Vital Statistics on American Politics 2005-2006


Harold W. Stanley & Richard G. Niemi

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    As we prepare each new edition of this book, we are reminded of the considerable debt we owe to people and organizations who have helped us in the past. These individuals are thanked in previous acknowledgments. For this edition, Jennifer McLernon again did a fine job of updating many of these tables. Kelly Wicks and Lisa Zimmerman did excellent, quick work entering numbers and text. Christine Carberry gave us the benefit of her strong proofreading skills. Help with specific tables or figures came from Isadora Baldi, Lawrence Baum, Bob Biersack, Rhodes Cook, Robert Giroux, Sheldon Goldman, Stanley Henshaw, Bruce Jacobs, Martha Joynt Kumar, Ann Marshall, Michael McDonald, Tom Smith, Maura Strausberg, and John Swain.

    We are especially grateful to the many, often anonymous government officials who helped us out with this and all previous editions. They have almost always been courteous, helpful, and prompt in providing us with information, books, Web site assistance, and so on. They clearly belie negative stereotypes of government bureaucrats.

    And we again wish to thank all of the colleagues who have given us useful suggestions—whether by pointing out errors or by suggesting improvements in the content and format of individual tables or groups of tables.

    CQ Press and Congressional Quarterly Inc. have been helpful as always. January Layman-Wood ably oversaw the development of this new edition. Sabra Bissette Ledent did another superb job of copyediting. Kerry Kern, whose hand in earlier editions helped develop this volume, returned to handle production chores under tight deadlines.


    In creating this volume of basic statistical information on American government and politics, our goal has always been to provide broad coverage that spans, whenever possible, a lengthy time perspective. The text, along with the Guide to References for Political Statistics, can serve as a fundamental reference book for those who wish to stay informed about numerous aspects of American politics.

    This volume covers a wide range of topics as we seek to offer readers the numbers that count in American politics. In addition to such standard subjects as elections, Congress, the presidency, and the judiciary, this book provides information on the media; campaign finances; foreign, social, and economic policy; and a variety of issues related to state and local government. Coverage is not limited to “hard” data such as votes cast and offices won; rankings of public officials' reputations, content analyses of media coverage, and public opinion data about policy issues are included. The information ranges from simple lists to compilations of outcomes based on implicit analytical concerns. A historical perspective is maintained throughout; depending on available data, the longest possible time periods are covered, even with public opinion data. The sources of material range from the findable to the fugitive: reference volumes, government publications, political science journals, monographs, the Internet, and press releases, among others.

    The quantity and quality of statistical information have grown enormously in recent years, and this trend has yet to peak. In fact, the Internet makes data overload just a click away. But statistics have a bad image. Even the numerically innocent can retort that “there're lies, damn lies, and statistics” and that “figures don't lie but liars can figure.” But anyone seeking to understand politics—past, present, or future—would be ill-advised to take refuge in such skepticism. Increasingly, both public debates and political analyses contain points couched in or accompanied by statistics. Democracy turns in part on the ability of an informed public to follow such debates and analyses. Now more than ever, understanding politics requires an ability to comprehend numerical data and the assumptions behind them.

    Although data are more essential and more readily available, the interpretive skills are all too often lacking. Unless one knows how to read them, tables and figures can be less than useful; they can be intimidating, incomprehensible, and boring. Yet properly understood, tables and figures can be a resource of considerable value and, surprisingly to many students, even intelligible and interesting.

    This volume will not teach statistical methods, but it will foster a greater familiarity with the appropriate cautions about reading too much or too little into tables and figures. This introduction, the chapter introductions, and the Guide to References are all intended to enhance the reader's understanding of how to make better use of tabular information. They are designed to help the reader to extract the maximum amount of information from tables, to understand the level of accuracy in tabular information as well as the various sources and kinds of inaccuracies, and to find additional information, including up-to-date information that must be found in serial publications rather than books.

    Some readers, particularly students who are accustomed to working with numbers as they appear in textbooks, are sometimes frustrated, perhaps even mystified, when confronted with whole tables of numbers—not to mention a whole book of tables and figures. An important point of departure for these readers is to realize that this book is based principally on simple numerical data, not on the results of complicated statistical manipulations. The fanciest statistics presented are averages or medians. Regression coefficients, chi-squares, and the like can be revealing and useful, and increasingly political science has become methodologically sophisticated so that many journal articles are opaque to those without the ability to cope with advanced statistics. But this book fills a more fundamental need for a single volume encompassing a broad range of data about American politics and as such should be useful to the methodologically skilled and unskilled alike.

    The figures and tables are easy to read. Many are merely lists, but useful lists. They are often lengthy because they may cover as many as two hundred years. Long historical stretches mean change, and that creates some complexities, as, for example, when the names of the dominant parties change so that going back in time introduces unfamiliar labels. Notes to the tables and figures contain the necessary explanations as well as important qualifications and details; they must be read to understand the table or figure content. Following conventional practice, large numbers are sometimes expressed in units of thousands or millions to enhance readability. This, too, can lead to minor problems for readers unaccustomed to reading tabular material, but with a bit of practice any such difficulties should be overcome. In general, a little care and caution in reading and interpreting numbers are all that is required.

    The Accuracy of Published Data

    Errors in Data

    The material selected for this volume is intended to be the most accurate, up-to-date information possible from the most reputable sources available. But anyone who has used statistical information realizes that it is almost never completely error-free. This is inevitably true here as well. Consider, for example, Tables 11-4 and 11-5. Both are taken from the same governmental publication, eighty pages apart. The figures reported for total outlays, which appear in both tables, typically match. For example, the $590.9 billion total outlays for 1980 noted in Table 11-4 appears identically in Table 11-5. Similarly, the total outlays for the other years match perfectly. Yet inexplicably, the figures for national defense never quite match, differing by as little as $.3 billion and as much as $3.1 billion.

    Why do such discrepancies and other kinds of errors (or what appear to be errors) occur? The answer varies.


    Sometimes what appears to be an error is simply a matter of rounding. For example, 20.2 plus 20.4 equals 41 if one adds and then rounds, but equals 40 if one rounds and then adds. This explains why the sums of the numbers in two of the three columns in Table 10-2 do not quite match the totals. A similar sort of “error” occurs when percentages sum to 99.8 or 100.2 rather than to 100 plus or minus 0.1 percent.

    Exact Date of Data Collection

    Accurate interpretation of data depends on knowing the precise date of collection and the period covered. Sometimes this is obvious. For example, the unemployment rate “at the end of the year” may differ if the phrase means the average of the November and December figures rather than the December figure alone. The time factor can be more subtle—for example, if a U.S. senator-elect dies and someone from the other party is appointed to fill the seat, the number of Democrats and Republicans elected will differ slightly from the number of Democrats and Republicans that actually take office a few months later. Even seemingly similar time spans sometimes conceal important differences. Dollar amounts for given years are likely to differ if one uses calendar years rather than fiscal years.

