# The U.S. Constitution A to Z

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## About the Author and Book

Robert L. Maddex is an attorney specializing in constitutional and international law. He has served as chief counsel of the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States and as an adviser on constitutional issues to several nations. He is the author of Constitutions of the World, Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law, International Encyclopedia of Human Rights, and State Constitutions of the United States, all published by CQ Press.

The U.S. Constitution A to Z is part of CQ Press’s five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government; the election of members of Congress and the president; and the nation’s most important document, the Constitution. In these volumes, CQ Press’s writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U.S. government in a comprehensive, ready-reference encyclopedia format. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics.

The U.S. Constitution A to Z examines how the Constitution— written more than two centuries ago—continues to shape rights and issues in American society today. Its topics include the powers and constitutional checks and balances pertaining to the three branches of government; concepts such as executive privilege, judicial review, and property rights; influential constitutional law cases; profiles of individuals who have shaped American government, from James Madison to Susan B. Anthony; and key issues such as affirmative action, gun control, human rights, abortion, censorship, the death penalty, and terrorism. The entries are arranged alphabetically and are extensively cross-referenced to related information. This volume includes a detailed index, useful reference materials, and a bibliography.

The second edition of The U.S. Constitution A to Z has been thoroughly updated to cover contemporary events, including advances in gay marriage rights and homeland security measures stemming from the September 11 attacks. The volume contains new entries on the PATRIOT Act, sex offenders, and important recent Supreme Court cases such as Kelo v. City of New London. Presented in a new and engaging design, this edition contains a wealth of stimulating sidebar material, such as memorable quotations and numerous features inviting the reader to explore issues in further depth.

## Preface

The framers drafted the Constitution of the United States some 220 years ago, but the document still speaks to modern issues and shapes important aspects of American life and politics. It also continues to have a profound effect on other nations. Although the Constitution is widely revered, most people have only a rudimentary knowledge or understanding of it and of the implications of its provisions on the laws and government of the United States. The U.S. Constitution A to Z is a comprehensive guide to the history of the supreme law of the land and the concepts that continue to influence the structure of government and the basic rights of U.S. citizens.

According to William Gladstone (1809–1898), the four-time British prime minister, the Constitution of the United States is “the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man.” It was not, however, a perfect work when it was drafted in 1787, nor is it today. Still a work in progress, the Constitution establishes the fundamental elements for governing the national affairs of the people of the United States. Yet it also contains gaps to be filled and language to be reinterpreted in light of the times and the needs of U.S. citizens and residents in the twenty-first century.

The U.S. Constitution is the oldest written constitution still in force. Norway’s 1814 constitution is the second oldest. Both of these were preceded by the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1638–1639), a colonial constitution that has been called the world’s first written constitution. The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 is the oldest existing state constitution and has been amended more than one hundred times.

Key Constitutional Concepts

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia came from twelve of the thirteen independent states that had evolved from British colonies during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783); only Rhode Island did not participate. At the time, these states constituted a confederacy established by the Articles of Confederation (1781). They called a convention to revise the Articles to reduce the friction among the states over interstate commerce and to strengthen the powers of the national government. James Madison, the “Father of the Constitution,” realized along with other delegates that simply trying to amend the Articles would not solve the problems that had become so evident. Creating a new government acceptable to the states and the people, however, required considering and deciding on a number of concepts, including the following:

Republican Democracy. At the time of the Revolutionary War, the British monarchy ruled one of the most democratically advanced countries in the world, with a long tradition of constitutional restraints on the sovereign’s absolute power. The revolutionary slogan “No taxation without representation” reflected the American colonists’ awareness of the value of representation in the British Parliament. All of the colonies had experimented to some degree with democratic institutions before the Revolution and after declaring independence in 1776 had incorporated elements of representative democracy in their governments. The colonists’ disappointment with the British monarch for not acting on their grievances resulted in a general agreement that any new national government must be a republic—one without a monarch and an aristocracy.

Separation of Powers. The underlying problem in creating a new government to replace the system under the Articles of Confederation concerned how to protect the rights of the states and the people from encroachment by a strong national government. Drawing on the works of earlier political theoreticians, the framers adopted the concept of the separation of powers. By preventing the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government from falling into the hands of a few persons or even one person, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention created a system of checks and balances to protect the states and the people from tyranny.

Federalism. Ensuring that each state would retain certain basic sovereign powers over its own affairs emerged as a major consideration in getting the thirteen states to agree on a stronger national government. Federalism—a form of government that distributes political power between a national government and the constituent states that comprise the nation—solved the problem and has since been adopted by a number of other nations, including Australia, Brazil, and Germany. The line between federal and state power has shifted over the nation’s two centuries, and it continues to be the subject of much debate.

Judicial Review. A significant corollary of the separation of powers principle is judicial review, which gives the judiciary—one of the three branches of government—the power to declare acts of the other branches and the states unconstitutional. Contemporaneous materials indicate that judicial review, which was commonplace in some states at the time, was an intended consequence of the Constitution’s design. In addition to interpreting the provisions of the Constitution, the federal judiciary, and ultimately the Supreme Court, ensures that any major changes in the Constitution are made according to the document’s amendment procedures and not by more indirect actions.

Bill of Rights. The Constitution as drafted in 1787 contained some guarantees of rights for the states and individuals—for example, a promise of a republican form of government and a prohibition against ex post facto laws. As a condition for ratification of the Constitution, however, a number of states demanded that certain rights, many of which were contained in state constitutions, be specifically guaranteed as protection against infringement by the national government. The first ten amendments, ratified in 1791, became known as the Bill of Rights and guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, and the press and safeguards for those accused of crimes. Many national constitutions, including those of Ireland (1937) and South Africa (1997), have incorporated similar guarantees of individual rights.

Understanding the Constitution

It is important for a nation’s citizens and residents to understand how they are governed and what their rights are in relation to the government. A written constitution is a basic source of such information. The U.S. Constitution, including its twenty-seven amendments, is only about 8,700 words long; only so much can thus be gleaned from the document alone. Other sources of information include the laws passed to implement the provisions of the Constitution, case law through which courts interpret the Constitution’s provisions, textbooks on the Constitution and government, treatises and articles by experts on the Constitution, and such reference works as this volume.

The U.S. Constitution A to Z provides a basic understanding of important aspects of the Constitution and its history as well as the law and institutions that have evolved from it. The volume offers an overview of the subject rather than exhaustive treatment; the full scope of the Constitution and constitutional law could never be reduced to a single, comprehensive work or a collection of works, for even as this book was being written, the Constitution and the law related to it were changing.

In studying the Constitution, it is always good to keep in mind the admonition of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (1841–1935): “[W]hen we are dealing with words that also are a constituent act, like the Constitution of the United States, we must realize that they have called into life a being the development of which could not have been foreseen completely by the most gifted of its begetters.” Like any living organism, the Constitution is continually evolving.

A number of people have lent their time and talent to creating this reference book. I would first like to thank my wife, Diane Maddex, president of Archetype Press. David Hosansky contributed the rich new editorial features, bringing keen insight and creativity to the project. This edition also benefited from the supervision of CQ Press acquiring editor Doug Goldenberg-Hart and associate editor Anna S. Baker, who, along with development editor Anastazia Skolnitsky, thoroughly and thoughtfully reviewed the manuscript. Amy Marks edited the manuscript, and Anne Stewart handled the book’s production, under the guidance of managing editor Joan Gossett.

We hope that this new edition of The U.S. Constitution A to Z will provide readers with easily accessible and accurate information about the United States’ most important document and the underlying principles and concepts on which its government and the people’s rights are based.

May 2008

## Historic Milestones

Shaped by centuries of struggle for individual freedom and representative government, the U.S. Constitution has itself influenced countless democratic reforms around the globe since it was written in 1787. Although it is the world’s oldest written constitution still in force, it has undergone numerous tests, reinterpretations, and amendments over the years. The following represent some of the major milestones in the Constitution’s development:

510 B.C.E.

Cliesthenes introduces democratic reforms in Athens, extending citizenship and broadening participation in the government.

509 B.C.E.

The Romans oust their last king, after which the Senate rules the republic of Rome until 23 B.C.E., when the Roman Empire begins under Augustus Caesar.

1215

English barons force King John to accept limitations on the monarchy set forth in Magna Carta, the Great Charter of Liberties, which later kings confirmed more than thirty times, with amendments.

1407

Henry IV of England agrees that revenue measures should originate in the legislature’s lower house, a practice later followed in the U.S. Constitution.

1606

The First Charter of Virginia is granted to the Jamestown settlement, guaranteeing individuals full British “liberties, franchises, and immunities.”

1620

The Mayflower Compact, presaging later American documents of self-government, states that the new colony will “combine ourselves into a civil body Politik.”

Pilgrims sign the Mayflower Compact. Library of Congress

1628

Charles I assents to the Petition of Right, a parliamentary declaration of the liberties of the people.

1639

The Connecticut colony adopts the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the world’s first written constitution.

1643

The United Colonies of New England are formed as a defensive measure after the outbreak of civil war in England in 1642.

1687

William Penn’s commentary on Magna Carta, The Excellent Priviledge of Liberty and Property, is published in Philadelphia.

English Quaker William Penn founded the Pennsylvania colony and helped shape American principles of democracy and religious freedom. The Granger Collection, New York

1688–1689

In the “Glorious Revolution” (also called the “Bloodless Revolution”), Parliament deposes James II and installs William and Mary as king and queen of England. Parliament then passes a Bill of Rights establishing its own rights, which William accepts in exchange for receiving the crown.

1735

A jury refuses to follow judges’ instructions to convict New York printer Peter Zenger of seditious libel against the government, setting an early precedent for freedom of the press.

1765

The Resolutions of the Congress of 1765 are drawn up in New York and signed by nine colonies opposed to the range of duties levied by the Stamp Act imposed by the British Parliament earlier that year.

1774

The Declarations and Resolves of the First Continental Congress assert that the British have no rights to pass any laws in the colonies.

1775

The Revolutionary War begins with the “shot heard ’round the world” on April 19, 1775, in Lexington, Massachusetts. The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia.

The battle at Lexington, Massachusetts, set off the Revolutionary War that eventually freed the thirteen colonies from British rule. National Archives and Records Administration

1776

In June the Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason, is adopted by the Virginia legislature. The following month, the Declaration of Independence is issued on July 4, 1776, by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

1781

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union for the thirteen newly independent states are declared ratified by the Continental Congress in March. They remain in effect until July 2, 1789, when Cyrus Griffin, the president of the Congress under the Articles, declares them to be abrogated by the new Constitution.

1783

The Treaty of Paris, marking the end of the Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain, is signed on September 3.

1786

After delegates to a special meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, discuss problems under the Articles of Confederation, some states ask the Continental Congress to revise the Articles. Shays’s Rebellion begins in Massachusetts, adding impetus to the need for national power to quell such insurrections.

1787

The Constitutional Convention convenes in Philadelphia on May 25 and soon begins to draft a new constitution for the United States. Texts of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan, representing the varied concerns of larger and smaller states, respectively, are presented. On September 17 the draft of the Constitution is signed by thirty-nine of the forty-two delegates present. In October Alexander Hamilton writes the first of the Federalist Papers to support ratification; the series of eighty-five pieces is completed in May 1788. Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the Constitution on December 7.

1788

On June 21 New Hampshire becomes the ninth state needed to ratify the Constitution, allowing Congress to appoint a committee to guide the transition from a government under the Articles of Confederation to one under the new document. In September Congress resolves to fix the date for the election of a president and the organization of the government under the Constitution.

1789

The first session of Congress convenes March 4, and George Washington, who was unanimously chosen president by the electoral college, takes office on April 30. On June 8 James Madison introduces constitutional amendments in the House of Representatives that will become the Bill of Rights; Congress proposes these first twelve changes to the states in September.

The first session of Congress convened at Federal Hall in New York City. Library of Congress

1791

On February 18 Vermont is admitted to the Union under the Constitution’s procedures for admission of new states. The Bill of Rights goes into effect on December 15.

1794

The Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania is suppressed by a militia from four states led by the federal government.

1795

Ratification of the Eleventh Amendment limits the judiciary’s power with respect to suits against the states. The Alien and Sedition Acts make it a crime to publish any “false, scandalous, and malicious” writings against the national government.

1801

The presidential election of 1800 produces an electoral college tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr that is resolved in the House of Representatives after more than thirty ballots, setting the stage for the Twelfth Amendment (1804). John Marshall is appointed chief justice of the United States.

1803

Marbury v. Madison sets a precedent for allowing the federal courts to exercise judicial review of the constitutionality of legislative branch actions.

1804

Ratification of the Twelfth Amendment requires the electoral college to vote separately for president and vice president. No longer does the candidate who receives the second highest number of votes in the electoral college become vice president.

1810

In Fletcher v. Peck, the Georgia legislature’s attempt to annul contracts authorized by the previous legislature is held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court under the Constitution’s contract clause.

1819

In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court upholds the implied power of Congress to create a national bank and assure it immunity from state taxation.

1820

The “Missouri Compromise” in Congress maintains a parity of free and slave states by admitting new states into the Union in pairs—one free state and one slave state at a time.

This map indicates free and slave territories at the time of the Missouri Compromise in 1820. Teaching Politics Web Site, http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail117.html

1824

In Gibbons v. Ogden, Congress’s broad power to regulate interstate commerce is upheld by the Supreme Court.

1833

In Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court refuses to make the protections of the Bill of Rights applicable to state actions.

1850

The Fugitive Slave Act authorizes slave owners to capture runaway slaves, with few or no legal safeguards for blacks, whether fugitive or free persons.

1857

The Supreme Court rules in Scott v. Sandford—the Dred Scott case—that a slave or even a free black can never become a citizen of the United States.

The Supreme Court denied freedom to Dred Scott in 1857; he was later emancipated by his original owners. Library of Congress

1861

The Civil War begins when seven Southern states assert their right to secede from the Union, primarily over the issue of slavery, and form the Confederate States of America. Abraham Lincoln, elected president in 1860, vows to preserve the Union with military force.

A poster from Abraham Lincoln’s 1864 presidential campaign. He was reelected but assassinated shortly thereafter. Library of Congress

1865

The Civil War ends with the Union restored, but Lincoln, who was reelected in 1864, is assassinated shortly after his second inauguration. The Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, is ratified.

1866

The Civil Rights Act declares equal rights under the law and equal property rights for “[a]ll persons within the jurisdiction of the United States.”

1868

The Fourteenth Amendment confirms citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the United States. It precludes the states from abridging the privileges and immunities of citizens and guarantees equal protection of the laws and due process to all persons. President Andrew Johnson is impeached by the House of Representatives but escapes conviction in the Senate by one vote.

1869

Texas v. White finds secession of states unconstitutional and upholds Congress’s power to establish provisional governments in former Confederate states.

1870

The Fifteenth Amendment outlaws racial discrimination in voting.

1873

The Slaughter-House Cases limit the Fourteenth Amendment’s protection to the rights of citizens of the United States and not to citizens of individual states.

1875

The Civil Rights Act prohibits racial discrimination in public accommodations, but in 1883 it is struck down by the Supreme Court, which rules that such a law lies outside Congress’s power under the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments.

1879

Reynolds v. United States holds that the freedom of religion guarantee in the First Amendment does not invalidate Congress’s authority to ban polygamy as a “violation of social duties or subversive of good order.”

1896

In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court upholds “separate but equal” racial segregation in public transportation.

1908

Ex parte Young validates the use of injunctions to block the enforcement of unconstitutional state laws, allowing suits against individual state officials rather than the state itself, thus limiting the effect of the Eleventh Amendment.

1913

The Sixteenth Amendment authorizes the collection of federal income tax without the need to apportion it among the states. The Seventeenth Amendment requires the popular election of U.S. senators rather than selection by their state legislatures.

1917

The Eighteenth Amendment prohibits the sale, transportation, importation, and exportation of liquor, leading to a sixteen-year experiment in Prohibition.

1920

The Nineteenth Amendment finally gives women the right to vote.

Suffragists march for women’s rights in front of the White House in 1917. Library of Congress

1931

The Supreme Court holds in Near v. Minnesota that the Fourteenth Amendment bars states from censoring the press before publication.

1932

In the Scottsboro Cases, the Supreme Court decides that under certain circumstances defendants must have the assistance of counsel in state murder trials to satisfy the due process requirements of the Fourteenth Amendment.

1933

The Twentieth Amendment sets January 3 for new Congresses to convene and January 20 for the inauguration of the president. The Twenty-first Amendment repeals the Eighteenth Amendment prohibiting liquor.

1951

The Twenty-second Amendment limits the president to two terms.

1954

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka bans “separate but equal” segregation in public schools as unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

1961

In Mapp v. Ohio, the Supreme Court declares that illegally obtained evidence must be excluded from state criminal trials. The Twenty-third Amendment authorizes the District of Columbia to select three electors for president and vice president.

1962

Baker v. Carr paves the way for reapportionment and redistricting by state legislatures, based on the principle of “one person, one vote.”

1963

Gideon v. Wainwright requires the appointment of lawyers for indigent defendants in state as well as federal felony cases.

1964

The Civil Rights Act establishes significant protections against discrimination in public accommodations and employment. The Twenty-fourth Amendment outlaws poll taxes in federal elections. New York Times Co. v. Sullivan confirms constitutional protection for publications that criticize public officials.

1966

Miranda v. Arizona establishes “Miranda rules” for police to use in informing suspects of their constitutional right against self-incrimination and right to counsel.

1967

The Twenty-fifth Amendment provides for presidential succession in the event the president becomes disabled. Katz v. United States extends protection from government eavesdropping in locations where there is an expectation of privacy. Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African American justice appointed to the Supreme Court.

