. This two-volume set provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source that serves their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but in a clear, accessible style, devoid of jargon, unnecessary detail or density.Key Features- Emphasizes key curricular topics, making it useful for students researching for term papers, preparing for GREs, or considering topics for a senior thesis, graduate degree, or career.- Comprehensive, providing full coverage of key subthemes and subfields within the discipline, such as applied anthropology, archaeology and paleontology, sociocultural anthropology, evolution, linguistics, ...

Human Adaptations
Human adaptations

An adaptation is a feature of an organism that was produced through natural selection to perform a specific function. The Oxford Dictionary of Biology defines adaptation as “any change in the structure or functioning of successive generations of a population that make it better suited to its environment” (Hine, 2008, p. 9). Adaptations allow organisms to cope with environmental pressure or stress. Adaptations can be biological (physiological) or behavioral (cultural) and occur in all living organisms; however, this chapter will focus solely on human adaptations.

Human adaptation happens on a variety of levels. In addition to genetic adaptation through the mechanism of natural selection and cultural adaptations (e.g., clothing, shelter, social systems, rules/taboos), humans are capable of three additional forms of physiologic adaptation. ...

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