    The date of data collection is important from another perspective as well. Data are often updated, and one needs to know whether one is dealing with the “original” or the “revised” figures. Sometimes data providers make it clear that initial figures are subject to change (as when the government reports preliminary economic statistics), and they will label revised statistics as such. But not always. We have found numerous instances in which data are revised—and not only for the most recent period. It is always a good idea to check the latest publication of a time series to see if there have been changes to previously reported information.

    Handling of “Minor” Categories

    “Minor” categories may be uncounted, ignored, or dropped for analytical reasons. Often, for example, votes are given only for the candidates of the two major parties. The small number of votes for the Socialist, Libertarian, and Prohibition candidates, not to mention the stray ballots cast for Mickey Mouse or “none of the above,” are unreported or lumped together under “other.” Thus a vote may be correctly reported as 42.7 percent (of the total vote) and just as correctly reported as 42.9 percent (of the two-party vote). Occasionally, minor categories create more complicated problems. For example, in New York State the same candidate may be nominated by two parties, such as the Democratic Party and the Liberal Party. The percentage of Democratic votes then differs from the percentage of votes received by the Democratic candidate.

    A similar problem occurs in the reporting of survey data. In any large survey, in response to almost every question, a small number of respondents give “odd-ball” responses, refuse to answer, or say that they do not know. Depending on how these responses are handled—often, but not always, they are eliminated before any further percentaging is done—simple distributions of responses can vary up to a few percentage points or more. “Don't know” responses are especially problematic. It is sometimes important to know how many individuals are uncertain of their response, so we include them in many of our tables (such as Table 3-15 through Table 3-22). Tabulations of the same items with these responses removed will differ by varying, unknown amounts.

    Changes in Measurement Techniques

    Changes in the way measurements are made can produce different figures and can lead to time series that are not fully comparable. Though the two categories sometimes meld together, we might distinguish between (1) changes in operationalization and (2) changes in conceptualization.

    A change in operationalization occurs when the underlying idea remains the same but there is a change in the precise way in which the measurement is carried out. A classic example occurs in survey research, in trying to measure concepts such as “political efficacy” and “political trust” or even concepts such as “support for gun control.” Researchers at different times may define the concept in the same way but believe that they can “improve” on previous measures by changing the specific questions used to determine a person's efficacy, trust, or support. A consequence of doing so may be that we cannot measure change in public opinion because the new results are not truly comparable with those of earlier polls. Sometimes such changes are forced on reluctant researchers. For example, the “market basket” of items in the Consumer Price Index (Table 11-2) has changed over time. Fountain pens or carbon paper might have been reasonable items to include in the 1950s, but not in the 2000s; technological progress means some items could hardly have been included until recently.

    A change in conceptualization occurs when researchers develop a new understanding of what is meant by some idea. A good example comes from the Current Population Survey (CPS), in which the Department of Labor tries to determine the status of “discouraged workers”—defined for many years as persons who are not employed, want a job, but are not looking for work because of perceived job market factors. Also, for many years, the measure of discouraged workers was based on the relatively subjective notion of “desire for work,” whereas a new definition relies on more objective measures of recent efforts to search for a job. This altered conceptualization of what it means to be looking for work was one of many changes made in the CPS during the early 1990s. (These changes are described in the Monthly Labor Review, September 1993.)

    Ad Hoc Problems

    All sorts of small discrepancies can occur, with adhoc explanations for each one. An example that nearly everyone is familiar with involves the counting of presidents. George W. Bush is usually said to be the forty-third president, but he is only the forty-second person to hold the office. Grover Cleveland is counted twice because his two terms were separated by four years. So, is the correct number forty-two or forty-three? It depends on precisely what one means. A less obvious problem occurs in counting Supreme Court nominations that failed. In 1987 Douglas Ginsburg was publicly announced as President Ronald Reagan's choice, but his name was withdrawn before it was formally submitted to the Senate. Technically, was he nominated? This kind of subtlety is exacerbated when we deal with events of the distant past. It would be easy, for example, to think that the two listings of the nomination of Edward King to the Supreme Court by President John Tyler are a typographical error. In fact, King was nominated twice, and the nomination was twice withdrawn in a fight between the president and Congress (Table 7-4).

    Solutions to Errors in Data

    Awareness that data may contain inaccuracies is no reason to ignore the data; nor is it an excuse to ignore the possible inaccuracies. A consideration of some “solutions” to data errors helps to illustrate this point. The solutions, like the problems just described, are suggestive rather than exhaustive.

    Sometimes errors are relatively obvious and can be easily corrected. One example is misprints. One might encounter references to the 535 members of the House of Representatives when obviously the whole Congress is meant. Checking with alternative or more authoritative sources when mistakes are suspected can help to remedy such problems.

    Outlandish or illogical numbers should also be checked. A classic example of finding and explaining nonsensical results is the case of two researchers who were not willing to believe data from the 1950 census showing “a surprising number of widowed fourteen-year-old boys and, equally surprising, a decrease in the number of widowed teenage males at older ages.”1 They wrote a “detective story” about how they traced the problem to systematic errors in the way certain data were entered into the census records.

    Another method—one that should always be used—is to check footnotes and accompanying text for exceptions and special comments. Recognize that the problem may not really be error, but misreading. Consider the table on U.S. casualties in Vietnam (Table 9-5). For 1973–1993, the bottom row shows there were no U.S. military forces in Vietnam but 1,118 battle deaths—surely an anomaly. But the note reveals that there were troops in Vietnam for nearly a month at the beginning of this period—the zero indicates the force count as of December 31, 1973, and U.S. forces were withdrawn on January 27, 1973. In addition, forces dying of wounds incurred earlier or those who were missing and later classified as deceased are also considered battle deaths.

    Another solution is what is formally called sensitivity analysis. When values are inexact or differ across sources, one needs to ask how sensitive the conclusion is to the precise values used. If the true values differed by some specified amount from the reported values, would the conclusion change? If not, one can be more confident about the conclusion. Similarly, if sources differ, consider the actual values from several sources. If the conclusion to be drawn does not vary with the different values, the discrepancies are only a minor problem. For example, almost any conclusion about national defense expenditures would be the same whether 1995 expenditures were $272.1 billion (Table 11-3) or $273.6 billion (Table 11-5), even though the difference represents what in other contexts would be an astonishing $1.5 billion.

