Organization Development

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Organization development (OD) has emerged both from the demands of a changing environment and from knowledge provided by the evolution of the applied behavioral sciences. Rapid changes within organizational environments have demanded organizational processes and structures which are far more flexible and responsive than traditional bureaucratic structure (22, 112). There have also been dramatic shifts in the social environment – in the life styles, needs, and values of the human working force. Increase in professionalization, educational level, and case of mobility have decreased organizational loyalty and dependency. There have been efforts to challenge authority, a gradual shift from organizational relevance to personal relevance (66), and a trend toward preference for collaborative rather than hierarchical roles (131). Much of the alienation and disenchantment in our current society is attributed to the institution of work (139). Work is seen as an arena in which considerable leverage can be exerted to improve the quality of life. Concurrent with and in partial response to these changes in the environment, a number of developments have occurred in the behavioral science disciplines. These include the realization that a variety of social and psychological factors affect work performance (127); the discovery that group decision-making affects personal involvement, motivation, and commitment (118); findings that participation increases ownership of change (56); and the use of groups as agents of change in organizations (48). T-groups and sensitivity

Organization Development’, FrankFriedlander and L.Dave BrownAnnual Review of Psychology, 25 (1974): 313–341. Reprinted, with permission, from the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 25, © 1974 by Annual Reviews
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