1971

The Twenty-sixth Amendment gives eighteen year olds the right to vote.

This campaign button predates the Twenty-sixth Amendment. Courtesy of Christopher Schardt

1972

The Equal Rights Amendment is proposed by Congress, but the seven-year deadline and an additional three years expire without ratification.

1973

Roe v. Wade guarantees the right to an abortion.

1976

In Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court upholds federal limits on contributions to election campaigns but finds limits on campaign spending to be unconstitutional.

1978

Voting rights for the District of Columbia, proposed as the Twenty-third Amendment, are passed but ratified by only sixteen states within the specified period. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke prohibits the use of fixed quotas in affirmative action programs.

1981

Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first female justice appointed to the Supreme Court.

1990

The Americans with Disabilities Act extends protection to disabled persons against discrimination in employment, public areas, and state-sponsored programs.

1992

The Twenty-seventh Amendment, drafted in 1789, is finally ratified, postponing salary increases for members of Congress until after an intervening election.

1995

United States v. Lopez limits congressional authority under the commerce clause to regulate firearms.

1996

Romer v. Evans invalidates a statewide referendum banning laws to protect homosexuals from discrimination, calling it a violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

1997

Clinton v. Jones allows a private damage suit against a sitting president to proceed while he is in office.

1998

The House of Representatives impeaches President Bill Clinton, but he avoids conviction in the Senate.

Bill Clinton’s presidency was marred by legal trouble, including a sexual harassment suit and an impeachment trial. Library of Congress

2000

After a recount of votes in Florida puts the state’s twenty-five electoral votes in doubt, the Supreme Court’s decision in Bush v. Gore decides the presidential election in favor of George W. Bush.

2001

In response to the al-Qaida attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon outside Washington, D.C., the national government begins a war against terrorism. Antiterrorism measures—additional authority to intercept communications and establishment of military tribunals in particular—draw criticism as potential infringements of constitutional rights.

2003

The Supreme Court in Lawrence v. Texas overturns its Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) decision by declaring a state statute criminalizing intimate homosexual conduct between consenting adults in the privacy of their own home to be a violation of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

• ## Appendix

First Charter of Virginia

April 10, 1606

James, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &C. Whereas our loving and well-disposed Subjects, Sir Thomas Gales, and Sir George Somers, Knights, Richard Hackluit, Clerk, Prebendary of Westminster, and Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hanharm and Ralegh Gilbert, Esqrs. William Parker, and George Popham, Gentlemen, and divers others of our loving Subjects, have been humble Suitors unto us, that We would vouchsafe unto them our Licence, to make Habitation, Plantation, and to deduce a colony of sundry of our People into that part of America commonly called Virginia, and other parts and Territories in America, either appertaining unto us, or which are not now actually possessed by any Christian Prince or People, situate, lying, and being all along the Sea Coasts, between four and thirty Degrees of Northerly Latitude from the Equinoctial Line, and five and forty Degrees of the same Latitude, and in the main Land between the same four and thirty and five and forty Degrees, and the Islands “hereunto adjacent, or within one hundred Miles of the Coast thereof;

And to that End, and for the more speedy Accomplishment of their said intended Plantation and Habitation there, are desirous to divide themselves into two several Colonies and Companies; the one consisting of certain Knights, Gentlemen, Merchants, and other Adventurers, of our City of London and elsewhere, which are, and from time to time shall be, joined unto them, which do desire to begin their Plantation and Habitation in some fit and convenient Place, between four and thirty and one and forty Degrees of the said Latitude, alongst the Coasts of Virginia, and the Coasts of America aforesaid: And the other consisting of sundry Knights, Gentlemen, Merchants, and other Adventurers, of our Cities of Bristol and Exeter, and of our Town of Plimouth, and of other Places, which do join themselves unto that Colony, which do desire to begin their Plantation and Habitation in some fit and convenient Place, between eight and thirty Degrees and five and forty Degrees of the said Latitude, all alongst the said Coasts of Virginia and America, as that Coast lyeth:

We, greatly commending, and graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christian Religion to such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance of the true Knowledge and Worship of God, and may in time bring the Infidels and Savages, living in those parts, to human Civility, and to a settled and quiet Government: Do, by these our Letters Patents, graciously accept of, and agree to, their humble and well-intended Desires;

And do therefore, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, Grant and agree, that the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, and Edward-Maria Wingfield, Adventurers of and for our City of London, and all such others, as are, or shall be, joined unto them of that Colony, shall be called the first Colony; And they shall and may begin their said first Plantation and Habitation, at any Place upon the said-Coast of Virginia or America, where they shall think fit and convenient, between the said four and thirty and one and forty Degrees of the said Latitude; And that they shall have all the Lands, Woods, Soil, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Marshes, Waters, Fishings, Commodities, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said first Seat of their Plantation and Habitation by the Space of fifty Miles of English Statute Measure, all along the said Coast of Virginia and America, towards the West and Southwest, as the Coast lyeth, with all the Islands within one hundred Miles directly over against the same Sea Coast; And also all the Lands, Soil, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Woods, Waters, Marshes, Fishings, Commoditites, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said Place of their first Plantation and Habitation for the space of fifty like English Miles, all alongst the said Coasts of Virginia and America, towards the East and Northeast, or towards the North, as the Coast lyeth, together with all the Islands within one hundred Miles, directly over against the said Sea Coast, And also all the Lands, Woods, Soil, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Marshes, Waters, Fishings, Commodities, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the same fifty Miles every way on the Sea Coast, directly into the main Land by the Space of one hundred like English Miles; And shall and may inhabit and remain there; and shall and may also build and fortify within any the same, for their better Safeguard and Defense, according to their best Discretion, and the Discretion of the Council of that Colony; And that no other of our Subjects shall be permitted, or suffered, to plant or inhabit behind, or on the Backside of them, towards the main Land, without the Express License or Consent of the Council of that Colony, thereunto in Writing; first had and obtained.

And we do likewise, for Us, Our Heirs, and Successors, by these Presents, Grant and agree, that the said Thomas Hanham, and Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and all others of the Town of Plimouth in the County of Devon, or elsewhere which are, or shall be, joined unto them of that Colony, shall be called the second Colony; And that they shall and may begin their said Plantation and Seat of their first Abode and Habitation, at any Place upon the said Coast of Virginia and America, where they shall think fit and convenient, between eight and thirty Degrees of the said Latitude, and five and forty Degrees of the same Latitude; And that they shall have all the Lands, Soils, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Woods, Marshes, Waters, Fishings, Commodities, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the first Seat of their Plantation and Habitation by the Space of fifty like English Miles, as is aforesaid, all alongst the said Coasts of Virginia and al raerica towards the West and Southwest, or towards the South, as the Coast lyeth, and all the Islands within one hundred Miles, directly over against the said Sea Coast; And also all the Lands, Soils, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Woods, Marshes, Waters, Fishings, Commodities, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the said Place of their first Plantation and Habitation for the Space of fifty like Miles, all alongst the said Coast of Virginia and America, towards the East and Northeast, or towards the North, as the Coast lyeth, and all the Islands also within one hundred Miles directly over against the same Sea Coast; And also all the Lands, Soils, Grounds, Havens, Ports, Rivers, Woods, Mines, Minerals, Marshes, Waters, Fishings, Commodities, and Hereditaments, whatsoever, from the same fifty Miles every way on the Sea Coast, directly into the main Land, by the Space of one hundred like English Miles; And shall and may inhabit and remain there; and shall and may also build and fortify within any the same for their better Safeguard, according to their best Discretion, and the Discretion of the Council of that Colony; And that none of our Subjects shall be permitted, or suffered, to plant or inhabit behind, or on the back of them, towards the main Land, without express Licence of the Council of that Colony, in Writing thereunto first had and obtained.

Provided always, and our Will and Pleasure herein is, that the Plantation and Habitation of such of the said Colonies, as shall last plant themselves, as aforesaid, shall not be made within one hundred like English Miles of the other of them, that first began to make their Plantation, as aforesaid.

And we do also ordain, establish, and agree, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, that each of the said Colonies shall have a Council, which shall govern and order all Matters-and Causes, which shall arise, grow, or happen, to or within the same several Colonies, according to such Laws, Ordinances, and Instructions, as shall be, in that behalf, given and signed with Our Hand or Sign Manual, and pass under the Privy Seal of our Realm of England; Each of which Councils shall consist of thirteen Persons, to be ordained, made, and removed, from time to time, according as shall be directed and comprised in the same instructions; And shall have a several Seal, for all Matters that shall pass or concern the same several Councils; Each of which Seals, shall have the King’s Arms engraver on the one Side thereof, and his Portraiture on the other; And that the Seal for the Council of the said first Colony shall have engraver round about, on the one Side, these Words; Sigillum Regis Magne Britanniae, Franciae, & Hiberniae; on the other Side this Inscription round about; Pro Concilio primae Coloniae Virginiae. And the Seal for the Council of the said second Colony shall also have engraven, round about the one Side thereof, the aforesaid Words; Sigillum Regis Magne Britanniae, Franciae, & Hiberniae; and on the other Side; Pro Concilio primae Coloniae Virginiae:

And that also there shall be a Council, established here in England, which shall, in like manner, consist of thirteen Persons, to be for that Purpose, appointed by Us, our Heirs and Successors, which shall be called our Council of Virginia; And shall, from time to time, have the superior Managing and Direction, only of and for all Matters that shall or may concern the Government, as well of the said several Colonies, as of and for any other Part or Place, within the aforesaid Precincts of four and thirty and five and forty Degrees abovementioned; Which Council shall, in like manner, have a Seal, for matters concerning the Council or Colonies, with the like Arms and Portraiture, as aforesaid, with this inscription, engraver round about on the one Side; Sigillum Regis Magne Britanniae, Franciae, & Hiberniae; and round about on the other Side, Pro Concilio fuo Virginiae.

And moreover, we do Grant and agree, for Us, our Heirs and Successors; that that the said several Councils of and for the said several Colonies, shall and lawfully may, by Virtue hereof, from time to time, without any Interruption of Us, our Heirs or Successors, give and take Order, to dig, mine, and search for all Manner of Mines of Gold, Silver, and Copper, as well within any Part of their said several Colonies, as of the said main Lands on the Backside of the same Colonies; And to Have and enjoy the Gold, Silver, and Copper, to be gotten thereof, to the Use and Behoof of the same Colonies, and the Plantations thereof; Yielding therefore to Us, our Heirs and Successors, the fifth Part only of all the same Gold and Silver, and the fifteenth Part of all the same Copper, so to be gotten or had, as is aforesaid, without any other Manner of Profit or Account, to be given or yielded to Us, our Heirs, or Successors, for or in Respect of the same:

And that they shall, or lawfully may, establish and cause to be made a Coin, to pass current there between the people of those several Colonies, for the more Ease of Traffick and Bargaining between and amongst them and the Natives there, of such Metal, and in such Manner and Form, as the said several Councils there shall limit and appoint.

And we do likewise, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, by these Presents, give full Power and Authority to the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfeld, Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and to every of them, and to the said several Companies, Plantations, and Colonies, that they, and every of them, shall and may, at all and every time and times hereafter, have, take, and lead in the said Voyage, and for and towards the said several Plantations, and Colonies, and to travel thitherward, and to abide and inhabit there, in every the said Colonies and Plantations, such and so many of our Subjects, as shall willingly accompany them or any of them, in the said Voyages and Plantations; With sufficient Shipping, and Furniture of Armour, Weapons, Ordinance, Powder, Victual, and all other things, necessary for the said Plantations, and for their Use and Defence there: Provided always, that none of the said Persons be such, as shall hereafter be specially restrained by Us, our Heirs, or Successors.

Moreover, we do, by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, Give and Grant Licence unto the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thornas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and to every of the said Colonies, that they, and every of them, shall and may, from time to time, and at all times forever hereafter, for their several Defences, encounter, expulse, repel, and resist, as well by Sea as by Land, by all Ways and Means whatsoever, all and every such Person or Persons, as without the especial Licence of the said several Colonies and Plantations, shall attempt to inhabit within the said several Precincts and Limits of the said several Colonies and Plantations, or any of them, or that shall enterprise or attempt, at any time hereafter, the Hurt, Detriment, or Annoyance, of the said several Colonies or Plantations:

Giving and granting, by these Presents, unto the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and their Associates of the said second Colony, and to every of them, from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter, Power and Authority to take and surprise, by all Ways and Means whatsoever, all and every Person and Persons, with their Ships, Vessels, Goods, and other Furniture, which shall be found trafficking, into any Harbour or Harbours, Creek or Creeks, or Place, within the Limits or Precincts of the said several Colonies and Plantations, not being of the same Colony, until such time, as they, being of any Realms, or Dominions under our Obedience, shall pay, or agree to pay, to the Hands of the Treasurer of that Colony, within whose Limits and Precincts they shall so traffick, two and a half upon every Hundred, of any thing so by them trafficked, bought, or sold; And being Strangers, and not Subjects under our Obeysance, until they shall pay five upon every Hundred, of such Wares and Merchandises, as they shall traffick, buy, or sell, within the Precincts of the said several Colonies, wherein they shall so traffick, buy, or sell, as aforesaid; WHICH Sums of Money, or Benefit, as aforesaid, for and during the Space of one and twenty Years, next ensuing the Date hereof, shall be wholly emploied to the Use, Benefit, and Behoof of the said several Plantations, where such Traffick shall be made; And after the said one and twenty Years ended, the same shall be taken to the Use of Us, our Heires, and Successors, by such Officers and Ministers as by Us, our Heirs, and Successors, shall be thereunto assigned or appointed.

And we do further, by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, Give and Grant unto the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Sommers, Richard Hackluit, and Edward-Maria Wingfield, and to their Associates of the said first Colony and Plantation, and to the said Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and their Associates of the said second Colony and Plantation, that they, and every of them, by their Deputies, Ministers, and Factors, may transport the Goods, Chattels, Armour, Munition, and Furniture, needful to be used by them, for their said Apparel, Food, Defence, or otherwise in Respect of the said Plantations, out of our Realms of England and Ireland, and all other our Dominions, from time to time, for and during the Time of seven Years, next ensuing the Date hereof, for the better Relief of the said several Colonies and Plantations, without any Customs, Subsidy, or other Duty, unto Us, our Heirs, or Successors, to be yielded or payed for the same.

Also we do, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, Declare, by these Presents, that all and every the Persons being our Subjects, which shall dwell and inhabit within every or any of the said several Colonies and Plantations, and every of their children, which shall happen to be born within any of the Limits and Precincts of the said several Colonies and Plantations, shall Have and enjoy all Liberties, Franchises, and Immunities, within any of our other Dominions, to all Intents and Purposes, as if they had been abiding and born, within this our Realm of England, or any other of our said Dominions.

Moreover, our gracious Will and Pleasure is, and we do, by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, declare and set forth, that if any Person or Persons, which shall be of any of the said Colonies and Plantations, or any other, which shall traffick to the said Colonies and Plantations, or any of them, shall, at any time or times hereafter, transport any Wares, Merchandises, or Commodities, out of any of our Dominions, with a Pretence to land, sell, or otherwise dispose of the same, within any the Limits and Precincts of any of the said Colonies and Plantations, and yet nevertheless, being at Sea, or after he hath landed the same within any of the said Colonies and Plantations, shall carry the same into any other Foreign Country, with a Purpose there to sell or dispose of the same, without the Licence of Us, our Heirs, and Successors, in that Behalf first had and obtained; That then, all the Goods and Chattels of such Person or Persons, so offending and transporting together with the said Ship or Vessel, wherein such Transportation was made, shall be forfeited to Us, our Heirs, and Successors.

Provided always, and our Will and Pleasure is, and we do hereby declare to all Christian Kings, Princes, and States, that if any Person or Persons which shall hereafter be of any of the said several Colonies and Plantations, or any other, by his, their, or any of their Licence and Appointment, shall, at any Time or Times hereafter, rob or spoil, by Sea or Land, or do any Act of unjust and unlawful Hostility to any the Subjects of Us, our Heirs, or Successors, or any the Subjects of any King, Prince, Ruler, Governor, or State, being then in League or Amitie with Us, our Heirs, or Successors, and that upon such Injury, or upon just Complaint of such Prince, Ruler, Governor, or State, or their Subjects, We, our Heirs, or Successors, shall make open Proclamation, within any of the Ports of our Realm of England, commodious for that purpose, That the said Person or Persons, having committed any such robbery, or Spoil, shall, within the term to be limited by such Proclamations, make full Restitution or Satisfaction of all such Injuries done, so as the said Princes, or others so complaining, may hold themselves fully satisfied and contented; And, that if the said Person or Persons, having committed such Robery or Spoil, shall not make, or cause to be made Satisfaction accordingly, within such Time so to be limited, That then it shall be lawful to Us, our Heirs, and Successors, to put the said Person or Persons, having committed such Robbery or Spoil, and their Procurers, Abettors, and Comforters, out of our Allegiance and Protection; And that it shall be lawful and free, for all Princes, and others to pursue with hostility the said offenders, and every of them, and their and every of their Procurers, Aiders, abettors, and comforters, in that behalf.