    For the researcher examining over-time data, one way to avoid possible errors is to be sure the data are truly comparable. For one thing, check for indications that the data were revised or updated. Preliminary reports sometimes are not directly comparable with initial reports. In addition, check that the data were collected uniformly or know what the differences are over time and their probable effects. Occasionally, guesses about probable error can be confirmed by formal tests. An excellent example is a study in which both old and new survey questions were asked. Differences that had previously been attributed to changes in the electorate over time were shown to be methodological artifacts.1

    Sometimes when changes occur, one can develop new estimates, or incorporate ones that are supplied, for an entire existing time series. In the mid-1990s, when the Bureau of Economic Analysis undertook a comprehensive revision of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), it published new estimates of the gross domestic product back to 1929, which in turn affect many other calculations. While frustrating in that the older series might have to be replaced entirely by the new numbers, the new data provide a comparable time series for the entire period. Of course, in such situations one also has to ask which figures should be used; the original calculations are arguably better if one is asking questions that depend on how people viewed the world at the time the original data were collected.

    All data, perhaps especially data over time, should be examined for “outliers.” If a series of values, say the percentages of votes for the Republican candidate in a given district, are 52, 56, 49, 85, and 50, the accuracy of the 85 percent must be checked. Is the 85 a transposition of 58? If 85 is the correct number, what is the reason for it? Was the candidate essentially unopposed that year? What conclusion should be drawn if the 85 were omitted?

    One should always think carefully about what information is really wanted. There are instances in which it is necessary to decide which of two or three sets of equally valid data are most appropriate to answer a given question. We noted, for example, that one might wish to employ only the two-party vote or the vote for all parties, include survey respondents who answer “don't know” or eliminate them, and use contemporary data rather than re-estimates made years later.

    Finally, after taking all reasonable steps to be sure the data are as good as can be obtained and that they address the question at hand, one should indicate known errors. It is better to point out that there is some question about certain figures than to pretend that they are perfect. If a loftier reason does not come to mind, being straightforward about inaccuracies at least prevents readers from lobbing them back, implying the author was too ignorant to notice the problems.

    Obtaining Additional Material

    This book provides essential figures and tables, but the coverage is far from exhaustive. Many readers may want data with a slightly different twist or of another sort altogether. The Guide to References for Political Statistics should help to orient readers who seek information beyond that contained here. In addition, the sources given for the tables and figures in this book should also be considered in such searches. They will especially alert readers to the many electronic sources now available.

    Data on current events can be found in newspapers, weekly news magazines, CQ Weekly, and the National Journal. The indexes of CQ Weekly, National Journal, and the major newspapers are a valuable guide. Online sources such as or provide useful links to newspapers on the Web, as does, which also covers magazines as well as radio and television stations. Subscription services such as LexisNexis, Newsbank, and ProQuest Historical Newspapers provide additional coverage, not only of current events but also of historical and legal materials. Many of these are now available on the Web or as electronic databases available at research libraries.

    Readers need to appreciate how useful reference librarians are in the quest for information. Librarians for government document collections are also invaluable resources. Interlibrary loans can help to secure less readily available volumes, although principal reference works and current material seldom circulate in this fashion.

    For some material, one may need to contact organizations that compile or disseminate the data. Various directories (most now online as well as in hard copy) are available—of party organizations, interest groups, associations, research institutions, and state agencies. At the federal level, Congressional Quarterly's Washington Information Directory is a valuable guide to potential sources. The Council of State Governments, with its CSG State Directories of administrative and elected officials, provides a similar service at the state level.

    Data and texts are now often available in electronic form. Numerous commercial vendors offer online data services, and government agencies have moved many publications onto the Web, some of them exclusively so. Although such a change makes information widely available, it also means that consumers of information must be computer literate. Fortunately, producers are providing more user-friendly sites at the same time that consumers are becoming more sophisticated.

    Archives of electronic data also constitute a valuable source of information and were the source of several tables and figures for this volume. The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan has the largest collection of such data. A guide to its resources is available at, and some of its data are made available there for observation and analysis online. Most major research universities are members of the consortium. To learn how to obtain data, one should contact the official university representative of the ICPSR.

    Because of the tremendous growth of sites on the Web, the appearance and disappearance of useful sites, and the availability of powerful search engines, it would be pointless (as well as impossible) to try to develop anything like a comprehensive list. Nonetheless, the Guide to References lists sites that may be of special interest in searching for political statistics. As noted, we also recommend using the sources we cite in the tables and figures as a starting point for gathering additional information.

    These hints are merely suggestions for those who wish to go beyond this volume to track down particular pieces of information. We hope readers will find the extensive coverage in this obviously nonexhaustive volume to be convenient and valuable.


    Ansley J. Coale and Frederick F. Stephan, “The Case of the Indians and the Teen-Age Widows,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 57 (1962): 338.

    John L. Sullivan, James E. Piereson, and George E. Marcus, “Ideological Constraint in the Mass Public: A Methodological Critique and Some New Findings,” American Journal of Political Science 22 (1978): 233–249.

  • Appendix: Definitions of Regions

    Analyses of U.S. politics often involve breaking the nation down into groups of states in order to highlight tendencies and trends in different regions. For ease of reference, four regional definitions, used in various tables in this book, are shown here. These four, while prominent, by no means exhaust the various definitions of regions that have been employed in the study of U.S. politics.

    Guide to References for Political Statistics
    The Internet and the World Wide Web

    Electronic sites have become an important source for all kinds of information, especially about current people and events. It is also becoming easier to access this information because of powerful search engines and because many Web sites provide links to related sites. In addition, many standard sources that historically have been available only in print form are now available online. They include a number of the references cited below. Some—especially government publications—are free, while others require a subscription or other source of payment. Subscription sites may be available in some libraries, especially at research universities.

    It would be impossible, as well as pointless, for us to try to provide anything like a comprehensive list of relevant sites. Nevertheless, we have listed a number of significant sites for finding information about U.S. government and politics. Even this small selection of sites, together with their links to related sites, is enough to keep even the most dedicated political and data junkies busy.

    Many Web sites are immediately identifiable from their URL addresses. We separately identify only those that are not obvious.


    A service of the U.S. Government Printing Office that provides free electronic access to publications of the federal government.

    Gateway to statistics from over 100 federal agencies.

    Campaign Finance (Federal Election Commission) (The Campaign Finance Institute) (The Center for Responsive Politics) (TRKC Inc., “PoliticalMoneyLine”) (The Institute on Money in State Politics)


    A site that makes available many Congressional Research Service documents.

    Biographical directory of the U.S. Congress, 1774–present.

    Elections (Federal Election Commission)

    Contains numerous links to candidates, political parties, election results, government and political organizations.

    Has issue positions, biographical details, and campaign finance information for numerous candidates for president, Congress, and state legislatures, and information on statewide ballot measures.

    Library of Congress (Law Library of Congress)

    Political Parties (Democratic National Committee) (Republican National Committee)


    Has links to federal government agencies and state data centers.

    Public Opinion (The Gallup Poll) (The Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research) (Pew Research Center for the People and the Press)

    State and Local Governments (National Conference of State Legislatures)

    Has links to sites of individual state legislatures. (National Governors Association) (Council of State Governments)

    State section of the legislative source book of the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, D.C.

    Treaties (United Nations)

    A large database of treaties and multilateral agreements. Requires subscription. Also contains references to hardcopy publications.


    Alonso, William, and Paul Starr, eds. The Politics of Numbers. New York: Russell Sage, 1987.

    Excellent analysis of issues relating to the collection and publication of statistics, especially the U.S. Census.

    Austin, Erik W., and Jerome M. Clubb. Political Facts of the United States Since 1789. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

    Convenient one-volume compilation of otherwise all-too-often elusive data on politics in the nation; one strength is the long time series.

    Congressional Information Service. American Statistics Index: A Comprehensive Guide and Index to the Statistical Publications of the U.S. Government. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Information Service, 1973–. Annual, with monthly supplements. Available online at LexisNexis Statistical.

    Definitive guide, multiply indexed, to statistics “of probable research significance” in government publications; 1974 “Annual and Retrospective Edition” includes not only items in print but also significant items published over the preceding decade.

    ———. Statistical Reference Index: A Selective Guide to American Statistical Publications from Sources Other than the U.S. Government. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Information Service, 1980–. Annual, with bimonthly supplements. Available online at LexisNexis Statistical.

    A complement to American Statistics Index, indexes statistics from private and public sources other than the U.S. federal government.

    Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report (CQ Weekly as of April 18, 1998). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1945–. Weekly.

    Newsweekly covering political developments in Congress, the presidency, the Supreme Court, and national politics; individual voting records on all roll call votes in the House and Senate; texts of presidential press conferences and major statements. CQ Weekly is available online with an individual or library subscription (

    Congressional Research Service. The Constitution of the United States: Analysis and Interpretation. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1987. 99th Cong., 1st sess., S.Doc. 99-16. Supplement issued 100th Cong., 1st sess., S.Doc. 100-9.

    Not statistics-laden, but an essential document with commentary and annotations of Supreme Court decisions and tables on proposed constitutional amendments pending and unratified, laws (congressional, state, or local) held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and Supreme Court decisions overruled by subsequent decisions. U.S. law requires a new edition every ten years with biennial supplements between editions to keep this work current.

    Historical Statistics of the United States. Millennial ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

    Invaluable, broad-ranging collection of more than 12,000 time series covering the nation's history; often the series can be updated by the annual Statistical Abstract of the United States (see below).

    Maier, Mark H. The Data Game: Controversies in Social Science Statistics. 3d ed. Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe, 1999.

    Discussion of statistical source material, with an emphasis on inaccuracies, ambiguities, misinterpretations, and unavailability as well as on the relationship between statistics and important social questions.

    National Journal. Washington, D.C.: National Journal, Inc., 1969–. Weekly.

    Newsweekly about government; reviews recent actions and features analyses of policy and political issues.

    U.S. Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1879–. Annual (

    Strong, indispensable collection of nationally significant statistics from public and private sources on economics, politics, and society; generally worth checking first. Also a useful guide to sources for additional statistics; indicates which time series update those in Historical Statistics of the United States (see above).

    U.S. Congress. House. Constitution, Jefferson's Manual, and Rules of the House of Representatives of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Biennial.

    Solid reference on the Constitution with full notes on all ratifications; indexed.


    Barone, Michael, with William Lilley III and Laurence J. DeFranco. State Legislative Elections: Voting Patterns and Demographics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    Political analysis of state legislative elections in all fifty states, plus population and demographic information.

    Bartley, Numan V., and Hugh D. Graham. Southern Elections: County and Precinct Data, 1950–1972. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978.

    Gubernatorial and senatorial contests, primaries, and referenda in southern states; some socioeconomic and geographic analysis of the elections.

    Brace, Kim, et al. The Election Data Book. Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press, 1993.

    Extensive compilation of general election and primary vote totals, by state and county, for president, governor, and U.S. senator and representative. Voter registration and turnout figures by state since 1948; by county for most recent election. Information on voting precincts, registration methods, and voting equipment. State maps with county and congressional districts boundaries.

    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Superb collection of vote returns for presidential, gubernatorial, and House elections since 1824, electoral college votes since 1789, senatorial elections since 1913, presidential primaries since 1912, and primaries for governor and senator since 1956 (in southern states since 1919); general and candidate indexes; biographies of presidential and vice-presidential candidates; lists of governors and senators since 1789; discussions of and data on political parties and presidential nominating conventions throughout the nation's history.

    Dubin, Michael J. United States Congressional Elections, 1788–1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st through the 105th Congresses. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.

    Complete, insofar as possible, returns for all House and Senate general elections. Contains percentages for each Congress of representatives unopposed, seeking reelection, reelected, defeated, and first-termers.

    ———. United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1776–1860: The Official Results by State and County.

    Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2003.

    Detailed compilation of early gubernatorial elections.

    ———. United States Presidential Elections, 1776–1860: The Official Results by State and County. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2002.

    Detailed compilation of early presidential elections.

    Glashan, Roy R. American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775–1978. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1979.

    Details about state governors (such as birthdates, party affiliations, principal occupations, terms of office) and election data. Continued in Mullaney (see below).

    Kallenbach, Joseph E., and Jessamine S. Kallenbach. American State Governors, 1776–1976. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1977–1982.

    Election results and biographical data on governors.

    McGillivray, Alice V. Congressional and Gubernatorial Primaries, 1991–1992: A Handbook of Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    County-by-county results for congressional and gubernatorial primaries in 1991 and 1992. Updated for the 1994 cycle. Updated for the 1996 and 1998 cycles by Rhodes Cook under the title U.S. Primary Elections.

    ———. Presidential Primaries and Caucuses: 1992. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1992.

    County-by-county results for presidential primaries in 1992. Voter registration figures by county.

    Mullaney, Marie. American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1979–1987. Westport, Conn.: Meckler, 1988.

    Continues the volume by Glashan (see above).

    ———. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1988–1994. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

    Details about state governors (such as birthdates, party affiliations, principal occupations, terms of office). Continues earlier volume.

    Nomination and Election of the President and Vice President of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960–. Quad-rennial.

    Compilation of federal and state laws and party rules governing nomination and election of the president.

    Reapportionment Law: The 1990s. Denver: National Conference of State Legislatures, 1989.

    Detailed discussion of law relating to redistricting.

    Runyon, John H., Jennefer Verdini, and Sally S. Runyan, eds. Source Book of American Presidential Campaign and Election Statistics, 1948–1968. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1971.

    Information on presidential campaign staffs, candidate itineraries, media exposure, campaign costs, and public opinion polls.