And finally, we do for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, and agree, to and with the said Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfield, and all others of the said first colony, that We, our Heirs and Successors, upon Petition in that Behalf to be made, shall, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of England, Give and Grant unto such Persons, their Heirs and Assigns, as the Council of that Colony, or the most part of then, shall, for that Purpose, nominate and assign all the lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, which shall be within the Precincts limited for that Colony, as is aforesaid, To be Holden of Us, our heirs and Successors, as of our Manor at East-Greenwich, in the County of Kent, in free and common Soccage only, and not in Capite:

And do in like Manner, Grant and Agree, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, to and with the said Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, and all others of the said second Colony, That We, our Heirs, and Successors, upon Petition in that Behalf to be made, shall, by Letters-Patent, under the Great Seal of England, Give and Grant, unto such Persons, their Heirs and Assigns, as the Council of that Colony, or the most Part of them, shall for that Purpose nominate and assign, all the Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, which shall be within the Precincts limited for that Colony, as is aforesaid, To be Holden of Us, our Heires, and Successors, as of our Manor of East-Greenwich, in the County of Kent, in free and common Soccage only, and not in Capite.

All which Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, so to be passed by the said several Letters-Patent, shall be sufficient Assurance from the said Patentees, so distributed and divided amongst the Undertakers for the Plantation of the said several Colonies, and such as shall make their Plantations in either of the said several Colonies, in such Manner and Form, and for such Estates, as shall be ordered and set down by the Council of the said Colony, or the most part of them, respectively, within which the same Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments shall lye or be; Although express Mention of the true yearly Value or Certainty of the Premises, or any of them, or of any other Gifts or Grants, by Us or any of our Progenitors or Predecessors, to the aforesaid Sir Thomas Gates, Knt. Sir George Somers, Knt. Richard Hackluit, Edward-Maria Wingfield, Thomas Hanham, Ralegh Gilbert, William Parker, and George Popham, or any of them, heretofore made, in these Presents, is not made; Or any Statute, Act, Ordinance, or Provision, Proclamation, or Restraint, to the contrary hereof had, made, ordained, or any other Thing, Cause, or Matter whatsoever, in any wise notwithstanding. IN Witness whereof, we have caused these our Letters to be made Patent; Witness Ourself at Westminster, the tenth Day of April, in the fourth Year of our Reign of England, France, and Ireland, and of Scotland the nine and thirtieth.

Lukin Per breve de private Sigillo.

SOURCE: The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America. Compiled and edited under the act of Congress of June 30, 1906, by Francis Newton Thorpe. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/va01.htm.

## Appendix

Mayflower Compact

Agreement Between the Settlers at New Plymouth, 1620

In The Name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid: And by Virtue hereof do enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions, and Officers, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general Good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape-Cod the eleventh of November, in the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, Anno Domini; 1620.

Source: The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming the United States of America. Compiled and edited under the act of Congress of June 30, 1906, by Francis Newton Thorpe. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1909. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerdoc/mayflowr.htm.

## Appendix

Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

October 14, 1774

Whereas, since the close of the last war, the British parliament, claiming a power, of right, to bind the people of America by statutes in all cases whatsoever, hath, in some acts, expressly imposed taxes on them, and in others, under various presences, but in fact for the purpose of raising a revenue, hath imposed rates and duties payable in these colonies, established a board of commissioners, with unconstitutional powers, and extended the jurisdiction of courts of admiralty, not only for collecting the said duties, but for the trial of causes merely arising within the body of a county:

And whereas, in consequence of other statutes, judges, who before held only estates at will in their offices, have been made dependant on the crown alone for their salaries, and standing armies kept in times of peace: And whereas it has lately been resolved in parliament, that by force of a statute, made in the thirty-fifth year of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, colonists may be transported to England, and tried there upon accusations for treasons and misprisions, or concealments of treasons committed in the colonies, and by a late statute, such trials have been directed in cases therein mentioned:

And whereas, in the last session of parliament, three statutes were made; one entitled, “An act to discontinue, in such manner and for such time as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, lading, or shipping of goods, wares and merchandise, at the town, and within the harbour of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts-Bay in New England;” another entitled, “An act for the better regulating the government of the province of Massachusetts-Bay in New England;” and another entitled, “An act for the impartial administration of justice, in the cases of persons questioned for any act done by them in the execution of the law, or for the suppression of riots and tumults, in the province of the Massachusetts-Bay in New England;” and another statute was then made, “for making more effectual provision for the government of the province of Quebec, etc.” All which statutes are impolitic, unjust, and cruel, as well as unconstitutional, and most dangerous and destructive of American rights:

And whereas, assemblies have been frequently dissolved, contrary to the rights of the people, when they attempted to deliberate on grievances; and their dutiful, humble, loyal, and reasonable petitions to the crown for redress, have been repeatedly treated with contempt, by his Majesty’s ministers of state:

The good people of the several colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina and South-Carolina, justly alarmed at these arbitrary proceedings of parliament and administration, have severally elected, constituted, and appointed deputies to meet, and sit in general Congress, in the city of Philadelphia, in order to obtain such establishment, as that their religion, laws, and liberties, may not be subverted: Whereupon the deputies so appointed being now assembled, in a full and free representation of these colonies, taking into their most serious consideration, the best means of attaining the ends aforesaid, do, in the first place, as Englishmen, their ancestors in like cases have usually done, for asserting and vindicating their rights and liberties, Declare,

That the inhabitants of the English colonies in North-America, by the immutable laws of nature, the principles of the English constitution, and the several charters or compacts, have the following Rights:

Resolved, N.C.D. 1. That they are entitled to life, liberty and property: and they have never ceded to any foreign power whatever, a right to dispose of either without their consent.

Resolved, N.C.D. 2. That our ancestors, who first settled these colonies, were at the time of their emigration from the mother country, entitled to all the rights, liberties, and immunities of free and natural-born subjects, within the realm of England.

Resolved, N.C.D. 3. That by such emigration they by no means forfeited, surrendered, or lost any of those rights, but that they were, and their descendants now are, entitled to the exercise and enjoyment of all such of them, as their local and other circumstances enable them to exercise and enjoy.

Resolved, 4. That the foundation of English liberty, and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in their legislative council: and as the English colonists are not represented, and from their local and other circumstances, cannot properly be represented in the British parliament, they are entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial legislatures, where their right of representation can alone be preserved, in all cases of taxation and internal polity, subject only to the negative of their sovereign, in such manner as has been heretofore used and accustomed: But, from the necessity of the case, and a regard to the mutual interest of both countries, we cheerfully consent to the operation of such acts of the British parliament, as are bonfide, restrained to the regulation of our external commerce, for the purpose of securing the commercial advantages of the whole empire to the mother country, and the commercial benefits of its respective members; excluding every idea of taxation internal or external, for raising a revenue on the subjects, in America, without their consent.

Resolved, N.C.D. 5. That the respective colonies are entitled to the common law of England, and more especially to the great and inestimable privilege of being tried by their peers of the vicinage, according to the course of that law.

Resolved, N.C.D. 6. That they are entitled to the benefit of such of the English statutes, as existed at the time of their colonization; and which they have, by experience, respectively found to be applicable to their several local and other circumstances.

Resolved, N.C.D. 7. That these, his Majesty’s colonies, are likewise entitled to all the immunities and privileges granted and confirmed to them by royal charters, or secured by their several codes of provincial laws.

Resolved, N.C.D. 8. That they have a right peaceably to assemble, consider of their grievances, and petition the king; and that all prosecutions, prohibitory proclamations, and commitments for the same, are illegal.

Resolved, N.C.D. 9. That the keeping a standing army in these colonies, in times of peace, without the consent of the legislature of that colony, in which such army is kept, is against law.

Resolved, N.C.D. 10. It is indispensably necessary to good government, and rendered essential by the English constitution, that the constituent branches of the legislature be independent of each other; that, therefore, the exercise of legislative power in several colonies, by a council appointed, during pleasure, by the crown, is unconstitutional, dangerous and destructive to the freedom of American legislation.

All and each of which the aforesaid deputies, in behalf of themselves, and their constituents, do claim, demand, and insist on, as their indubitable rights and liberties, which cannot be legally taken from them, altered or abridged by any power whatever, without their own consent, by their representatives in their several provincial legislature.

In the course of our inquiry, we find many infringements and violations of the foregoing rights, which, from an ardent desire, that harmony and mutual intercourse of affection and interest may be restored, we pass over for the present, and proceed to state such acts and measures as have been adopted since the last war, which demonstrate a system formed to enslave America.

Resolved, N.C.D. That the following acts of parliament are infringements and violations of the rights of the colonists; and that the repeal of them is essentially necessary, in order to restore harmony between Great Britain and the American colonies, viz.

The several acts of Geo. III. ch. 15, and ch. 34.–5 Geo. III. ch.25.–6 Geo. ch. 52.–7 Geo.III. ch. 41 and ch. 46.–8 Geo. III. ch. 22. which impose duties for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, extend the power of the admiralty courts beyond their ancient limits, deprive the American subject of trial by jury, authorize the judges certificate to indemnify the prosecutor from damages, that he might otherwise be liable to, requiring oppressive security from a claimant of ships and goods seized, before he shall be allowed to defend his property, and are subversive of American rights.

Also 12 Geo. III. ch. 24, intituled, “An act for the better securing his majesty’s dockyards, magazines, ships, ammunition, and stores,” which declares a new offence in America, and deprives the American subject of a constitutional trial by jury of the vicinage, by authorizing the trial of any person, charged with the committing any offence described in the said act, out of the realm, to be indicted and tried for the same in any shire or county within the realm.

Also the three acts passed in the last session of parliament, for stopping the port and blocking up the harbour of Boston, for altering the charter and government of Massachusetts-Bay, and that which is entitled, “An act for the better administration of justice, etc.”

Also the act passed in the same session for establishing the Roman Catholic religion, in the province of Quebec, abolishing the equitable system of English laws, and erecting a tyranny there, to the great danger (from so total a dissimilarity of religion, law and government) of the neighboring British colonies, by the assistance of whose blood and treasure the said country was conquered from France.

Also the act passed in the same session, for the better providing suitable quarters for officers and soldiers in his majesty’s service, in North-America.

Also, that the keeping a standing army in several of these colonies, in time of peace, without the consent of the legislature of that colony, in which such army is kept, is against law.

To these grievous acts and measures, Americans cannot submit, but in hopes their fellow subjects in Great Britain will, on a revision of them, restore us to that state, in which both countries found happiness and prosperity, we have for the present, only resolved to pursue the following peaceable measures: 1. To enter into a non-importation, non-consumption, and non-exportation agreement or association. 2. To prepare an address to the people of Great-Britain, and a memorial to the inhabitants of British America: and 3. To prepare a loyal address to his majesty, agreeable to resolutions already entered into.

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398.Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/resolves.htm.

## Appendix

Declaration of Independence

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.—That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.—Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock

[president]

[Signatories from the thirteen states follow.]

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398. Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/declare.htm.

## Appendix

Articles of Confederation

November 15, 1777

To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.

Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

I.

The Stile of this Confederacy shall be “The United States of America”.

II.

Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

III.

The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.

IV.

The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

V.

For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

VI.

No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any King, Prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgement of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.

VII.

When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.

VIII.

All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.

The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.

IX.

The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article—of sending and receiving ambassadors—entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever—of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated—of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace—appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies commited on the high seas and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgement and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgement, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgement or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the cause shall be tried, ‘well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgement, without favor, affection or hope of reward’: provided also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.

All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before presecribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.

The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective States—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States— regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated— establishing or regulating post offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office—appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers—appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States—making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated ‘A Committee of the States’, and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction—to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses—to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted—to build and equip a navy—to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled. But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of the majority of the United States in Congress assembled.

The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.

X.

The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled be requisite.

XI.

Canada acceding to this confederation, and adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.

XII.

All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pleged.

XIII.

Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State.

And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said Confederation are submitted to them. And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.

Agreed to by Congress 15 November 1777 In force after ratification by Maryland, 1 March 1781

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398. Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/artconf.htm.

## Appendix

Virginia Plan for the U.S. Constitution

Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Constitutional Convention, May 29, 1787

1. Resolved that the Articles of Confederation ought to be so corrected and enlarged, as to accomplish the objects proposed by their institution, namely common Defence Security of Liberty and general welfare.

2. Resolved therefore that the right of Suffrage in the National Legislature ought to be, proportioned to the quotas of Contribution, or to the number of free inhabitants, as the one or the other, may serve best in different cases.

3. Resolved that the National Legislature ought to consist of two branches.

4. Resolved that the Members of the first Branch of the National Legislature, ought to be elected by the people of the several States every ___ for the term of three years, to be of the age of ___ at least. To receive liberal stipends, by which they may be compensated for the devotion [“duration” stricken out] of their time to public service-to be ineligible to any office established by a particular State, or under the authority of the United States, (except those peculiarly belonging to the functions of the first Branch) during the term of service, and for the space of one ___ after the expiration; to be incapable of reelection for the space of after the expiration of their term of service, and to be subject to recal.

5. Resolved, that the members of the second Branch of the Legislature, ought to be elected by the individual Legislatures: to be of the age of ___ years at least; to hold their Offices for a term sufficient to ensure their independency; to receive liberal Stipends by which they may be compensated for the devotion [“devtion” stricken out] of their time to the public service; and to be in-eligible to any office established by a particular State, or under the authority of the United States (except those peculiarly belonging to the functions of the second Branch) during the term of service, and for the space of _ after the expiration thereof.

6. Resolved that each Branch ought to possess the right of originating acts, that the National Legislature ought to be empowered to enjoy, the Legislative rights vested in Congress, by the Confederation, and moreover to Legislate all cases to which the Separate States are incompetent; or in which the harmony of the United States may be interrupted, by the exercise of individual Legislation-to negative all Laws passed by the several States, contravening, in the opinion of the National Legislature, The articles of Union; or any Treaty subsisting under the Authority of the Union-and to call forth the force of the Union, against any Member of the Union, failing to fulfil its duties under the articles thereof.

7th Resolved that a [“the” stricken out] national Executive be insti[“consti” stricken out]tuted to consist of a single person, with powers to carry into execution the National Laws, and to appoint to Offices, in cases not otherwise provided for, to be chosen by the National Legislature, for the term of seven years-to receive punctually at stated times a fixed compensation, for the services rendered, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the Magistracy existing at the time of such increase or diminution, and to be in-eligible a second time.

8th Resolved that the Executive and a convenient number of the National Judiciary ought to compose a Council of revision, with authority to examine every act of the National Legislature, before it shall operate, and every act of a particular Legislature before a negative thereon shall be final; and that the dissent of the said council shall amount to a rejection, unless the act of the National Legislature, be again passed, or that of a particular Legislature be again negatived by _ of the Members of each Branch.

9. Resolved that a National Judiciary be established to Consist of one Supreme Tribunal, to hold their Offices during good behavior, and to receive punctually at stated times fixed compensation for their services, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the persons actually in office at the time of such increase or diminution.

That the jurisdiction of the inferior Tribunals, shall be to hear and determine in the first instance, and of the Supreme Tribunal to hear and determine in the dernier resort; all piracies and felonies on the high Seas, Captures from an Enemy; cases in which Foreigners, or Citizens of other States applying to such jurisdictions, may be interested, or which respect the collection of the national Revenue, Impeachment of any national officer and questions which may involve, the National peace and harmony.

agreed 10. Resolved that provision ought to be made for the admission of States Lawfully arising within the limits of the United States whether from a voluntary junction of Government and Territory or otherwise, with the Consent of a number of Voices in the National Legislatures less than the whole.

agreed 11. Resolved that a republican Government of each State (except in the Voluntary junction of Government and Territory) ought to be guaranteed by the United States to each State.

agreed 12. Resolved that provision ought to be made for the Continuance of a Congress and their authorities, and privileges, until [“untill” stricken out] a given day, after the reform of the Articles of the Union shall be adopted, and for the Completion of all their engagements.

agreed 13. That provision ought to be made for the amendment of the Articles of the Union, whensoever it shall seem necessary (and that the assent of the National Legislature, ought to be required).

14. Resolved that the Legislative, Executive and judicial powers of the several States, ought to be bound by oath to support the Articles of Union. agreed

15. Resolved that the amendments which shall be offered to the Confederation, by the Convention, ought at a proper time, or times, after the approbation of Congress, to be submitted to an assembly or assemblies of representatives, recommended by the several Legislatures, to be expressly chosen by the people to consider and decide thereon. postponed

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398. Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/const/vatextc.htm.

## Appendix

New Jersey Plan for the U.S. Constitution

Presented by William Paterson to the Constitutional Convention, June 15, 1787

1. Resolved, that an union of the states, merely federal, ought to be the sole object of the exercise of the powers vested in this convention.

2. Resolved, that the articles of the confederation ought to be so revised, corrected, and enlarged, as to render the federal constitution adequate to the exigencies of government, and the preservation of the union.

3. Resolved, that in addition to the powers vested in the united states in congress, by the present existing articles of confederation, they be authorized to pass acts for raising a revenue by laying a duty or duties on all goods and merchandise of foreign growth or manufacture, imported into any part of the united states; by imposing stamps on paper, parchment, and vellum; and by a postage on all letters and packages passing through the general post office, to be applied to such federal purposes, as they shall deem proper and expedient; to make rules and regulations for the collection thereof; and the same from time to time to alter and amend in such manner as they shall think proper: provided that all punishments, fines, forfeitures, and penalties, to be incurred for contravening such rules and regulations, shall be adjudged by the common law judiciaries of the state in which any offense, contrary to the true intent and meaning of such rules or regulations, shall be committed or perpetrated; with liberty of commencing all suits or prosecutions for that purpose, in the first instance, in the supreme common law judiciary of such state-subject, nevertheless, to an appeal in the last resort, for the correction of errors, both of law and fact, in rendering judgment, to the judiciary of the united states; and that the united states shall have authority to pass acts for the regulation of trade and commerce, as well with foreign nations, as with each other.

4. Resolved, that should requisitions be necessary, instead of the present rule, the united states in congress be authorized to make such requisitions in proportion to the whole number of white and other free citizens and inhabitants, of every age, sex, and condition, including those bound to servitude for a term of years, and three-fifths of all other persons, not comprehended in the foregoing descriptions (except Indians not paying taxes.)