    Rusk, Jerrold. A Statistical History of the American Electorate. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.

    Includes lists and dates of election laws, initiative and referendum data, measures of party competition, partisan swing, split-ticket voting, partisan strength.

    Scammon, Richard M., Alice McGillivray, and Rhodes Cook, eds. America at the Polls: A Handbook of Presidential Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, various years.

    Two volumes span 1920–2000, providing popular votes (state and county) for president as well as state presidential primary results.

    ———. America Votes: A Handbook of Contemporary American Election Statistics. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, Elections Research Center, 1956–. Biennial.

    Convenient compilation of vote totals and statistics by state for general elections and primaries for president, governor, and senator, principally since 1945 (comparable district-level data for members of Congress); county-level totals and statistics for most recent general election for president, governor, and senator; state maps with county and congressional district boundaries.

    U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports. Population Characteristics, Series P-20. Voting and Registration in the Election of November [Year]. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1964–. Biennial (

    Survey results on voter registration and turnout in presidential and midterm general elections for the nation and regions (and sometimes states and metropolitan areas) for various groups.

    Political Parties

    Appleton, Andrew M., and Daniel S. Ward. State Party Profiles: A 50-State Guide to Development, Organization, and Resources. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    Brief descriptions of party histories, organizational development, current party organizations, a resource guide, and references, for all fifty states.

    Bain, Richard C., and Judith H. Parris. Convention Decisions and Voting Records. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1973.

    Data on convention actions through 1972.

    Congressional Quarterly. National Party Conventions, 1831–2004. 8th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Summarizes conventions, with results of ballots, nominees, and party profiles.

    David, Paul T. Party Strength in the United States, 1872–1970. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of America, 1972. Updated for 1972 in Journal of Politics 36 (1972): 785–796; for 1974 in Journal of Politics 38 (1974): 416–425; for 1976 in Journal of Politics 40 (1976): 770–780.

    Measures of party competition in the states covering several offices and an admirably lengthy historical span.

    Miller, Warren E., and M. Kent Jennings. Parties in Transition. New York: Russell Sage, 1986.

    Descriptions and analyses of delegates to the 1972–1980 Republican and Democratic National Conventions.

    Campaign Finance and Political Action Committees (PACs)

    Federal Election Commission. Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976– (

    Cumulative figures since the mid-1970s on contributions and spending in federal election campaigns; also information on political action committee growth and activities.

    Heard, Alexander E. The Costs of Democracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960.

    A classic work—published in 1960, when hard data on campaign contributions and spending were hard to secure.

    Magleby, David B., ed. Financing the 2000 Election. Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 2002.

    Coverage of fund raising and spending in all phases of the presidential campaign. Continues a series of books by Heard on financing presidential campaigns since 1960 (see above).

    Malbin, Michael J. Parties, Interest Groups, and Campaign Finance Laws. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1980.

    Early (1980) collection pulling together analyses in an increasingly investigated area.

    Public Opinion

    The American Enterprise. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1990–. Bimonthly.

    Regular public opinion section presents poll data from several sources on selected topics; a more limited continuation of Public Opinion, previously published (1978–1989) by the same organization.

    Astin, A. W., et al. The American Freshman: Thirty-Five Year Trends. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 2002. National Norms for Fall, 1998–. Annual.

    Reports of national surveys of college freshmen, including attitudes toward jobs, subject interests, and liberalism/conservatism.

    The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1935–71. 3 vols. New York: Random House, 1972. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1972–. Annual. Years 1972–1977 contained in 2 vols.

    Poll data from thousands of Gallup surveys since 1935 on then-current topics, presented chronologically.

    The Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing. Princeton, N.J.: American Institute of Public Opinion, 1965–. Monthly. Previously titled Gallup Opinion Index, The Gallup Political Report, The Gallup Report, and The Gallup Poll Monthly.

    Compilation of recent Gallup public opinion data on political and social issues, often presented with historical trends.

    POLL (The Public Opinion Location Library). Storrs, Conn.: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research ( Also available in LexisNexis Academic.

    A computer-based information retrieval system for public opinion survey data. Extensive coverage for 1955 to the present; some coverage of earlier years. Subscription service with limited free access.

    The NES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior (

    Provides immediate access to tables and graphs that display public opinion and electoral behavior and choice in American politics since 1952. Presents responses to questions that were asked in the 1952–2000 National Election Studies.

    Niemi, Richard G., John E. Mueller, and Tom W. Smith. Trends in Public Opinion. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989.

    Public opinion polls on numerous political and other topics; based primarily on the General Social Survey. Provides time series, often quite long, of identically worded questions.

    Opinion Research Service. American Public Opinion Index. Louisville, Ky.: Opinion Research Service, 1981–2000. Annual.

    Indexes scientifically drawn samples of national, state, and local universes.

    Public Opinion Quarterly. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937–. Quarterly.

    Analysis of the mechanics and findings of survey research; regular thematic presentation of poll results.

    The Public Perspective: A Roper Center Review of Public Opinion and Polling. Storrs, Conn.: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 1989–2003. Bimonthly.

    Poll results and articles on public opinion and polling.


    ADI Book. Beltsville, Md.: Arbitron Television. Annual.

    Reports of television usage, including demographic and market analyses.

    Broadcasting Publications. Broadcasting Cablecasting Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, 1982–. Annual. Continues Broadcasting Cable Yearbook, which combined Broadcasting Yearbook (1968–1979) and Broadcasting Cable Sourcebook (1973–1979).

    International directory of radio, television, and cable industries as well as related fields. Presents some statistical overviews.

    Cable and Station Coverage Atlas, 1986. Indianapolis, Ind.: Warren Publishing, 1986–. Annual.

    Data on television stations and the growing reach of cable systems.

    Editor & Publisher—The Fourth Estate. New York: Editor & Publisher Co., 1884–. Weekly.

    Weekly periodical covering the media.


    Online access to Dow Jones and Reuters's newswires, major U.S. newspapers, and business publications (


    Online articles from journals, newspapers, and reference books. Five major content categories: news, business, legal research, medical, and reference (


    Online access to hundreds of U.S. and international newspapers and other sources (

    Nielsen Television Index. Northbrook, Ill.: A. C. Nielsen, 1955. Annual.

    Overall and market section reports on television viewing and network program audiences.


    Online access to major U.S. newspapers and magazines. Includes ProQuest Historical Newspapers–New York Times from 1851 and seven other major papers (

    Public Affairs Video Archives Catalogue. West Lafayette, Ind.: Public Affairs Video Archives, Purdue University, 1988–.

    Archives of C-SPAN programming. Partial coverage 1987–September 1988, complete coverage since October 1988. Some other items, such as campaign commercials.

    Sterling, Christopher H. Electronic Media: A Guide to Trends in Broadcasting and Newer Technologies: 1920–1983. New York: Praeger, 1984.

    Data on growth, ownership, economics, employment and training, contents, audience and regulation of radio, television, and cable; strong on trends and time series.

    Television Digest. Television and Cable Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Television Digest, 1946–. Annual.

    Data on cable, television, and related industries; published in two volumes: “Stations” and “Cable and Services.”

    Television News Index and Abstracts. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Television News Archives, Vanderbilt University, 1972–. Monthly.

    Archives of nightly network news.


    Bacon, Donald C., Roger H. Davidson, and Morton Keller, eds. Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

    Four volumes with more than 1,000 essays exploring the history, processes, and politics of Congress.

    Balinski, Michel, and H. Peyton Young. Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man, One Vote. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982.

    Analysis of methods of apportionment of representatives among the states.

    Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa. The Almanac of American Politics. Washington, D.C.: National Journal, 1972–. Biennial.

    Data-rich political analyses of each state, congressional district, representative, senator, and governor; current composition of committees; state maps with congressional district and county boundaries.

    Congressional Quarterly. American Political Leaders 1789–2005. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Material on more than 11,000 members of Congress: age, religion, occupations, women, blacks, turnover, and shifts between chambers; data on congressional sessions, party composition, and leadership. Also includes biographical summaries of presidents, vice presidents, Supreme Court justices, and governors.

    ———. Congress A to Z. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

    Mostly essays but contains a number of useful listings of hard-to-find material such as treaties killed by the Senate, impeachment trials, women members of Congress.

    ———. Congress and the Nation. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1965–. Quadrennial. Years 1945–1964 contained in one vol.

    Akin to Congressional Quarterly Almanac (see below), but each volume now covers a presidential term.

    ———. Congressional Districts in the 2000s. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

    Profiles of each congressional district, with statistics on election returns, economic makeup, and demographics. Volume covering the 1990s published in 1993.

    ———. Congressional Quarterly Almanac. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1945–. Annual.

    Each volume now covers legislation for a single session of Congress; appendixes contain particularly useful data on Congress and politics.

    ———. Congressional Roll Call. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1974–. Annual.

    Compilation of every roll call vote by every member of Congress and summary voting measures (ideology, party unity, presidential support, and voting participation).

    ———. Guide to 1990 Congressional Redistricting. Parts I and II. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    Descriptions and maps of 1990s districts. Contains a summary of the process by which districting plans were adopted.

    ———. Landmark Legislation 1774–2002. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.

    Summary and historical and political background of major legislation and treaties.

    ———. Politics in America. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1981–. Biennial.

    Data-rich political analyses of each state, congressional district, representative, and senator; current composition of committees; state maps with congressional district and county boundaries.

    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

    Massive, rich accounting of how Congress works and how it developed. Check here first for data covering all but the most recent years.

    [Year] Congressional Staff Directory. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1959–. Biennial.

    Names, addresses, phone numbers, and numerous biographies of senators' and representatives' personal staffs and the staffs of congressional committees and subcommittees.

    Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of the United States Congressional Districts, 1789–1983. New York: Free Press, 1983.

    ———. Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789–1989. New York: Macmillan, 1989.

    Congressional-based perspective on the surge and decline of political parties.

    Martis, Kenneth C., and Gregory A. Elmes. The Historical Atlas of State Power in Congress, 1790–1990. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    Maps, tables, and text describing changes in apportionment among the states.

    Martis, Kenneth C., and Gyula Pauer. The Historical Atlas of the Congresses of the Confederate States of America. New York: Macmillan, 1994.

    Maps, tables, and text describing Confederate districts, elections, and key votes.

    Nelson, Garrison, ed. Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1947–1992. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.

    Two volumes giving definitive data on individual congressional committee membership.

    Ornstein, Norman J., Thomas E. Mann, and Michael J. Malbin, eds. Vital Statistics on Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1980–1998. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2000–. Frequency varies.

    Data on characteristics of members, elections, campaign finance, committees, staff, expenses, workload, budgeting, and voting alignments. Most data series stretch back to World War II, some longer.

    Parsons, Stanley B., Michael J. Dubin, and Karen Toombs Parsons. United States Congressional Districts, 1883–1913. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

    Demographic and geographic data about American congressional districts between 1883 and 1913; continues coverage of volumes listed below.

    Parsons, Stanley B., William W. Beach, and Michael J. Dubin. United States Congressional Districts and Data. 2 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978, 1986.

    These two volumes cover 1789–1883.

    Sharp, Michael. The Directory of Congressional Voting Scores and Interest Group Ratings. 2 vols, 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Contains voting scores (for example, presidential support) and interest group ratings (eleven groups, as available) for all members of Congress from 1947 to 2004.

    Silbey, Joel, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Legislative System: Studies of the Principal Structures, Processes, and Policies of Congress and State Legislatures Since the Colonial Era. New York: Scribner's, 1994–1996.

    Three volumes covering state and national legislative levels.

    Stewart, Charles, III, David T. Canon, and Garrison Nelson, eds. Committees in the U.S. Congress, 1789–1946. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.

    Four-volume set with comprehensive history of congressional committee membership.

    Treese, Joel, ed. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774–1996. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1997.

    Biographies of U.S. senators and representatives to 1996.

    U.S. Census Bureau. Congressional District Atlas. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960–. Frequency varies.

    Detailed maps of congressional districts.

    ———. Congressional District Data Book. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961–. Frequency varies.

    Census data by congressional district with maps.

    U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on Printing. Official Congressional Directory. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1809–. Biennial (in recent years).

    Biographical data on current members and statistics on the sessions of Congress. Useful reference source on committees and subcommittees, foreign representatives and consular offices in the United States, press representatives, and state delegations.

    Presidency and Executive Branch

    Congressional Quarterly. Federal Regulatory Directory. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1979–. Frequency varies.

    Descriptions and data provide extensive profiles of the major and minor regulatory agencies—more than 100 in all.

    ———. Presidential Elections Since 1789. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

    Facts and figures on presidential elections; electoral college vote since 1789; primary returns since 1912; major-party candidate vote shares state by state; minor candidate vote totals; recent turnout and party support trends.

    ———. Washington Information Directory. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1975–. Annual.

    Names, addresses, phone numbers, and heads of thousands of federal government and private, nonprofit agencies in and about Washington, D.C.

    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the Presidency. 3d ed. Michael Nelson, ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.

    Detailed coverage of numerous aspects of presidents and administrations. Focus on the institution complements CQ's volumes on Congress and elections.

    DeGregorio, William A. The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents. New York: Gramercy Books, 2001.

    Biographies of presidents and cabinet members.

    [Year] Federal Staff Directory. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1982–. Biennial.

    Names, addresses, phone numbers, and numerous biographies of key executives and assistants in the executive branch of the federal government.