5. Resolved, that if such requisitions be not complied with, in the time specified therein, the united states in congress shall have power to direct the collection thereof in the non-complying states; and for that purpose to devise and pass acts directing and authorising the same: provided that none of the powers hereby vested in the united states in congress shall be exercised without the consent of at least ___ states; and in that proportion, should the number of confederated states hereafter be increased or diminished.

6. Resolved, that the united states in congress, shall be authorised to elect a federal executive, to consist of ___ person or persons, to continue in office for the term of ___ years, to receive punctually, at stated times, a fixed compensation for the services by him or them to be rendered, in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the executive in office, at the time of such increase or diminution, to be paid out of the federal treasury; to be incapable of holding any other office or appointment during the time of service, and for ___ years after; to be ineligible a second time, and removable on impeachment and conviction for mar-practice, corrupt conduct, and neglect of duty.

7. Resolved, that the executive, besides a general authority to execute the federal acts, ought to appoint all federal officers, not otherwise provided for, and to direct all military operations; provided that the executive shall not on any occasion take command of any troops, so as personally to conduct any military enterprise as general, or in any other capacity.

8. Resolved, that the legislative acts of the united states, made under and in pursuance to the articles of union, and all treaties made and ratified under the authority of the united states, shall be the supreme law of the respective states, as far as those acts or treaties shall relate to the said states or their citizens and inhabitants; and that the judiciaries of the several states shall be bound thereby in their decisions; any thing in the respective laws of the individual states to the contrary notwithstanding.

9. Resolved, that if any state or body of men in any state, shall oppose or prevent the carrying into execution such acts or treaties, the federal executive shall be authorised to call forth the powers of the confederated states, or so much thereof as may be necessary to enforce and compel an obedience to such acts, or an observance of such treaties.

10. Resolved, that a federal judiciary be established, to consist of a supreme tribunal; the judges of which to be appointed by the executive, and to hold their offices during good behaviour; to receive punctually, at stated times, a fixed compensation for their services, to be paid out of the federal treasury; in which no increase or diminution shall be made, so as to affect the persons actually in office, at the time of such increase of diminution. That the judiciary so established, shall have authority to hear and determine, in the first instance, on all impeachments of federal officers, and by way of appeal in the dernier resort in all cases touching the rights and privileges of ambassadors; in all cases of captures from the enemy; in all cases of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; in all cases in which foreigners may be interested in the construction of any treaty or treaties, or which may arise on any act or ordinance of congress for the regulation of trade, or the collection of the federal revenue; that none of the judiciary officers shall be capable of receiving or holding any other office or appointment, during the time they remain in office, or for ___ years afterwards.

11. Resolved, that the legislative, executive, and judiciary powers within the several states, ought to be bound by oath to support the articles of union.

12. Resolved, that provision ought to be made for hearing and deciding upon all disputes arising between the united states and an individual state, respecting territory.

13. Resolved, that provision ought to be made for the admission of new states into the union.

14. Resolved, that it is necessary to define what offenses, committed in any state, shall be deemed high treason against the united states.

15. Resolved, that the rule for naturalization ought to be the same in every state.

16. Resolved, that a citizen of one state, committing an offense in another state, shall be deemed guilty of the same offense, as if it had been committed by a citizen of the state, in which the offense was committed. Source:

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398.Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/const/njtextc.htm.

## Appendix

Constitution of the United States1

September 17, 1787

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.

Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.1 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,1 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.1

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,5 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.1 They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.1

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II.

Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.1

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,1 the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:— “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III.

Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;1—between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

ARTICLE IV.

Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.1

Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

ARTICLE V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

ARTICLE VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

GO WASHINGTON — Presidt. and deputy from Virginia

This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by George Washington and the deputies from twelve states. The Constitution was adopted by a convention of the states on September 17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the several states on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788. Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788. The Constitution was subsequently ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; and Rhode Island, May 29, 1790.

The part of this clause relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among the states has been affected by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment, and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by the Sixteenth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by clause 1 of the Seventeenth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by clause 2 of the Eighteenth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Twentieth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Twenty-seventh Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Sixteenth Amendment.

This clause has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Eleventh Amendment.

This clause has been affected by the Thirteenth Amendment.

SOURCE: The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended. House Document No. 106–214. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2000.

## Appendix

Amendments to the U.S. Constitution1

AMENDMENT I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT II

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT III

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a present-ment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall he be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusations; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT VII

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. [ratified 1791]

AMENDMENT XI

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state. [ratified 1798]

AMENDMENT XII

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.1 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President should be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States. [ratified 1804]

AMENDMENT XIII

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1865]

AMENDMENT XIV

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age,1 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. [ratified 1868]

AMENDMENT XV

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1870]

AMENDMENT XVI

The Congress shall have power to levy and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived,without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. [ratified 1913]

AMENDMENT XVII

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. [ratified 1913]

AMENDMENT XVIII

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress. [ratified 1919; repealed 1933]

AMENDMENT XIX

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1920]

AMENDMENT XX

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission. [ratified 1933]

AMENDMENT XXI

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2. The transportation or importation into any state, territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the Congress. [ratified 1933]

AMENDMENT XXII

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress. [ratified 1951]

AMENDMENT XXIII

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1961]

AMENDMENT XXIV

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1964]

AMENDMENT XXV

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. [ratified 1967]

AMENDMENT XXVI

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ratified 1971]

AMENDMENT XXVI

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened. [ratified 1992]

The first ten amendments to the Constitution (and two others, one of which failed of ratification and the other, which later became the Twenty-seventh amendment) were proposed to the legislatures of the states by the first Congress on September 25, 1789. The first ten amendments were ratified by the following states, and the notifications of ratification by the governors thereof were successively communicated by the president to Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; New York, February 24, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; Rhode Island, June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; and Virginia, December 15, 1791. Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791. The amendments were subsequently ratified by the legislatures of Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Georgia, March 18, 1939; and Connecticut, April 19, 1939.

This sentence has been superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

See the Nineteenth Amendment and section 1 of the Twenty-sixth Amendment.

Repealed by section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment.

SOURCE: The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended. House Document No. 106–214. Washington, D.C.:Government Printing Office, 2000.

## Appendix

Resolution of the Constitutional Convention

In Convention Monday September 17th 1787.

Present The States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Resolved,

That the proceeding Constitution be laid before the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.

Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution. That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

By the Unanimous Order of the Convention

GO WASHINGTON presidt W.JACKSON secretary.

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398. Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/const/ressub01.htm.

## Appendix

Resolution Transmitting the U.S. Constitution to Congress

Letter of the president of the Constitutional Convention, September 17, 1787, to the president of Congress

In Convention, September 17, 1787

Sir,

We have now the honor to submit to the consideration of the United States in Congress assembled, that Constitution which has appeared to us the most adviseable.

The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the power of making war, peace, and treaties, that of levying money and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities should be fully and effectually vested in the general government of the Union: But the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident-Hence results the necessity of a different organization.

It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all: Individuals entering into society, must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times diffcult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be reserved; and on the present occasion this difficulty was encreased by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extent, habits, and particular interests.

In all our deliberations on this subject we kept steadily in our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each state in the Convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected; and thus the Constitution, which we now present, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensible.

That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not perhaps to be expected; but each will doubtless consider, that had her interest been alone consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish.

With great respect, We have the honor to be, Sir,

Your Excellency’s most obedient and humble servants,

George Washington, President.

By unanimous Order of the Convention.

His Excellency the President of Congress.

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398.Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927.

## Appendix

Resolution of Congress Submitting the U.S. Constitution to the Several States

Friday Sept. 28. 1787.

Congress assembled present Newhampshire Massachusetts Connecticut New York New Jersey Pensylvania. Delaware Virginia North Carolina South Carolina and Georgia and from Maryland Mr Ross

Congress having received the report of the Convention lately assembled in Philadelphia

Resolved Unanimously that the said Report with the resolutions and letter accompanying the same be transmitted to the several legislatures in Order to be submitted to a convention of Delegates chosen in each state by the people thereof in conformity to the resolves of the Convention made and provided in that case.

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398. Selected, Arranged, and Indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/const/ressub02.htm.

## Appendix

Ratification of the U.S. Constitution by the State of Delaware

We the Deputies of the People of the Delaware State, in Convention met, having taken into our serious consideration the Federal Constitution proposed and agreed upon by the Deputies of the United States in a General Convention held at the City of Philadelphia on the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, Have approved, assented to, ratified, and confirmed, and by these Presents, Do, in virtue of the Power and Authority to us given for that purpose, for and in behalf of ourselves and our Constituents, fully, freely, and entirely approve of, assent to, ratify, and confirm the said Constitution.

Done in Convention at Dover this seventh day of December in the year aforesaid, and in the year of the Independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In Testimony whereof we have hereunto subscribed our Names—

To all whom these Presents shall come Greeting, I Thomas Collins President of the Delaware State do hereby certify, that the above instrument of writing is a true copy of the original ratification of the Federal Constitution by the Convention of the Delaware State, which original ratification is now in my possession. In Testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the Delaware State to be hereunto an’exed.

Thos Collins

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398.Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ratde.htm

## Appendix

Resolution of the First Congress Submitting the Bill of Rights1

Congress of the United States, begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine

The Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz:

Articles in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

Article the first … After the first enumeration required by the first Article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which, the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

Article the second … No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Article the third … Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article the fourth … A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article the fifth … No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Article the sixth … The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article the seventh … No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article the eighth … In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article the ninth … In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article the tenth … Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article the eleventh … The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article the twelfth … The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

The proposed amendments were transmitted to the legislatures of the several States, upon which the following action was taken:

By the State of New Hampshire—Agreed to the whole of the said amendments, except the second article.

By the State of New York—Agreed to the whole of the said amendments, except the second article.

By the State of Pennsylvania—Agreed to the second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles of the said amendments.

By the State of Delaware—Agreed to the whole of the said amendments, except the first article.

By the State of Maryland—Agreed to the whole of the said twelve amendments.

By the State of South Carolina—Agreed to the whole said twelve amendments.

By the State of North Carolina—Agreed to the whole of the said twelve amendments.

By the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations—Agreed to the whole of the said twelve articles.

By the State of New Jersey—Agreed to the whole of the said amendments, except the second article.

By the State of Virginia—Agreed to the whole of the said twelve articles (Elliot’s Debates, Vol. I, pp. 339–40.)

No returns were made by the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Georgia, and Kentucky.

The amendments thus proposed became a part of the constitution—the first of them excepted: which was not ratified by a sufficient number of the state legislatures.

SOURCE: Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of the American States. House Document No. 398.Selected, arranged, and indexed by Charles C. Tansill. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/resolu02.htm.

## Appendix

Guide to the U.S. Constitution

A

ABRIDGED. The privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States shall not be. Amendment 14:1

ABSENT MEMBERS, in such manner and under such penalties as it may provide. Each house is authorized to compel the attendance of. Article 1:5:1

ACCOUNTS of receipts and expenditures of public money shall be published from time to time. A statement of the. Article 1:9:7

ACCUSATION. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall be informed of the cause and nature of the. Amendment 6

ACCUSED shall have a speedy public trial. In all criminal prosecutions the. Amendment 6

• He shall be tried by an impartial jury of the state and district where the crime was committed. Amendment 6
• He shall be informed of the nature of the accusation. Amendment 6
• He shall be confronted with the witnesses against him. Amendment 6
• He shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. Amendment 6
• He shall have the assistance of counsel for his defense. Amendment 6

ACTIONS at common law involving over twenty dollars shall be tried by jury. Amendment 7

ACTS, RECORDS, AND JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS of another state. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the. Article 4:1

ACTS. Congress shall prescribe the manner of proving such acts, records, and proceedings. Article 4:1

ADJOURN from day to day. A smaller number than a quorum of each house may. Article 1:5:1

ADJOURN FOR MORE THAN THREE DAYS, nor to any other place than that in which they shall be sitting. Neither house shall, during the session of Congress, without the consent of the other. Article 1:5:4

ADJOUENMENT, the president may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. In case of disagreement between the two houses as to. Article 2:3

ADMIRALTY and maritime jurisdiction. The judicial power shall extend to all cases of. Article 3:2:1

ADMITTED by the Congress into this Union, but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state. New states may be. Article 4:3:1

• Nor shall any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures and of Congress. Article 4:3:1

ADOPTION of the Constitution shall be valid. All debts and engagements contracted by the confederation and before the. Article 6:–:1

ADVICE AND CONSENT of the Senate. The president shall have power to make treaties by and with the. Article 2:2:2

• To appoint ambassadors or other public ministers and consuls by and with the. Article 2:2:2
• To appoint all other officers of the United States not herein otherwise provided for by and with the. Article 2:2:2

AFFIRMATION. Senators sitting to try impeachments shall be on oath or. Article 1:3:6

• To be taken by the president of the United States. Form of the oath or. Article 2:1:8
• No warrants shall be issued but upon probable cause and on oath or. Amendment 4
• To support the Constitution. Senators and representatives, members of state legislatures, execu-tive and judicial officers, both state and federal, shall be bound by oath or. Article 6:–:3

AGE. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained twenty-five years of. Article 1:2:2

• No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained thirty years of. Article 1:3:3
• Right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age. Amendment 26:1

AGREEMENT or compact with another state without the consent of Congress. No state shall enter into any. Article 1:10:3

AID AND COMFORT. Treason against the United States shall consist in levying war against them, adhering to their enemies, and giving them. Article 3:3:1

ALLIANCE or confederation. No state shall enter into any treaty of. Article 1:10:1

AMBASSADORS, or other public ministers and consuls. The president may appoint. Article 2:2:2

• The judicial power of the United States shall extend to all cases affecting. Article 3:2:1

AMENDMENTS to the Constitution. Whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, Congress shall propose. Article 5

• On application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states, Congress shall call a convention to propose. Article 5
• Shall be valid when ratified by the legislatures of, or by conventions in, three-fourths of the states. Article 5

ANSWER for a capital or infamous crime unless on presentment of a grand jury. No person shall be held to. Amendment 5

• Except in cases in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service. Amendment 5

APPELLATE JURISDICTION both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as Congress shall make. In what cases the Supreme Court shall have. Article 3:2:2

APPLICATION of the legislature or the executive of a state. The United States shall protect each state against invasion and domestic violence on the. Article 4:4

APPLICATION of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states, Congress shall call a convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution. On the. Article 5

APPOINTMENT. Of officers and authority to train the militia reserved to the states respectively. Article 1:8:16

• Of such inferior officers as they may think proper in the president alone. Congress may by law vest the. Article 2:2:2
• In the courts of law or in the heads of departments. Congress may by law vest the. Article 2:2:2
• Of presidential and vice-presidential electors. District of Columbia to have power of. Amendment 23:1

APPORTIONMENT of representation and direct taxation among the several states. Provisions relating to the. Article 1:2:3

• Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states. Amendment 16
• Of representatives among the several states. Provisions relating to the. Amendment 14

APPORPRIATE LEGISLATION. Congress shall have power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. Article 1:8:18

• Congress shall have power to enforce the thirteenth article, prohibiting slavery by. Amendment 13:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the fourteenth article by. Amendment 14:5
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the fifteenth article by. Amendment 15:2
• Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce the provisions of the eighteenth article. Amendment 18:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the nineteenth article. Amendment 19
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the twenty-third article by. Amendment 23:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the twenty-fourth article by. Amendment 24:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the twenty-sixth article by. Amendment 26:2

APPORPRIATION of money for raising and supporting armies shall be for a longer term than two years. But no. Article 1:8:12

APPORPRIATIONS made by law. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of. Article 1:9:7

APPROVE and sign a bill before it shall become a law. The president shall. Article 1:7:2

• He shall return it to the house in which it originated with his objections, if he does not. Article 1:7:2

ARMIES. Congress shall make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces. Article 1:8:14

ARMIES, but no appropriation for that use shall be for a longer term than two years. Congress shall have power to raise and support. Article 1:8:12

ARMS shall not be infringed. A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear. Amendment 2

ARREST during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. Members shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from. Article 1:6:1

ARSENALS. Congress shall exercise exclusive authority over all places purchased for the erection of. Article 1:8:17

ARTICLES exported from any state. No tax or duty shall be laid on. Article 1:9:5

ARTS by securing to authors and inventors their patent rights. Congress may promote the progress of science and useful. Article 1:8:8

ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL for his defense. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the. Amendment 6

ASSUMPTION OF THE DEBT or obligations incurred in aid of rebellion or insurrection against the United States. Provisions against the. Amendment 14:4

>ATTAINDER, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts. No state shall pass any bill of. Article 1:10:1

ATTAINDER of treason shall not work corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. Article 3:3:2

ATTAINDER or ex post facto law shall be passed. No bill of. Article 1:9:3

AUTHORS and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and inventions. Congress shall have power to secure to. Article 1:8:8

B

BAIL. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines nor cruel and unusual punishments imposed. Amendment 8

BALLOT. If no person have a majority of the electoral votes for president and vice president, the House of Representatives shall immediately choose the president by. Amendment 12

BALLOT for president and vice president. The electors shall vote by. Amendment 12

BANKRUPTCIES. Congress shall have power to pass uniform laws on the subject of. Article 1:8:4

BASIS OF REPRESENTATION among the several states. Provisions relating to the. Amendment 14:2

BEAR ARMS shall not be infringed. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and. Amendment 2

BEHAVIOR. The judges of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good. Article 3:1

BILL OF ATTAINDER, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts. No state shall pass any. Article 1:10:1