    Kane, Joseph Nathan, Janet Podell, and Steven Anzovin. Facts About the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. 7th ed. New York: H. W. Wilson, 2001.

    Chapter on each president and comparative statistics on all presidents.

    Ragsdale, Lyn. Vital Statistics on the Presidency: Washington to Clinton. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1998.

    Data on presidents—their careers, elections, speeches and appearances, approval ratings, and congressional relationships. Focus is on postwar presidencies, with some longer time series.

    U.S. Government Organization Manual. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1935–. Annual.

    Official federal government handbook detailing the organization, activities, and current officials in legislative, judicial, and executive governmental units.

    Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office (

    Collection of presidential activities. Includes texts of proclamations, executive orders, speeches, and other presidential communications; supplements include acts gaining presidential approval, nominations submitted for Senate confirmation, and a list of White House press releases. Indexed.

    The Judiciary

    The American Bench. Sacramento, Calif.: Reginald Bishop Forster and Associates, 1977–. Biennial.

    Comprehensive listing of all judges in the United States, along with brief biographies of approximately 18,000 judges.

    Carson, Clara. The Lawyer Statistical Report: The U.S. Legal Profession in 1995. Chicago: American Bar Foundation, 1999.

    A statistical profile of a changing profession, by age, gender, and place of employment. Also profiles lawyer populations within states, metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan areas.

    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.

    Solid, broad coverage of the Supreme Court and the development of the law; an excellent source that also refers readers to additional references.

    The Corrections Yearbook. South Salem, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Institute, 1980–. Annual.

    Inmate populations, budgets, facilities, staff, and other data for jails with average daily populations of 200 or more.

    Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

    Biographies of justices, including backgrounds, careers, and issues and cases on which they passed judgment.

    Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1940–. Annual.

    Numerous statistics about the kind, timing, and disposition of cases in the federal courts and about numbers and workloads of federal judges.

    Dornette, W. Stuart, and Robert R. Cross. Federal Judiciary Almanac. New York: Wiley, 1987.

    Data on various aspects of the federal judiciary.

    Epstein, Lee, Jeffrey Segal, Harold J. Spaeth, and Thomas G. Walker. Supreme Court Compendium. 3d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.

    Data on characteristics of justices, caseload, voting alignments, public opinion, and legal developments.

    Friedman, Leon, and Fred L. Israel, eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court. New York: Chelsea House, 1995.

    Biography on each justice, including several typical opinions; tables showing acts of Congress held unconstitutional, decisions overruled by subsequent decisions, and summary biographical data.

    Judges of the United States. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983; see also

    Biographies of all federal judges through 1983.

    [Year] Judicial Staff Directory. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986–. Annual.

    Personnel listings for federal courts, maps of court jurisdictions, biographies of judges and staffs.

    Savage, David. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.

    Solid, broad coverage of the Supreme Court and the development of the law; an excellent source that also refers readers to additional references.

    State Court Caseload Statistics: Annual Report. Williamsburg, Va.: Conference of State Court Administrators and the National Center for State Courts, 1976–. Annual.

    Data on judicial workload in the state courts.

    Widman, Iris J., and Mark J. Handler, comps. Federal Judges and Justices: A Current Listing of Nominations, Confirmations, Elevations, Resignations, Retirements. Littleton, Colo.: Rothman, 1987.

    Useful compendium with revealing subtitle.


    Alexander, Herbert E., and Mike Eberts. Public Financing of State Elections: A Data Book and Election Guide to Public Funding of Political Parties and Candidates in Twenty States. Los Angeles: Citizens' Research Foundation, 1986.

    Important compendium for understanding and comparing state regulation of campaign finances.

    Almanac of the 50 States: Basic Data Profiles with Comparative Tables. Palo Alto, Calif.: Information Publications, 1985–. Annual.

    State-level summaries of data on government and elections, state expenditures, federal aid, population characteristics, crime, etc.

    Beyle, Thad, ed. State Government. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1985–. Annual.

    Analysis of recent developments in state governments; reprints articles from a diverse set of state publications.

    The Book of the States. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1935–. Biennial; annual since 2002.

    Definitive reference to the current data on state government activities across the board.

    Campaign Finance: Ethics and Lobby Law Blue Book. Lexington, Ky.: Council on Governmental Ethics Laws, Council of State Governments, 1990.

    Information about ethics laws, campaign finance reports and limits, personal disclosure requirements, and lobby laws in the states and in the Canadian provinces.

    Campaign Finance Law. Washington, D.C.: D. T. Skelton Service Associates, Inc., Federal Election Commission's National Clearinghouse of Election Administration, 1981–. Annual (

    Rules and regulations for campaign financing in the states and nation.

    Carpenter, Allan, and Carl Provorse. Facts About the Cities. 2d ed. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1996.

    Data on 300 cities, culled from federal sources. Includes limited political information (for example, number of women in governing body).

    The County Year Book. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Counties and International City/County Management Association, 1975–. Annual.

    Surveys issues and trends in county government and administration; a reliable source of data on county government.

    CQ's State Fact Finder. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998–. Annual.

    State rankings on economic, social, demographic, and political statistics.

    CSG State Directory I. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1977–. Annual.

    Lists state elected officials; before 1977 issued as a supplement to The Book of the States. Previously biennial as State Elective Officials and various titles.

    CSG State Directory II. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1977–. Annual.

    Details state legislative leadership, committees, and staff. Published under various earlier names; previously biennial and combined with State Elective Officials.

    CSG State Directory III. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 1977–. Annual.

    Lists state administrative officials by function; before 1977 issued as a supplement to The Book of the States. Previously biennial as State Administrative Officials and various titles.

    Holli, Melvin G., and Peter Jones, eds. Biographical Dictionary of American Mayors, 1820–1980. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

    Covers 679 mayors in over a dozen cities; contains lists categorizing mayors by characteristics such as party, religion, and ethnicity.

    International City/County Management Association. The Municipal Year Book. New York: International City Management Association, 1934–. Annual.

    Reliable source for urban data and developments.

    Lilley, William III, Laurence J. DeFranco, and Mark F. Bernstein. The Almanac of State Legislatures. 3d ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

    Maps and statistical profiles of the geographic, economic, and political composition of state legislative districts.

    ———. The State Atlas of Political and Cultural Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.

    Racial and ancestral makeup of top state legislative districts. Available diskette contains data on all state legislative districts.

    National Directory of State Agencies. Bethesda, Md.: National Standards Association, 1976–. Annual since 1986.

    Names of agency heads, addresses, and phone numbers of state agencies.

    State Legislative Sourcebook. Topeka, Kan.: Government Research Service, 1986–. Annual.