BILL OF ATTAINDER or ex post facto law shall be passed. No. Article 1:9:3

BILLS FOR RAISING REVENUE shall originate in the House of Representatives. All. Article 1:7:1

BILLS OF CREDIT. No state shall emit. Article 1:10:1

BILLS which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives shall, before they become laws, be presented to the president. Article 1:7:2

• If he approve, he shall sign them: if he disapprove, he shall return them, with his objections, to that house in which they originated. Article 1:7:2
• Upon the reconsideration of a bill returned by the president with his objections, if two-thirds of each house agree to pass the same, it shall become a law. Article 1:7:2
• Upon the reconsideration of a bill returned by the president, the question shall be taken by yeas and nays. Article 1:7:2
• Not returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) shall, unless Congress adjourn, become laws. Article 1:7:2

BORROW MONEY on the credit of the United States, Congress shall have power to. Article 1:8:2

BOUNTIES and pensions, shall not be questioned. The validity of the public debt incurred in suppressing insurrection and rebellion against the United States, including the debt for. Amendment 14:4

BREACH OF THE PEACE, shall be privileged from arrest while attending the session, and in going to and returning from the same. Senators and representatives, except for treason, felony, and. Article 1:6:1

BRIBERY, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed on impeachment for and conviction of treason. Article 2:4

C

CAPITAL OR OTHERWISE INFAMOUS CRIME, unless on indictment of a grand jury, except in certain specified cases. No person shall be held to answer for a. Amendment 5

CAPITATION OR OTHER DIRECT TAX shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. No. Article 1:9:4

CAPTURES ON LAND AND WATER. Congress shall make rules concerning. Article 1:8:11

CASTING VOTE. The vice president shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. Article 1:3:4

CENSUS or enumeration. Of the inhabitants shall be made within three years. after the first meeting of Congress, and within every subsequent term of ten years thereafter. Article 1:2:3

• No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid except in proportion to the. Article 1:9:4

CHIEF JUSTICE shall preside when the president of the United States is tried upon impeachment. The. Article 1:3:6

CHOOSING the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which shall be the same throughout the United States. Congress may determine the time of. Article 2:1:4

CITIZEN of the United States. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and been nine years a. Article 1:3:3

CITIZEN of the United States at the adoption of the Constitution shall be eligible to the office of president. No person not a natural-born. Article 2:1:5

• No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a. Article 1:2:2
• Right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex. Amendment 19
• Right to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state for failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. Amendment 24:1
• Right to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state to any citizen eighteen years or older, on account of age. Amendment 26:1

CITIZENS OR SUBJECTS of a foreign state. The judicial power of the United States shall not extend to suits in law or equity brought against one of the states by the citizens or another state or by. Amendment 11

CITIZENSHIP. Citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens of the several states. Article 4:2:1

• All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside. Amendment 14:1
• No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Amendment 14:1
• Nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Amendment 14:1
• Nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Amendment 14:1

CIVIL OFFICERS of the United States shall, on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors be removed. All. Article 2:4

CLAIMS of the United States or any particular state in the territory or public property. Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prejudice. Article 4:3:2

CLASSIFICATION OF SENATORS. Immediately after they shall be assembled after the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. Article 1:3:2

• The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year. Article 1:3:2
• The seats of the senators of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year. Article 1:3:2
• The seats of the senators of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year. Article 1:3:2

COIN a tender in payment of debts. No state shall make anything but gold and silver. Article 1:10:1

COIN MONEY and regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin. Congress shall have power to. Article 1:8:5

COIN OF THE UNITED STATES. Congress shall provide for punishing the counterfeiting the securities and current. Article 1:8:6

COLOR, or previous condition of servitude. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race. Amendment 15:1

COMFORT. Treason against the United States shall consist in levying war against them, and giving the enemies aid and. Article 3:3:1

COMMANDER IN CHIEF of the army and navy, and of their militia when in actual service. The president shall be. Article 2:2:1

COMMERCE OR REVENUE. No preference shall be given to the ports of one state over those of another by any regulation of. Article 1:9:6

COMMERCE with foreign nations, among the states, and with Indian tribes. Congress shall have power to regulate. Article 1:8:3

• Vessels clearing from the ports of one state shall not pay duties in those of another. Article 1:9:6

COMMISSIONS to expire at the end of the next session. The president may fill vacancies that happen in the recess of the Senate by granting. Article 2:2:3

COMMON DEFENSE AND GENERAL WELFARE. Congress shall have power to provide for the. Article 1:8:1

COMMON DEFENSE, promote the general welfare, etc. To insure the. Preamble

COMMON LAW, where the amount involved exceeds twenty dollars, shall be tried by jury. Suits at. Amendment 7

• No fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the. Amendment 7

COMPACT WITH A FOREIGN POWER. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, enter into any agreement or. Article 1:10:3

COMPACT WITH ANOTHER STATE. No state shall, without consent of Congress, enter into any agreement or. Article 1:10:3

COMPENSATION. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just. Amendment 5

COMPENSATION OF SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES to be ascertained by law. Article 1:6:1

COMPENSATION OF THE JUDGES of the Supreme and inferior courts shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1

COMPENSATION OF THE PRESIDENT shall not be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall be elected. Article 2:1:7

COMPULSORY PROCESS for obtaining witnesses in his favor. In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have. Amendment 6

CONFEDERATION. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or. Article 1:10:1

• All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be valid against the United States under it, as under the. Article 6:–:1

CONFESSION in open court. Conviction of treason shall be on the testimony of two persons to the overt act, or upon. Article 3:3:1

CONGRESS of the United States. All legislative powers shall be vested in a. Article 1:1

• Shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Article 1:1
• Shall assemble at least once in every year, which shall be on the first Monday of December, unless they by law appoint a different day. Article 1:4:2
• May at any time alter regulations for elections of senators and representatives, except as to the places of choosing senators. Article 1:4:1
• Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members. Article 1:5:1
• A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Article 1:5:1
• A smaller number may adjourn from day to day and compel the attendance of absent members. Article 1:5:1
• Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. Article 1:5:2
• Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings. Article 1:5:3
• Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days. Article 1:5:4
• Senators and representatives shall receive a compensation to be ascertained by law. Article 1:6:1
• They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of peace, be privileged from arrest during attendance at their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. Article 1:6:1
• No senator or representative shall, during his term, be appointed to any civil office which shall have been created, or of which the emoluments shall have been increased, during such term. Article 1:6:2
• No person holding any office under the United States, shall, while in office, be a member of either house of Congress. Article 1:6:2
• All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. Article 1:7:1
• Proceedings in cases of bills returned by the president with his objections. Article 1:7:2
• Shall have power to lay and collect duties, imposts, and excises, pay the debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare. Article 1:8:1
• Shall have power to borrow money on the credit of the United States. Article 1:8:2
• To regulate foreign and domestic commerce, and with the Indian tribes. Article 1:8:3
• To establish uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies. Article 1:8:4
• To coin money, regulate its value and the value of foreign coin, and to fix the standard of weights and measures. Article 1:8:5
• To punish counterfeiting of securities and current coin of the United States. Article 1:8:6
• To establish post-offices and post-roads. Article 1:8:7
• To promote the progress of science and useful arts. Article 1:8:8
• To consitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Article 1:8:9
• To define and punish piracies and felonies on the high seas and to punish offenses against the law of nations. Article 1:8:10
• To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. Article 1:8:11
• To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years. Article 1:8:12
• To provide and maintain a Navy. Article 1:8:13
• To make rules for the government of the Army and Navy. Article 1:8:14
• To call out the militia to execute the laws, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. Article 1:8:15
• To provide for organizing, arming, and equipping the militia. Article 1:8:16
• To exercise exclusive legislation over the District fixed for the seat of government, and over forts, magazines, arsenals, and dockyards. Article 1:8:17
• To make all laws necessary and proper to carry into execution all powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States. Article 1:8:18
• No person holding any office under the United States shall accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign state, without the consent of. Article 1:9:8
• May determine the time of choosing the electors for president and vice president and the day on which they shall give their votes. Article 2:1:4
• The president may, on extraordinary occasions, convene either house of. Article 2:3
• The manner in which the acts, records, and judicial proceedings of the states shall be prescribed by. Article 4:1
• New states may be admitted by Congress into this Union. Article 4:3:1
• Shall have power to make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States. Article 4:3:2
• Amendments to the Constitution shall be proposed whenever it shall be deemed necessary by two-thirds of both houses of. Article 5
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the thirteenth amendment. Amendment 13:2
• Persons engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States disqualified for senators or representatives in. Amendment 14:3
• But such disqualification may be removed by a vote of two-thirds of both houses of. Amendment 14:3
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the fourteenth amendment. Amendment 14:5
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the fifteenth amendment. Amendment 15:2
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the nineteenth amendment. Amendment 19
• Sessions, time of assembling. Amendment 20:2
• To direct appointment of electors for president and vice president by District of Columbia. Amendment 23:1
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the twenty-third amendment. Amendment 23:2
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the twenty-fourth amendment. Amendment 24:2
• Confirmation by majority vote of vice president nominated by the president where vacancy in office occurs. Amendment 25:2
• Shall decide the issue of the inability of the president to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Amendment 25:4
• Shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the twenty-sixth amendment. Amendment 26:2
• No law, varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. Amendment 27

CONSENT. No state shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate without its. Article 5

CONSENT OF CONGRESS. No person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States shall accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign potentate, without the. Article 1:9:8

• No state shall lay any imposts, or duties on imports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, without the. Article 1:10:2
• No state shall lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, without the. Article 1:10:3
• No state shall enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, without the. Article 1:10:3
• No state shall engage in war unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay, without the. Article 1:10:3
• No new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures thereof, as well as the. Article 4:3:1

CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE in which the same may be. Congress shall exercise exclusive authority over all places purchased for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings by the. Article 1:8:17

CONSENT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATES and of Congress. No states shall be formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states without the. Article 4:3:1

CONSENT OF THE OTHER. Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they shall be sitting, without the. Article 1:5:4

CONSENT OF THE OWNER. No soldier shall be quar-tered in time of peace in any house without the. Amendment 3

CONSENT OF THE SENATE. The president shall have power to make treaties, by and with the advice and. Article 2:2:2

• The president shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers created by law and not otherwise herein provided for, by and with the advice and. Article 2:2:2

CONSTITUTION. All officers, legislative, executive, and judicial, of the United States, and of the several states, shall be bound by an oath to support the. Article 6:–:3

• But no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification for any office or public trust. Article 6:–:3

CONSTITUTION. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, September 17, 1787. Article 7:–:2

CONSTITUTION. The manner in which amendments may be proposed and ratified. Article 5

CONSTITUTION. The president, before he enters upon the execution of his office, shall take an oath to preserve, protect, and defend the. Article 2:1:8

CONSTITUTION and the laws made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, by the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land. The. Article 6:–:2

• The judges in every state, anything in the constitution or laws of a state to the contrary notwithstanding, shall be bound thereby. Article 6:–:2

CONSTITUTION, and then engaged in rebellion against the United States. Disqualification for office imposed upon certain class of persons who took an oath to support the. Amendment 14:3

CONSTITUTION as under the Confederation shall be valid. All debts and engagements contracted before the adoption of the. Article 6:–:1

CONSTITUTION between the states so ratifying the same. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of the. Article 7

CONSTITUTION, in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. Congress shall have power to pass all laws necessary and proper to the execution of the powers vested by the. Article 1:8:18

CONSTITUTION, laws, and treaties of the United States. The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under the. Article 3:2:1

CONSTITUTION, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to the people. Powers not delegated to the United States by the. Amendment 10

CONSTITUTION, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The enumeration in the. Amendment 9

CONSTITUTION, shall be eligible to the office of president. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen at the time of the adoption of the. Article 2:1:5

CONSTITUTION shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any state (in respect to territory or other property of the United States). Nothing in the. Article 4:3:2

CONTRACTS. No state shall pass any ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of. Article 1:10:1

CONTROVERSIES to which the United States shall be a party: between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states; between a state or its citizens and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. The judicial power shall extend to. Article 3:2:1

CONVENE CONGRESS or either house, on extraordinary occasions. The president may. Article 2:3

CONVENTION, by the unanimous consent of the states present on the 17th of September, 1787. Adoption of the Constitution in. Article 7:–:2

CONVENTION for proposing amendments to the Constitution. Congress, on the application of two-thirds of the legislatures of the states, may call a. Article 5

CONVENTIONS of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of the Constitution. The ratification of the. Article 7

CONVICTION in cases of impeachment shall not be had without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Article 1:3:6

COPYRIGHTS to authors for limited times. Congress shall have power to provide for. Article 1:8:8

CORRUPTION OF BLOOD. Attainder of treason shall not work. Article 3:3:2

COUNSEL for his defense. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the assistance of. Amendment 6

COUNTERFEITING the securities and current coin of the United States. Congress shall provide for the punishment of. Article 1:8:6

COURTS. Congress shall have power to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Article 1:8:9

COURTS. The judges of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior. Article 3:1

• Their compensation shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1

COURTS as Congress may establish. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and such inferior. Article 3:1

COURTS of law. Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in the president alone, in the heads of departments, or in the. Article 2:2:2

CREDIT. No state shall emit bills of. Article 1:10:1

CREDIT of the United States. Congress shall have power to borrow money on the. Article 1:8:2

CREDIT shall be given in every other state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each state. Full faith and. Article 4:1

CRIME, unless on a presentment of a grand jury. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous. Amendment 5

• Except in cases in the military and naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service. Amendment 5

CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other. Article 2:4

CRIMES, except in cases of impeachment, shall be tried by jury. All. Article 3:2:3

• They shall be tried in the state within which they may be committed. Article 3:2:3
• When not committed in a state, they shall be tried at the places which Congress may by law have provided. Article 3:2:3

CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS, the accused shall have a speedy and public trial by jury in the state and district where the crime was committed. In all. Amendment 6

• He shall be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation. Amendment 6
• He shall be confronted with the witnesses against him. Amendment 6
• He shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. Amendment 6
• He shall have the assistance of counsel in his defense. Amendment 6

CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS inflicted. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor. Amendment 8

D

DANGER as will not admit of delay. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent. Article 1:10:3

DAY on which they shall vote for president and vice president, which shall be the same throughout the United States. Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the. Article 2:1:4

DAY TO DAY, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. A smaller number than a quorum of each house may adjourn from. Article 1:5:1

DEATH, RESIGNATION, or inability of the president. In case of, powers and duties of his office shall devolve on the vice president. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

• Congress may provide by law for the case of the removal. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

DEBT of the United States, including debts for pensions and bounties incurred in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. The validity of the public. Amendment 14:4

DEBTS. No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of. Article 1:10:1

DEBTS and engagements contracted before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States, under it, as under the Confederation. Article 6:–:1

DEBTS and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. Congress shall have power to pay the. Article 1:8:1

DEBTS or obligations incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or claims for the loss or emancipation of any slave. Neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any. Amendment 14:4

DECLARE WAR, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. Congress shall have power to. Article 1:8:11

DEFENSE. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the assistance of counsel for his. Amendment 6

DEFENSE and general welfare throughout the United States. Congress shall have power to pay the debts and provide for the common. Article 1:8:1

DEFENSE, promote the general welfare, etc. To insure the common. Preamble

DELAWARE entitled to one representative in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

DELAY. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, engage in war unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of. Article 1:10:3

DELEGATED to the United States, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the states or to the people. The powers not. Amendment 10

DENY OR DISPARAGE others retained by the people. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to. Amendment 9

DEPARTMENTS. Congress may by law vest the appointment of inferior officers in the heads of. Article 2:2:2

DEPARTMENTS upon any subject relating to their duties. The president may require the written opinion of the principal officers in each of the executive. Article 2:2:1

DIRCET TAX shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. No capitation or other. Article 1:9:4

DIRCET TAXES and representatives, how apportioned among the several states. Article 1:2:3

DISABILTY. No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or presidential elector, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or any state, who having previously taken an oath as a legislative, executive, or judicial officer of the United States, or of any state, to support the Constitution, afterward engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States. Amendment 14:3

• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such. Amendment 14:3

DISABILTY of the president and vice president. Provisions in case of the. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

DISAGREEMENT between the two houses as to the time of adjournment, the president may adjourn them to such time as he may think proper. In case of. Article 2:3

DISORDERLY BEHAVIOUR. Each house may punish its members for. Article 1:5:2

• And with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. Article 1:5:2

DISPARAGE others retained by the people. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or. Amendment 9

DISQUALIFICATION. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any office under the United States which shall have been created or its emoluments increased during such term. Article 1:6:2

• No person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office. Article 1:6:2
• No person shall be a member of either house, presidential elector, or hold any office under the United States, or any state, who, having previously sworn to support the Constitution, afterward engaged in insurrection or rebellion. Amendment 14:3
• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. Amendment 14:3

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Congress shall exercise exclusive legislation in all cases over the. Article 1:8:17

• Electors for president and vice president, appointment in such manner as the Congress may direct. Amendment 23:1

DOCKYARDS. Congress shall have exclusive authority over all places purchased for the erection of. Article 1:8:17

DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY, provide for the common defense, etc. To insure. Preamble

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. The United States shall protect each state against invasion and. Article 4:4

DUE PROCESS OF LAW. No person shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without. Amendment 5

• No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without. Amendment 14:1

DUTIES AND POWERS of the office of president, in case of his death, removal, or inability to act, shall devolve on the vice president. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

• In case of the disability of the president and vice president, Congress shall declare what officer shall act. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

DUTIES, imposts, and excises. Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes. Article 1:8:1

• Shall be uniform throughout the United States. Article 1:8:1

DUTIES in another state. Vessels clearing in the ports of one state shall not be obliged to pay. Article 1:9:6

• On imports and exports, without the consent of Congress, except where necessary for executing its inspection laws. No state shall lay any. Article 1:10:2
• The net produce of all such duties shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States. Article 1:10:2
• All laws laying such duties shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. Article 1:10:2

DUTIES shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No tax or. Article 1:9:5

DUTY of tonnage without the consent of Congress. No state shall lay any. Article 1:10:3

E

EIGHTEENTH Amendment. Repealed. Amendment 21:1

ELECTION of president and vice president. Congress may determine the day for the. Article 2:1:4

• Shall be the same throughout the United States. The day of the. Article 2:1:4

ELECTIONS. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. Amendment 24:1

ELECTIONS FOR SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES. The legislatures of the states shall prescribe the times, places, and manner of holding. Article 1:4:1

• But Congress may, at any time, alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators. Article 1:4:1
• Returns and qualifications of its own members. Each house shall be the judge of the. Article 1:5:1
• Senators elected by the people. Amendment 17:1

ELECTORS FOR MEMBERS of the House of Representatives. Qualifications of. Article 1:2:1

ELECTORS FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress. Article 2:1:2

• But no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. Article 2:1:2
• Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States. Article 2:1:4
• The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. Amendment 12
• The District of Columbia shall appoint, in such manner the Congress may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the District would be entitled if a state. Amendment 23:1

ELECTORS FOR SENATORS. Qualifications of. Amendment 17:1

ELECTORS shall name, in their ballots, the person voted for as president; and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president. Amendment 12

• They shall make distinct lists of the persons voted for as president and of persons voted for as vice president, which they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government, directed to the president of the Senate. Amendment 12
• No person having taken an oath as a legislative, executive or judicial officer of the United States, or of any state, and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, shall be an elector. Amendment 14:3
• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. Amendment 14:3

EMANCIPATION of any slave shall be held to be illegal and void. Claims for the loss or. Amendment 14:4

EMIT BILLS OF CREDIT. No state shall. Article 1:10:1

EMOLUMENT of any kind from any king, prince, or foreign state, without the consent of Congress. No person holding any office under the United States shall accept any. Article 1:9:8

ENEMIES. Treason shall consist in levying war against the United States, in adhering to, or giving aid and comfort to their. Article 3:3:1

ENGAGEMENTS contracted before the adoption of this Constitution shall be valid.All debts and. Article 6:–:1

ENUMERATION in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The. Amendment 9

ENUMERATION of the inhabitants shall be made within three years after the first meeting of Congress, and within every subsequent term of ten years thereafter. Article 1:2:3

• Ratio of representation not to exceed one of every 30,000 until the first enumeration shall be made. Article 1:2:3
• Income tax authorized without regard to. Amendment 16

EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the. Amendment 14:1

EQUAL SUFFRAGE in the Senate. No state shall be deprived without its consent, of its. Article 5

ESTABLISHMENT of this Constitution between the states ratifying the same. The ratification of nine states shall be sufficient for the. Article 7

EXCESSIVE BAIL shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment 8

EXCISES. Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and. Article 1:8:1

• Shall be uniform throughout the United States. All duties, imposts, and. Article 1:8:1

EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATION, in all cases, over such district as may become the seat of government. Congress shall exercise. Article 1:8:17

• Over all places purchased for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards and other needful buildings. Congress shall exercise. Article 1:8:17

EXECUTIVE OF A STATE. The United States shall protect each state against invasion and domestic violence, on the application of the legislature or the. Article 4:4

EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIAL OFFICERS of the United States and of the several states shall be bound by an oath to support the Constitution. Article 6:–:3

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS. On subjects relating to their duties the president may require the written opinions of the principal officers in each of the. Article 2:2:1

• Congress may by law vest the appointment of inferior officers in the heads of. Article 2:2:2

EXECUTIVE POWER shall be vested in a president of the United States of America. The. Article 2:1:1

EXPEL A MEMBER. Each house, with the concurrence of two-thirds, may. Article 1:5:2

EXPENDITURES of public money shall be published from time to time. A regular statement of the receipts and. Article 1:9:7

EXPORTATIONS from any state. No tax or duty shall be laid on. Article 1:9:5

EXPORTS OR IMPORTS, except upon certain conditions. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duties on. Article 1:10:2

• Laid by any state, shall be for the use of the Treasury. The net produce of all duties on. Article 1:10:2
• Shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. All laws of the states laying duties on. Article 1:10:2

EX POST FACTO LAW, or law impairing the obligation of contracts. No state shall pass any bill of attain-der. Article 1:10:1

EX POST FACTO LAW shall be passed. No bill of attainder or. Article 1:9:3

EXTRAORDINARY OCCASIONS. The president may convene both houses, or either house of Congress, on. Article 2:3

F

FAITH and credit in each state shall be given to the acts, records, and judicial proceedings of another state. Full. Article 4:1

FELONIES committed on the high seas. Congress shall have power to define and punish piracies and. Article 1:8:10

FELONY, and breach of the peace. Members of Congress shall not be privileged from arrest for treason. Article 1:6:1

FINES. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. Amendment 8

FOREIGN COIN. Congress shall have power to coin money, fix the standard of weights and measures, and to regulate the value of. Article 1:8:5

FOREIGN NATIONS, among the states, and with the Indian tribes. Congress shall have power to regulate commerce with. Article 1:8:3

FOREIGN POWER. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, enter into any compact or agreement with any. Article 1:10:3

FORFEITURE, except during the life of the person attainted. Attainder of treason shall not work. Article 3:3:2

FORMATION of new states. Provisions relating to the. Article 4:3:1

FORM OF GOVERNMENT. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a republican. Article 4:4

• And shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. Article 4:4

FORTS, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings. Congress shall exercise exclusive authority over all places purchased for the erection of. Article 1:8:17

FREEDOM OF SPEECH OR THE PRESS. Congress shall make no law abridging the. Amendment 1

FREE STATE, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a. Amendment 2

FUGITIVES from crime found in another state shall, on demand, be delivered up to the authorities of the state from which they may flee. Article 4:2:2

FUGITIVES from service or labor in one state, escaping into another state, shall be delivered up to the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Article 4:2:3

G

GENERAL WELFARE. Congress shall have power to provide for the common defense and. Article 1:8:1

GENERAL WELFARE and secure the blessings of liberty, etc. To promote the. Preamble

GEORGIA shall be entitled to three representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

GOLD AND SILVER coin a tender in payment of debts. No state shall make anything but. Article 1:10:1

GOOD BEHAVIOR. The judges of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during. Article 3:1

GOVERNMENT. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of. Article 4:4

• And shall protect each of them against invasion, and on application of the legislature or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence. Article 4:4

GRAND JURY. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on the presentment of a. Amendment 5

• Except in cases arising in the land and naval forces, and in the militia when in actual service. Amendment 5

GUARANTEE to every state in this Union a republican form of government. The United States shall. Article 4:4

• And shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. Article 4:4

H

HABEAS CORPUS shall not be suspended unless in cases of rebellion or invasion. The writ of. Article 1:9:2

HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS. Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of inferior officers in the. Article 2:2:2

• On any subject relating to their duties, the president may require the written opinion of the principal officers in each of the executive departments. Article 2:2:1

HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other. Article 2:4

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Congress shall consist of a Senate and. Article 1:1

• Shall be composed of members chosen every second year. Article 1:2:1
• Qualifications of electors for members of the. Article 1:2:1
• No person shall be a member who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States. Article 1:2:2
• The executives of the several states shall issue writs of election to fill vacancies in the. Article 1:2:4
• Shall choose their Speaker and other officers. Article 1:2:5
• Shall have the sole power of impeachment. Article 1:2:5
• Shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members. Article 1:5:1
• A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business. Article 1:5:1
• Less than a majority may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members. Article 1:5:1
• May determine its own rules of proceedings. Article 1:5:2
• May punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. Article 1:5:2
• Shall keep a journal of its proceedings. Article 1:5:3
• Shall not adjourn for more than three days during the session of Congress without the consent of the Senate. Article 1:5:4
• Members shall not be questioned for any speech or debate in either house or in any other place. Article 1:6:1
• No person holding any office under the United States shall, while holding such office, be a member of the. Article 1:6:2
• No person, while a member of either house, shall be appointed to an office which shall have been created or the emoluments increased during his membership. Article 1:6:2
• All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the. Article 1:7:1
• The votes for president and vice president shall be counted in the presence of the Senate and. Amendment 12
• If no person have a majority of electoral votes, then from the three highest on the list the House of Representatives shall immediately, by ballot, choose a president. Amendment 12
• They shall vote by states, each state counting one vote. Amendment 12
• A quorum shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to the choice of a president. Amendment 12
• No person having as a legislative, executive, or judicial officer of the United States, or of any state, taken an oath to support the Constitution, and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, shall be a member of the. Amendment 14:3
• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. Amendment 14:3

I

IMMINENT DANGER as will not admit of delay. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such. Article 1:10:3

IMMUNITIES. Members of Congress shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going and returning from the same. Article 1:6:1

• No soldier shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner in time of peace. Amendment 3
• No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of life and limb for the same offense. Amendment 5
• All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside. Amendment 14:1
• No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Amendment 14:1
• Nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Amendment 14:1
• Nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law. Amendment 14:1 Impeachment. The president may grant reprieves and pardons except in cases of. Article 2:2:1
• The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of. Article 1:2:5

IMPEACHMENT for and conviction of treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed upon. Article 2:4

IMPEACHMENTS. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all. Article 1:3:6

• The Senate shall be on oath, or affirmation, when sitting for the trial of. Article 1:3:6
• When the president of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. Article 1:3:6
• No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Article 1:3:6
• Judgment shall not extend beyond removal from office and disqualification to hold office. Article 1:3:7
• But the party convicted shall be liable to indictment and punishment according to law. Article 1:3:7

IMPORTATION of slaves prior to 1808 shall not be prohibited by the Congress. Article 1:9:1

• But a tax or duty of ten dollars for each person may be imposed on such. Article 1:9:1

IMPORTS OR EXPORTS except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties on. Article 1:10:2

IMPORTS OR EXPORTS laid by any state shall be for the use of the Treasury. The net produce of all duties on. Article 1:10:2

IMPORTS OR EXPORTS shall be subject to the revision and control of Congress. All laws of states laying duties on. Article 1:10:2

IMPOSTS AND EXCISES. Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties. Article 1:8:1

• Shall be uniform throughout the United States. All taxes, duties. Article 1:8:1

INABILITY of the president. The powers and duties of his ofrice shall devolve on the vice president. In case of the death, resignation, or. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

• The vice president shall succeed to the office of the president. In case of the death, resignation, or removal, or. Amendment 25

INABILITY of the president or vice president. Congress may provide by law for the case of the removal, death, resignation, or. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

INCOME TAXES. Congress shall have power to lay and collect without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. Amendment 16

INCRIMINATE HIMSELF. No person as a witness shall be compelled to. Amendment 5

INDIAN TRIBES. Congress shall have power to regulate commerce with the. Article 1:8:3

INDICTMENT or presentment of a grand jury. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or infamous crime unless on. Amendment 5

• Except in cases arising in the land and naval forces, and in the militia when in actual service. Amendment 5

INDICTMENT, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. The party convicted in case of impeachment shall nevertheless be liable and subject to. Article 1:3:7

INFAMOUS CRIME unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or. Amendment 5

INFERIOR COURTS. Congress shall have power to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Article 1:8:9

INFERIOR COURTS as Congress may establish. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and such. Article 3:1

• The judges of both the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior. Article 3:1
• Their compensation shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1

INFERIOR OFFICERS, Congress, if they think proper, may by law vest the appointment of in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. Article 2:2:2

INHABITANT OF THE STATE for which he shall be chosen. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an. Article 1:3:3

INSURRECTION OR REBELLION against the United States. No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or presidential elector, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or any state, who, having taken an oath as a legislative, executive, or judicial officer of the United States, or of a state, afterwards engaged in. Amendment 14:3

• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disabilities. Amendment 14:3
• Debts declared illegal and void which were contracted in aid of. Amendment 14:4

INSURRECTIONS and repel invasions. Congress shall provide for calling forth the militia to suppress. Article 1:8:15

INTOXICATING LIQUORS. Prohibition of manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, or exportation of. Amendment 18:1

• Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment. Amendment 21:1
• Transportation or importation into any state, Territory or possession, for delivery or use therein in violation of their laws, prohibited. Amendment 21:2

INVASION. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, engage in war unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. Article 1:10:3

• The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended unless in case of rebellion or. Article 1:9:2

INVASION and domestic violence. The United States shall protect each state against. Article 4:4

INVASIONS. Congress shall provide for calling forth the militia to suppress insurrections and repel. Article 1:8:15

INVENTORS AND AUTHORS in their inventions and writings. Congress may pass laws to secure for limited times exclusive rights to. Article 1:8:8

INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, except as a punishment for crime, abolished in the United States. Slavery and. Amendment 13:1

J

JEOPARDY of life and limb for the same offense. No person shall be twice put in. Amendment 5

JOURNAL of its proceedings. Each house shall keep a. Article 1:5:3

JUDGES in every state shall be bound by the Constitution, the laws and treaties of the United States, which shall be the supreme law of the land. Article 6:–:2

JUDGES of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior. Article 3:1

• Their compensation shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1

JUDGMENT in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. Article 1:3:7

• But the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law. Article 1:3:7

JUDICIAL AND EXECUTIVE OFFICERS of the United States and of the several states shall be bound by an oath to support the Constitution. Article 6:–:3

JUDICIAL POWER OF THE UNITED STATES. Congress shall have power to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Article 1:8:9

• The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. Article 3:1
• The judges of the Supreme and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior. Article 3:1
• Their compensation shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1
• It shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the United States. Article 3:2:1
• To all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls. Article 3:2:1
• To all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. Article 3:2:1
• To controversies to which the United States shall be a party. Article 3:2:1
• To controversies between two or more states. Article 3:2:1
• To controversies between a state and citizens of another state. Article 3:2:1 and Amendment 11
• To controversies between citizens of different states. Article 3:2:1
• To citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states. Article 3:2:1
• To controversies between a state or its citizens and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. Article 3:2:1
• In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. Article 3:2:2
• In all other cases before mentioned, it shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as Congress shall make. Article 3:2:2
• The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury. Article 3:2:3
• The trial shall be held in the state where the crimes shall have been committed. Article 3:2:3
• But when not committed in a state, the trial shall be at such place or places as Congress may by law have directed. Article 3:2:3
• The judicial power of the United States shall not be held to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any Foreign state. Amendment 11

JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS of every other state. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the acts, records, and. Article 4:1

• Congress shall prescribe the manner of proving such acts, records, and proceedings. Article 4:1

JUDICIARY. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction in all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state may be a party. Article 3:2:2

• The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and regulations as Congress may make. Article 3:2:2

JUNCTION of two or more states or parts of states without the consent of the legislatures and of Congress. No state shall be formed by the. Article 4:3:1

JURISDICTION. In all cases affecting ambassadors and other public ministers and consuls, and in cases where a state is a party, the Supreme Court shall have original. Article 3:2:2

JURISDICTION, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as Congress may make. The Supreme Court shall have appellate. Article 3:2:2

JURISDICTION of another state. No new state shall, without the consent of Congress, be formed or erected within the. Article 4:3:1

JURY. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by. Article 3:2:2

• In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a speedy and public trial by. Amendment 6
• All suits at common law, where the value exceeds twenty dollars, shall be tried by. Amendment 7
• Where a fact has been tried by a jury it shall not be reexamined except by the rules of the common law. Amendment 7

JUST COMPENSATION. Private property shall not be taken for public use without. Amendment 5

JUSTICE, insure domestic tranquility, etc. To establish. Preamble

L

LABOR, in one state escaping into another state shall be delivered up to the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Fugitives from service or. Article 4:2:3

LAND and naval forces. Congress shall make rules for the government and regulation of the. Article 1:8:14

LAW and fact, with exceptions and under regulations to be made by Congress. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction as to. Article 3:2:2

LAW of nations. Congress shall provide for punishing offenses against the. Article 1:8:10

LAW of the land. The Constitution, the laws made in pursuance thereof, and treaties of the United States, shall be the supreme. Article 6:–:2

• The judges in every state shall be bound thereby. Article 6:–:2

LAWS. Congress shall provide for calling forth the militia to suppress insurrection, repel invasion, and to execute the. Article 1:8:15

LAWS and treaties of the United States. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, or the. Article 3:2:1

LAWS necessary to carry into execution the powers vested in the government, or in any department or officer of the United States. Congress shall make all. Article 1:8:18

LEGAL TENDER in payment of debts. No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a. Article 1:10:1

LEGISLATION. Congress shall have power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution all the powers vested by the Constitution in the government of the United States or in any department or officer thereof. Article 1:8:18

• Congress shall have power to enforce the Thirteenth Amendment, prohibiting slavery, by appropriate. Amendment 13:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 14:5
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 15:2
• Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 18:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Nineteenth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 19
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Twenty-third Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 23:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Twenty-fourth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 24:2
• Congress shall have power to enforce the Twenty-sixth Amendment by appropriate. Amendment 26:2

LEGISLATION in all cases over such district as may become the seat of government. Congress shall exercise exclusive. Article 1:8:17

• Over all. places purchased for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings. Congress shall exercise exclusive. Article 1:8:17

LEGISLATIVE powers herein granted shall be vested in Congress. All. Article 1:1

LEGISLATURE, or the Executive (when the legislature cannot be convened). The United States shall protect each state against invasion and domestic violence, on the application of the. Article 4:4