    Tells how to find detailed information about state legislative activity, including offices, addresses, phone numbers, and price lists. State statistical abstracts. A list of state statistical abstracts (or near equivalents) can be found in recent editions of the Statistical Abstract of the United States. They are of widely varying quality.

    State Yellow Book. New York: Leadership Directories, Inc., 1973–. Quarterly (

    Some statistics, but emphasizes contact information for executive and legislative branches, including departments, commissions, agencies, and legislative leadership and legislative committees. Continues State Information Book.

    Tax Foundation. Facts and Figures on Government Finance. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1941–. Annual (

    Data on government revenues, spending, and debt at the federal, state, and local levels.

    U.S. Census Bureau. Census of Governments. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972–. Frequency varies.

    Numbers and characteristics of governments, including special district governments dealing with subjects such as schools, parks and recreation, and sewage.

    ———. City Government Finances; Government Finances; State Government Finances. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909–; 1916–; 1965–. Annual.

    These three series summarize government finances at city and state levels; great detail for states and the larger cities.

    ———. County and City Data Book. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1952–. Frequency varies.

    Demographic, economic, health, agricultural, and other information about counties, cities, and towns. Presidential voting by county.

    ———. State and Metropolitan Area Data Book. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979–. Frequency varies.

    Demographic, economic, health, education, and other data about states and metropolitan statistical areas.

    Foreign and Military Policy

    Cochran, Thomas B., et al. Nuclear Weapons Databook. Multiple vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.

    Descriptions, specifications, and deployments of American and Soviet nuclear weapons systems.

    Joint Chiefs of Staff. Military Posture for Fiscal Year [Year]. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Annual.

    Brief review of all aspects of military preparedness of the U.S. and of the world military environment.

    The Military Balance. London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1959–. Annual.

    Statistical analysis of military forces and defense spending; figures given for countries and regional organizations such as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization).

    U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965–2000. Annual (title varies).

    A series of statistical accounts of military spending and the arms race.

    U.S. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1983–2003. Annual.

    Details on terrorist incidents around the world.

    World Armaments and Disarmament: SIPRI Yearbook. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, New York: Oxford University Press, 1970–. Annual.

    Overview of the arms race and efforts to promote disarmament; detailed data on world military spending.

    Social Policy

    Anderton, Douglas L., Richard E. Barrett, and Donald J. Bogue. The Population of the United States. 3d ed. New York: Free Press, 1997.

    Extensive description of the nation's population characteristics, focusing on the years since 1960; topics include poverty, income, housing, educational attainment, ethnicity, migration, and so forth.

    Black Elected Officials: A National Roster. Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1971–1994.

    Lists black elected officials by office and address with summary tabulations on the historical trends and comparative state figures.

    Black Elected Officials: A Statistical Summary, 1993–1997. Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies Press, 1998.

    Summary statistics on the election of blacks to office in recent years. Updated at

    Center for American Women and Politics, National Information Bank on Women in Public Office. Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University.

    Various reports provide data on women in public office, electoral turnout of women, and so forth. Both historical and contemporary information. See

    National Center for Health Statistics. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1952–.

    Statistical reports and analyses of various aspects of health.

    National Roster of Hispanic Elected Officials, [Year]. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Education Fund, no date. Annual.

    Lists Hispanic elected officials by office and state. See

    Schick, Frank L., and Renee Schick. Statistical Handbook on U.S. Hispanics. Phoenix: Oryx, 1991.

    Numerous tables about social and political characteristics of U.S. Hispanics.

    The State of Black America. New York: National Urban League, 1976–. Annual.

    Yearly review assessing the conditions of blacks in the nation.

    U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1962–. Annual (

    Current data on school enrollments, teachers, retention rates, educational attainment, finances, achievement, schools and school districts, federal education programs, and so forth.

    U.S. Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. The Condition of Education: A Statistical Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975– (

    Data survey reviewing trends in elementary, secondary, and higher education. Data portray student characteristics and performance as well as fiscal, material, and human resources deployed in education.

    U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Review. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977– (

    Data on energy supply and disposition, exploration, and reserves.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Criminal Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1974–. Annual (

    Brings together nationwide statistical data on the criminal justice system, public opinion, illegal activities, persons arrested, judicial proceedings, and persons under correctional supervision.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reports for the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1930–. Annual (

    Variety of charts and tables on types and frequencies of crimes, persons arrested, and law enforcement personnel; several forty-year trends.

    Economic Policy

    The Economic Report of the President. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947–. Annual (

    Reviews the national economic situation; presents a substantial appendix with long time series of critical economic data.

    The Economist Guide to Economic Indicators: Making Sense of Economics 5th ed. New York: Norton, 2003.

    Explains some 100 indicators, including information on their source, reliability, and significance. Provides guidelines for interpretation.

    Frumkin, Norman. Guide to Economic Indicators. 3d ed. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2000.

    Content, accuracy, relevance, and sources for fifty economic indicators.

    [Year] Historical Chart Book. Washington, D.C.: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1965–. Annual.

    Long-range financial and business data, mostly from series maintained by the Federal Reserve Board.

    Office of Management and Budget. Budget of the United States Government. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Annual (

    Multivolume annual presentation of data on federal revenues and expenditures. While the details of the federal budget documents may be numbing to the uninitiated, even the novice can find two volumes particularly useful: Historical Tables and The Budget in Brief, both of which are designed for the general public.

    O'Hara, Frederick M. Handbook of United States Economic and Financial Indicators. 2d ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

    Defines several hundred economic indicators culled from over fifty sources; provides information on publication schedules and historical trends.

    Troy, Leo, and Neil Sheflin. U.S. Union Sourcebook. West Orange, N.J.: Industrial Relations Data and Information Services, 1985.

    Excellent source of statistical information on membership in American and Canadian unions; long historical coverage.

    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment and Earnings. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1961–. Annual (

    Various statistics on the nation's nonfarm workforce, including lengthy time series with data beginning in 1909.

    ———. Handbook of Labor Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927–. Frequency varies (

    Collection of data concerning employment, unemployment, earnings, school enrollment and educational attainment, productivity, prices, strikes, and so forth.

    ———. Monthly Labor Review. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1915– (

    Covers most Bureau of Labor Statistics series, giving data on employment, hours, pay, strikes, prices and inflation, and so forth.

    U.S. Council of Economic Advisers. Economic Indicators. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1948–. Monthly.

    Data on total output, income, and spending; employment, unemployment, and wages; production and business activity; prices, currency, credit, and security markets; and federal finance.

    U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937–. Annual.

    Vast array of agricultural data, including politically relevant displays, such as farm economic trends, price-support programs, and agricultural imports and exports.

    U.S. Department of Commerce. Survey of Current Business. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1921–. Monthly (

    Data on U.S. income and trade developments.

    World Bank. World Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978–. Annual (

    Analysis of and data on worldwide capital and economic indicators, with an emphasis on development.

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