LEGISLATURES of two-thirds of the states, Congress shall call a convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution. On the application of the. Article 5

LETTERS of marque and reprisal. Congress shall have power to grant. Article 1:8:11

• No state shall grant. Article 1:10:1

LIBERTY TO ourselves and our posterity, etc. To secure the blessings of. Preamble

LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY without due process of law. No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of. Amendment 5

• No state shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, nor deprive any person of. Amendment 14:1

LIFE or limb for the same offense. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of. Amendment 5

LOSS or emancipation of any slave shall be held illegal and void. Claims for the. Amendment 14:4

M

MAGAZINES, arsenals, deck-yards, and other needful buildings. Congress shall have exclusive authority over all places purchased for the erection of. Article 1:8:17

MAJORITY of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. A. Article 1:5:1

• But a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. Article 1:5:1

MAJORITY of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. When the choice of a president shall devolve on the House of Representatives, a quorum shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states; but a. Amendment 12

• When the choice of a vice president shall devolve on the Senate, a quorum shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12

MARITIME JURISDICTION. The judicial power shall extend to all cases of admiralty and. Article 3:2:1 Marque and reprisal. Congress shall have power to grant letters of. Article 1:8:11

• No state shall grant any letters of. Article 1:10:1

MARYLAND entitled to six representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

MASSACHUSETTS entitled to eight representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

MEASURES. Congress shall fix the standard of weights and. Article 1:8:5

MEETING OF CONGRESS. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Article 1:4:2

MEETING OF ELECTORS. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. Amendment 12

• District of Columbia, electors for president and vice president appointed by District. Amendment 23:1

MEMBERS of Congress and of state legislatures shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution. Article 6:–:3

MILITIA to execute the laws, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions. Congress shall provide for calling forth the. Article 1:8:15

• Congress shall provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the. Article 1:8:16
• Congress shall provide for governing such part of them as may be employed by the United States. Article 1:8:16
• Reserving to the states the appointment of the officers and the right to train the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. Article 1:8:16
• A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. Amendment 2

MISDEMEANORS. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed on impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and. Article 2:4

MONEY on the credit of the United States. Congress shall have power to borrow. Article 1:8:2

• Regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin. Congress shall have power to coin. Article 1:8:5
• Shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law. No. Article 1:9:7
• Shall be published from time to time. A regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of public. Article 1:9:7
• For raising and supporting armies. No appropriation of money shall be for a longer term than two years. Article 1:8:12

N

NATIONS. Congress shall have power to regulate commerce with foreign. Article 1:8:3

• Congress shall provide for punishing offenses against the law of. Article 1:8:10

NATURAL-BORN CITIZEN, or a citizen at the adoption of the Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president. No person except a. Article 2:1:5

NATURALIZATION. Congress shall have power to establish a uniform rule of. Article 1:8:4

NATURALIZED in the United States, and subject to their jurisdiction, shall be citizens of the United States and of the states in which they reside. All persons born, or. Amendment 14:1

NAVAL FORCES. Congress shall make rules and regulations for the government and regulation of the land and. Article 1:8:14

NAVY. Congress shall have power to provide and maintain a. Article 1:8:13

NEW HAMPSHIRE entitled to three representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

NEW JERSEY entitled to four representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

NEW STATES may be admitted by Congress into this Union. Article 4:3:1

• But no new state shall be formed within the jurisdiction of another state without the consent of Congress. Article 4:3:1
• Nor shall any state be formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures and of Congress. Article 4:3:1

NEW YORK entitled to six representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

NOBILITY shall be granted by the United States. No title of. Article 1:9:8

• No state shall grant any title of. Article 1:10:1

NOMINATIONS FOR OFFICE by the president. The president shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors and other public officers. Article 2:2:2

• He may grant commissions to fill vacancies that happen in the recess of the Senate, which shall expire at the end of their next session. Article 2:2:3
• The president shall nominate a successor to the vice president whenever a vacancy in office occurs. Amendment 25:2

NORTH CAROLINA entitled to five representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

NUMBER OF ELECTORS for president and vice president in each state shall be equal to the number of senators and representatives to which such state may be entitled in Congress. Article 2:1:2

O

OATH OF OFFICE of the president of the United States. Form of the. Article 2:1:8

OATH OR AFFIRMATION. No warrants shall be issued but upon probable cause supported by. Amendment 4

OATH OR AFFIRMATION to support the Constitution. Senators and representatives, members of state legislatures, executive and judicial officers of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by. Article 6:–:3

• But no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification for office. Article 6:–:3
• The senators when sitting to try impeachment shall be on. Article 1:3:6

OBJECTIONS. If he shall not approve it, the president shall return the bill to the house in which it originated with his. Article 1:7:2

OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS. No state shall pass any ex post facto law, or law impairing the. Article 1:10:1

OBLIGATIONS incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States to be held illegal and void. All debts or. Amendment 14:4

OFFENSE. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb for the same. Amendment 5

OFFENSES against the law of nations. Congress shall provide for punishing. Article 1:8:10

• Against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. The president may grant reprieves or pardons for. Article 2:2:1

OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, in case of his removal, death, resignation, or inability, shall devolve on the vice president. The powers and duties of the. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

• During the term of four years. The president and vice president shall hold. Article 2:1:1
• Of trust or profit under the United States shall be an elector for president and vice president. No person holding an. Article 2:1:2

OFFICE UNDER THE UNITED STATES. No person shall be a member of either house while holding any civil. Article 1:6:2

• Civil or military under the United States, or any state, who had taken an oath as a legislative, executive, or judicial officer of the United States, or of any state, and afterward engaged in insurrection or rebellion. No person shall be a senator, representative or presidential elector, or hold any. Amendment 14:3
• No senator or representative shall be appointed to any office under the United States which shall have been created, or its emoluments increased, during the term for which he is elected. Article 1:6:2
• Or title of any kind from any king, prince, or foreign state, without the consent of Congress. No person holding any office under the United States shall accept of any present, emolument. Article 1:9:8

OFFICERS in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. Congress may vest the appointment of inferior. Article 2:2:2

• Of the United States shall be removed on impeach-ment for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The president, vice president, and all civil. Article 2:4
• The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other. Article 1:2:5
• The Senate, in the absence of the vice president, shall choose a president pro tempore, and also their other. Article 1:3:5

OFFICES becoming vacant in the recess of the Senate may be filled by the president, the commissions to expire at the end of the next session. Article 2:2:3

ONE-FIFTH of the members present, be entered on the journal of each house. The yeas and nays shall, at the desire of. Article 1:5:3

OPINION of the principal officers in each of the executive departments on any subject relating to their duties. The president may require the written. Article 2:2:1

ORDER, resolution, or vote (except on a question of adjournment) requiring the concurrence of the two houses, shall be presented to the president. Every. Article 1:7:3

ORIGINAL JURISDICTION, in all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and in which a state may be a party. The Supreme Court shall have. Article 3:2:2

OVERT ACT, or on confession in open court. Conviction of treason shall be on the testimony of two witnesses to the. Article 3:3:1

P

PARDONS, except in cases of impeachment. The president may grant reprieves and. Article 2:2:1

PATENT RIGHTS to inventors. Congress may pass laws for securing. Article 1:8:8

PEACE. Members of Congress shall not be privileged from arrest for treason, felony, and breach of the. Article 1:6:1

• No state shall, without the consent of Congress, keep troops or ships of war in time of. Article 1:10:3
• No soldier shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner in time of. Amendment 3

PENNSYLVANIA entitled to eight representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

PENSIONS AND BOUNTIES shall not be questioned. The validity of the public debt incurred in suppressing insurrection and rebellion against the United States, including the debt for. Amendment 14:4

PEOPLE. The enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution shall not be held to deny or disparage others retained by the. Amendment 9

• Powers not delegated to the United States, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the states or to the. Amendment 10

PEOPLE, peaceably to assemble and petition for redress of grievances, shall not be abridged by Congress. The right of the. Amendment 1

• To keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. A wellregulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the. Amendment 2
• To be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated. The right of the. Amendment 4

PERFECT UNION, etc. To establish a more. Preamble

PERSONS, as any state may think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited prior to 1808. The migration or importation of such. Article 1:9:1

• But a tax or duty of ten dollars shall be imposed on the importation of each of such. Article 1:9:1

PERSONS, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures. The people shall be secure in their. Amendment 4

PETITION for the redress of grievances. Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to. Amendment 1

PIRACIES AND FELONIES committed on the high seas. Congress shall define and punish. Article 1:8:10

PLACE than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. Neither house during the session shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other. Article 1:5:4

PLACES OF CHOOSING SENATORS. Congress may by law make or alter regulations for the election of senators and representatives, except as to the. Article 1:4:1

POLL TAX. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay. Amendment 24:1

PORTS of one state over those of another. Preference shall not be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the. Article 1:9:6

• Vessels clearing from the ports of one state shall not pay duties in another. Article 1:9:6

POST OFFICES AND POST ROADS. Congress shall establish. Article 1:8:7

POWERS and duties of the office shall devolve on the vice president, on the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president. The. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

POWERS herein granted shall be vested in Congress. All legislative. Article 1:1

POWERS not delegated to the United States nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states and to the people. Amendment 10

• The enumeration of certain rights in this Constitution shall not be held to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment 9

POWERS vested by the Constitution in the Government or in any department or officer of the United States. Congress shall make all laws necessary to carry into execution the. Article 1:8:18

PREFERENCE, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, shall not be given to the ports of one state over those of another. Article 1:9:6

PREJUDICE any claims of the United States or of any particular state in the territory or property of the United States. Nothing in this Constitution shall. Article 4:3:2

PRESENT, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign state. No person holding any office under the United States shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any. Article 1:9:8

PRESENTMENT or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on a. Amendment 5

PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, but shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. The vice president shall be. Article 1:3:4

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. The Senate shall choose a president pro tempore when the vice president shall exercise the office of. Article 1:3:5

• Additional provision for succession through act of Congress. Amendment 20:4
• Succession in case of death. Amendment 20:3
• Succession in case of failure to be chosen or qualified. Amendment 20:3
• Term of office, beginning and ending. Amendment 20:1
• The chief justice shall preside upon the trial of the. Article 1:3:6
• Shall approve and sign all bills passed by Congress before they shall become laws. Article 1:7:2
• Shall return to the house in which it originated, with his objections, any bill which he shall not approve. Article 1:7:2
• If not returned within ten days (Sundays excepted), it shall become a law, unless Congress shall adjourn before the expiration of that time. Article 1:7:2
• Every order, resolution, or vote which requires the concurrence of both Houses, except on a question of adjournment, shall be presented to the. Article 1:7:3
• If disapproved by him, shall be returned and proceeded on as in the case of a bill. Article 1:7:3
• The executive power shall be vested in a. Article 2:1:1
• He shall hold his office during the term of four years. Article 2:1:1
• In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the duties of his office, the vice president shall perform the duties of. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25
• Congress may declare, by law, in the case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, what officer shall act as. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25
• The president shall receive a compensation which shall not be increased nor diminished during his term, nor shall he receive any other emolument from the United States. Article 2:1:7
• Before he enters upon the execution of his office he shall take an oath of office. Article 2:1:8
• Shall be commander in chief of the army and navy and of the militia of the states when called into actual service. Article 2:2:1
• He may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments. Article 2:2:1
• He may grant reprieves or pardons for offenses, except in cases of impeachment. Article 2:2:1
• He may make treaties by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, two-thirds of the senators present concurring. Article 2:2:2
• He may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers whose appointments may be authorized by law and not herein provided for. Article 2:2:2
• Congress may vest the appointment of inferior officers in the. Article 2:2:2
• He may fill up all vacancies that may happen in the recess of the Senate by commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session. Article 2:2:3
• He shall give information to Congress of the state of the Union, and recommend measures. Article 2:3
• On extraordinary occasions he may convene both houses or either. Article 2:3
• In case of disagreement between the two houses as to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he may think proper. Article 2:3
• He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. Article 2:3
• He shall commission all the officers of the United States. Article 2:3
• On impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors, shall be removed from office. The. Article 2:4
• No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the adoption of the Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of. Article 2:1:5
• No person shall be elected to office more than twice. Amendment 22
• No person who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen years a resident of the United States shall be eligible to the office of. Article 2:1:5
• Congress to decide the issue of the president’s ability to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Amendment 25:4
• Declaration of his inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office Amendment 25:3
• Nomination of successor to the vice president whenever a vacancy in the office of the vice president occurs. Amendment 25:2
• Succession of vice president to office in case of death, resignation, removal, or inability of president to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Amendment 25
• President and vice president, manner of choosing. Each state, by its legislature, shall appoint a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress. Article 2:1:2
• No senator or representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be an elector. Article 2:1:2
• Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors and the day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same throughout the United States. Article 2:1:4
• The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. Amendment 12
• They shall name in distinct ballots the person voted for as president and the person voted for as vice president. Amendment 12
• They shall make distinct lists of the persons voted for as president and as vice president, which they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed to the president of the Senate at the seat of government. Amendment 12
• The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. Amendment 12
• The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed. Amendment 12
• If no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as president, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. Amendment 12
• In choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote. Amendment 12
• A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12
• But if no choice shall be made before the 4th of March next following, then the vice president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or disability of the president. Amendment 12
• The District of Columbia shall appoint, in such manner as the Congress may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the District would be entitled if a state. Amendment 23:1

PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE. In the absence of the vice president the Senate shall choose a. Article 1:3:5

• When the vice president shall exercise the office of president of the United States, the Senate shall choose a. Article 1:3:5
• President to transmit his declaration of inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office to. Amendment 25:3
• Vice president and a majority of the principal officers of the executive departments to transmit their declaration of the president’s inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office to. Amendment 25:4

PRESS. Congress shall pass no law abridging the freedom of speech or of the. Amendment 1

PREVIOUS CONDITION OF SERVITUDE. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on account of race, color, or. Amendment 15:1

PRIMARY ELECTIONS. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. Amendment 24:1

PRIVATE PROPERTY shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. Amendment 5

PRIVILEGE. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same. Article 1:6:1

• They shall not be questioned for any speech or debate in either house in any other place. Article 1:6:1

PRIVILEGES and immunities of citizens of the United States. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of the citizens of the several states. Article 4:2:1

• No soldier shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner in time of peace. Amendment 3
• No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of life and limb for the same offense. Amendment 5
• All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state in which they reside. Amendment 14:1
• No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Amendment 14:1
• No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Amendment 14:1
• Nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws. Amendment 14:1

PRIZES captured on land or water. Congress shall make rules concerning. Article 1:8:11

PROBABLE CAUSE. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. And no warrant shall issue for such but upon. Amendment 4

PROCESS OF LAW. No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due. Amendment 5

• No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due. Amendment 14:1

PROCESS for obtaining witnesses in his favor. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have. Amendment 6

PROGRESS of science and useful arts. Congress shall have power to promote the. Article 1:8:8

• Property of the United States. Congress may dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or. Article 4:3:3

PROPERTY, without due process of law. No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor shall he be deprived of his life, liberty, or. Amendment 5

• No state shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor deprive any person of his life, liberty, or. Amendment 14:1

PROSECUTIONS. The accused shall have a speedy and public trial in all criminal. Amendment 6

• He shall be tried by a jury in the state or district where the crime was committed. Amendment 6
• He shall be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation. Amendment 6
• He shall be confronted with the witnesses against him. Amendment 6
• He shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses. Amendment 6
• He shall have counsel for his defense. Amendment 6

PROTECTION of the laws. No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal. Amendment 14:1

PUBLIC DEBT of the United States incurred in suppressing insurrection or rebellion shall not be questioned. The validity of the. Amendment 14:4

PUBLIC SAFETY must require it. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the. Article 1:9:2

PUBLIC TRIAL by jury. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a speedy and. Amendment 6

PUBLIC USE. Private property shall not be taken for, without just compensation. Amendment 5

PUNISHMENT according to law. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from, and disqualification for, office; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and. Article 1:3:7

PUNISHMENTS inflicted. Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel and unusual. Amendment 8

Q

QUALIFICATION FOR OFFICE. No religious test shall ever be required as a. Article 6:–:3

QUALIFICATIONS of electors of members of the House of Representatives shall be the same as electors for the most numerous branch of the state legislature. Article 1:2:1

QUALIFICATIONS of electors of senators shall be the same as electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. Amendment 17:1

QUALIFICATIONS of members of the House of Representatives. They shall be twenty-five years of age, seven years a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant of the state in which chosen. Article 1:2:2

• Of senators. They shall be thirty years of age, nine years a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant of the state in which chosen. Article 1:3:3
• Of its own members. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and. Article 1:5:1
• Of the president. No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president. Article 2:1:5
• Neither shall any person be eligible to the office of president who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. Article 2:1:5
• Of the vice president. No person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible to that of vice president. Amendment 12

QUARTERED in any house without the consent of the owner in time of peace. No soldier shall be. Amendment 3

QUORUM to do business. A majority of each house shall constitute a. Article 1:5:1

• But a smaller number than a quorum may adjourn from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. Article 1:5:1
• Of the House of Representatives for choosing a president shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12

QUORUM to elect a vice president by the Senate. Two-thirds of the whole number of senators shall be a. Amendment 12

• A majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12

R

RACE, color, or previous condition of servitude. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of. Amendment 15:1

RATIFICATION of amendments to the Constitution shall be by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states or by conventions in three-fourths of the states, accordingly as Congress may propose. Article 5

RATIFICATION of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient to establish the Constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Article 7

RATIO OF REPRESENTATION shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. Amendment 14:2

• But when the right to vote for presidential electors or members of Congress, or the legislative, executive, and judicial officers of the state, except for engaging in rebellion or other crime, shall be denied or abridged by a state, the basis of representation shall be reduced therein in the proportion of such denial or abridgment of the right to vote. Amendment 14:2

RATIO OF REPRESENTATION until the first enumeration under the Constitution shall be made not to exceed one for every thirty thousand. Article 1:2:3

REBELLION against the United States. Persons who, while holding certain federal and state offices, took an oath to support the Constitution, afterward engaged in insurrection or rebellion, disabled from holding office under the United States. Amendment 14:3

• But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each house remove such disability. Amendment 14:3
• Debts incurred for pensions and bounties for services in suppressing the rebellion shall not be questioned. Amendment 14:4
• All debts and obligations incurred in aid of the rebellion, and all claims for the loss or emancipation of slaves, declared and held to be illegal and void. Amendment 14:4

REBELLION or invasion. The writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except when the public safety may require it in cases of. Article 1:9:2

RECEIPTS and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. A regular statement of. Article 1:9:7

RECESS OF THE SENATE. The president may grant commissions, which shall expire at the end of the next session, to fill vacancies that may happen during the. Article 2:2:3

RECONSIDERATION OF A BILL returned by the president with his objections. Proceedings to be had upon the. Article 1:7:2

RECORDS, and judicial proceedings of every other state. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the acts. Article 4:1

• Congress shall prescribe the manner of proving such acts, records, and proceedings. Article 4:1

REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES. Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition for the. Amendment 1

REGULATIONS, except as to the places of choosing senators. The time, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed by the legislatures of the states, but Congress may at any time by law make or alter such. Article 1:4:1

REGULATIONS of commerce or revenue. Preference to the ports of one state over those of another shall not be given by any. Article 1:9:6

RELIGION or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of. Amendment 1

RELIGIOUS test shall ever be required as a qualification for any office or public trust under the United States. No. Article 6:–:3

REMOVAL of the president from office. The same shall devolve on the vice president. In case of the. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25

• The vice president shall succeed to the office of the president. In case of the death, resignation, inability, or. Amendment 25

REPRESENTATION. No state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article 5

REPRESENTATION among the several states shall be according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. The ratio of. Amendment 14:2

• But where the right to vote in certain federal and state elections is abridged for any cause other than rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation shall be reduced. Amendment 14:2

REPRESENTATION and direct taxation, how apportioned among the several states. Article 1:2:3 Representation in any state. The executive thereof shall issue writs of election to fill vacancies in the. Article 1:2:4

REPRESENTATION until the first enumeration under the Constitution not to exceed one for every thirty thousand. The ratio of. Article 1:2:3

REPRESENTATIVES. Congress shall consist of a Senate and House of. Article 1:1

• Qualifications of electors of members of the House of. Article 1:2:1
• No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, been seven years a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant of the state in which he shall be chosen. Article 1:2:2
• And direct taxes, how apportioned among the several states. Article 1:2:3
• Executives of the state shall issue writs of election to fill vacancies in the House of. Article 1:2:4
• Shall choose their Speaker and other officers. The House of. Article 1:2:5
• Shall have the sole power to impeachment. The House of. Article 1:2:5
• The times, places, and manner of choosing representatives shall be prescribed by the legislatures of the states. Article 1:4:1
• But Congress may make by law at any time or alter such regulations except as to the places of choosing senators. Article 1:4:1
• And senators shall receive a compensation, to be ascertained by law. Article 1:6:1
• Shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during attendance at the session of the House, and in going to and returning from the same. Article 1:6:1
• Shall not be questioned in any other place for any speech or debate. Members of the House of. Article 1:6:1
• No member shall be appointed during his term to any civil office which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term. Article 1:6:2
• No person holding any office under the United States shall, while holding such office, be a member of the House of. Article 1:6:2
• All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of. Article 1:7:1
• No senator or representative shall be an elector for president or vice president. Article 2:1:2
• No law, varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. Amendment 27

REPRESENTATIVES among the several states. Provisions relative to the apportionment of. Amendment 14:2

REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATORS. Prescribing certain disqualifications for office as. Amendment 14:3

• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disqualification. Amendment 14:3

REPRESENTATIVES shall be bound by an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States. The senators and. Article 6:–:3

REPRIEVES and pardons except in cases of impeachment. The president may grant. Article 2:2:1

REPRISAL. Congress shall have power to grant letters of marque and. Article 1:8:11

• No state shall grant any letters of marque and. Article 1:10:1

REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union a. Article 4:4

• And shall protect each of them against invasion; and on the application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. Article 4:4

RESERVED RIGHTS of the states and the people. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment 9

• The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. Amendment 10

RESIGNATION OF THE PRESIDENT. The duties and powers of his office shall devolve on the vice president. In case of the death. Amendment 25

• Congress may by law provide for the case of the removal, death. Article 2:1:6
• The vice president shall succeed to the office of the president. In case of the death, removal, inability, or. Amendment 25

RESOLUTION, or vote (except on a question of adjournment) requiring the concurrence of the two houses shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president. Every order. Article 1:7:3

REVENUE. Preference shall not be given to the ports of one state over those of another by any regulations of commerce or. Article 1:9:6

REVENUE shall originate in the House of Representatives. All bills for raising. Article 1:7:1

RHODE ISLAND entitled to one representative in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

RIGHT OF PETITION. Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition for the redress of grievances. Amendment 1

RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS. A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. Amendment 2

RIGHTS in the Constitution shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The enumeration of certain. Amendment 9

RIGHTS NOT DELEGATED to the United States nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states or to the people. Amendment 10

RULES AND REGULATIONS respecting the territory or other property of the United States. Congress shall dispose of and make all needful. 4:3:2

RULES of its proceedings. Each house may determine the. Article 1:5:2

RULES OF THE COMMON LAW. All suits involving over twenty dollars shall be tried by jury according to the. Amendment 7

• No fact tried by a jury shall be re-examined except according to the. Amendment 7

S

SCIENCE AND USEFUL ARTS by securing to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and discoveries. Congress shall have power to promote the progress of. Article 1:8:8

SEARCHES AND SEIZURES shall not be violated. The right of the people to be secure against unreasonable. Amendment 4

• And no warrants shall be issued but upon probable cause, on oath or affirmation, describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment 4

SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. Congress shall exercise exclusive legislation in all cases over such district as may become the. Article 1:8:17

SECURITIES and current coin of the United States. Congress shall provide for punishing the counterfeiting of the. Article 1:8:6

SECURITY OF A FREE STATE, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the. Amendment 2

SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. The Congress of the United States shall consist of a. Article 1:1

SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. The Senate shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature for six years. Article 1:3:1

• The Senate shall be composed of two senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years. Amendment 17:1
• Qualifications of electors of senators. Amendment 17:1
• If vacancies happen during the recess of the legislature of a state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature. Article 1:3:2
• When vacancies happen the executive authority of the state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. Amendment 17:2
• The vice president shall be president of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. Article 1:3:4
• The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore in the absence of the vice president or when he shall exercise the office of president. Article 1:3:5
• The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. Article 1:3:6
• When the president of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Article 1:3:6
• It shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members. Article 1:5:1
• A majority shall constitute a quorum to do business but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members. Article 1:5:1
• It may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish a member for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member. Article 1:5:2
• It shall keep a journal of its proceedings and from time to time publish the same, except such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy. Article 1:5:3
• It shall not adjourn for more than three days during a session without the consent of the other house. Article 1:5:4
• It may propose amendments to bills for raising revenue, but such bills shall originate in the House of Representatives. Article 1:7:1
• The Senate shall advise and consent to the ratification of all treaties, provided two-thirds of the members present concur. Article 2:2:2
• It shall advise and consent to the appointment of ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers not herein otherwise provided for. Article 2:2:2
• It may be convened by the president on extraordinary occasions. Article 2:3:2
• No state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article 5

SENATORS. They shall, immediately after assembling under their first election, be divided into three classes, so that the seats of one-third shall become vacant at the expiration of every second year. Article 1:3:2

• • No person shall be a senator who shall not be thirty years of age, nine years a citizen of the United States, and an inhabitant when elected of the state for which he shall be chosen. Article 1:3:3
• • The times, places, and manner of choosing senators may be fixed by the legislature of a state, but Congress may by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing. Article 1:4:1
• • If vacancies happen during the recess of the legislature of a state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature. Article 1:3:2
• • If vacancies happen the executive authority of the state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. Amendment 17:2
• They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of the Senate and in going to and returning from the same. Article 1:6:1
• Senators and representatives shall receive a compensation to be ascertained by law. Article 1:6:1
• Senators and representatives shall not be questioned for any speech or debate in either house in any other place. Article 1:6:1
• No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the United States which shall have been created, or of which the emoluments shall have been increased during such term. Article 1:6:2
• No person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office. Article 1:6:2
• No senator or representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be an elector for president and vice president. Article 2:1:2
• Senators and representatives shall be bound by an oath or affirmation to support the Constitution. Article 6:–:3
• No person shall be a senator or representative who, having, as a federal or state officer, taken an oath to support the Constitution, afterward engaged in rebellion against the United States. Amendment 14:3
• But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. Amendment 14:3
• No law, varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. Amendment 27

SERVICE OR LABOR in one state, escaping into another state, shall be delivered up to the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Fugitives from. Article 4:2:3

SERVITUDE. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state, on account of race, color, or previous condition of. Amendment 15:1

SERVITUDE, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Neither slavery nor involuntary. Amendment 13:1

SEX. Right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of. Amendment 19

SHIPS OF WAR in time of peace, without the consent of Congress. No state shall keep troops or. Article 1:10:3

SILVER COIN a tender in payment of debts. No state shall make anything but gold and. Article 1:10:1

SLAVE. Neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any. Amendment 14:4

SLAVERY nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States, or any places subject to their jurisdiction. Neither. Amendment 13:1

SOLDIERS shall not be quartered, in time of peace, in any house without the consent of the owner. Amendment 3

SOUTH CAROLINA entitled to five representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

SPEAKER and other officers. The House of Representatives shall choose their. Article 1:2:5

SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. president to transmit his declaration of inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office to. Amendment 25:3

• Vice president and a majority of the principal officers of the executive departments to transmit their declaration of the president’s inability to discharge the powers and duties of his office to. Amendment 25:4

SPEECH OR OF THE PRESS. Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of. Amendment 1

SPEEDY AND PUBLIC TRIAL by a jury. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a. Amendment 6

STANDARD OF WEIGHTS and measures. Congress shall fix the. Article 1:8:5

STATE OF THE UNION. The president shall, from time to time, give Congress information of the. Article 2:3

STATE LEGISLATURES, and all executive and judicial officers of the United States, shall take an oath to support the Constitution. All members of the several. Article 6:–:3

STATES. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Article 1:2:4

• When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Amendment 17:2
• Congress shall have power to regulate commerce among the several. Article 1:8:3
• No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not grant letters of marque and reprisal. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not coin money. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not emit bills of credit. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not grant any title of nobility. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not, without the consent of Congress, lay any duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws. Article 1:10:1
• Shall not, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power, or engage in war unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. Article 1:10:3
• Full faith and credit in every other state shall be given to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each state. Article 4:1
• Congress shall prescribe the manner of providing such acts, records, and proceedings. Article 4:1
• Citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. Article 4:2:1
• New states may be admitted by Congress into this Union. Article 4:3:1
• But no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of another state. Article 4:3:1
• Nor any state formed by the junction of two or more states or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures as well as of Congress. Article 4:3:1
• No state shall be deprived, without its consent, of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article 5
• Three-fourths of the legislatures of the states, or conventions of three-fourths of the states, as Congress shall prescribe, may ratify amendments to the Constitution. Article 5
• The United States shall guarantee a republican form of government to every state in the Union. Article 4:4
• They shall protect each state against invasion. Article 4:4
• And on application of the legislature, or the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. Article 4:4
• The ratification by nine states shall be sufficient to establish the Constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Article 7
• When the choice of president shall devolve on the House of Representatives, the vote shall be taken by states. Amendment 12
• But in choosing the president the vote shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote. Amendment 12
• A quorum for choice of president shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12

STATES OR THE PEOPLE. Powers not delegated to the United States, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the. Amendment 10

SUCCESSION to the offices of the president and vice president. Amendment 25

SUFFRAGE in the Senate. No state shall be deprived without its consent of its equal. Article 5

• No denial of right to vote on account of sex. Amendment 19
• The right of citizens who are eighteen years or older to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state. Amendment 26

SUITS at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed $20, shall be tried by jury. Amendment 7 • In law or equity against one of the states, by citizens of another state, or by citizens of a foreign state. The judicial power of the United States shall not extend to. Amendment 11 SUPPRESS insurrections and repel invasions. Congress shall provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws. Article 1:8:15 SUPPRESSION of insurrection or rebellion shall not be questioned. The public debt, including the debt for pensions and bounties, incurred in the. Amendment 14:4 SUPREME COURT. Congress shall have power to constitute tribunals inferior to the. Article 1:8:9 • And such inferior courts as Congress may establish. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one. Article 3:1 • The judges of the Supreme Court and inferior courts shall hold their offices during good behavior. Article 3:1 • The compensation of the judges shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Article 3:1 • Shall have original jurisdiction. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and in which a state may be a party, the. Article 3:2:2 • Shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and regulations as Congress may make. The. Article 3:2:2 SUPREME LAW of the land. This Constitution, the laws made in pursuance thereof, and the treaties of the United States, shall be the. Article 6:–:2 • The judges in every state shall be bound thereby. Article 6:–:2 T TAX. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay. Amendment 24:1 TAX ON INCOMES authorized without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. Amendment 16 TAX or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No. Article 1:9:5 TAX shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. No capitation or other direct. Article 1:9:4 TAXES (direct) and representatives, how apportioned among the several states. Article 1:2:3 TAXES, duties, imposts, and excises. Congress shall have power to lay. Article 1:8:1 • They shall be uniform throughout the United States. Article 1:8:1 TEMPORARY APPOINTMENTS until the next meeting of the legislature. If vacancies happen in the Senate in the recess of the legislature of a state, the executive of the state shall make. Article 1:3:2 TENDER in payment of debts. No state shall make anything but gold and silver coin a. Article 1:10:1 TERM for which he is elected. No senator or representative shall be appointed to any office under the United States which shall have been created or its emoluments increased during the. Article 1:6:2 TERM OF OFFICE. president, not more than twice. Amendment 22 TERMS OF FOUR YEARS. The president and vice president shall hold their offices for the. Article 2:1:1 TERRITORY or other property of the United States. Congress shall dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the. Article 4:3:2 TEST as a qualification to any office or public trust shall ever be required. No religious. Article 6:–:3 TESTIMONY of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No person shall be convicted of treason except on the. Article 3:3:1 THREE-FOURTHS OF THE LEGISLATURES of the states, or conventions in three-fourths of the states, as Congress shall prescribe, may ratify amendments to the Constitution. Article 5 TIE. The vice president shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. Article 1:3:4 TIMES, PLACES, AND MANNER of holding elections for senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof. Article 1:4:1 • But Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators. Article 1:4:1 TITLE of any kind, from any king, prince, or foreign state, without the consent of Congress. No person holding any office under the United States shall accept of any. Article 1:9:8 TITLE OF NOBILITY. The United States shall not grant any. Article 1:9:8 • No state shall grant any. Article 1:10:1 TONNAGE without the consent of Congress. No state shall lay any duty of. Article 1:10:3 TRANQUILITY, provide for the common defense, etc. To insure domestic. Preamble TREASON against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. Article 3:3:1 • No person shall, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court, be convicted of. Article 3:3:1 • Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of. Article 3:3:2 • Shall not work corruption of blood. Attainder of. Article 3:3:2 • Shall not work forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. Attainder of. Article 3:3:2 TREASON, BRIBERY, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The president, vice president, and all civil officers shall be removed from office on impeachment for and conviction of. Article 2:4:1 TREASON, FELONY, AND BREACH OF THE PEACE. Senators and representatives shall be privileged from arrest while attending or while going to or returning from the sessions of Congress, except in cases of. Article 1:6:1 TREASURY, but in consequence of appropriations made by law. No money shall be drawn from the. Article 1:9:7 TREATIES. The president shall have power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur, to make. Article 2:2:2 • The judicial power shall extend to all cases arising under the Constitution, laws, and. Article 3:2:1 • They shall be the supreme law of the land, and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby. Article 6:–:2 TREATY, alliance, or confederation. No state shall enter into any. Article 1:10:1 TRIAL BY JURY. All crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be tried by jury. Article 3:2:3 • Such trial shall be held in the state within which the crime shall have been committed. Article 3:2:3 • But when not committed within a state, the trial shall be at such a place as Congress may by law have directed. Article 3:2:3 • In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a speedy and public. Amendment 6 • Suits at common law, when the amount exceeds$20, shall be by. Amendment 7

TRIAL, judgment, and punishment according to law. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from, and disqualification for, office; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment. Article 1:3:7

TRIBUNALS, inferior to the Supreme Court. Congress shall have power to constitute. Article 1:8:9

TROOPS or ships of war in time of peace without the consent of Congress. No state shall keep. Article 1:10:3

TRUST OR PROFIT under the United States, shall be an elector for president and vice president. No senator, representative, or person holding any office of. Article 2:1:2

TWO-THIRDS. A bill returned by the president with his objections, may be repassed by each house by a vote of. Article 1:7:2

TWO-THIRDS, may expel a member. Each house, with the concurrence of. Article 1:5:2

TWO-THIRDS may remove the disabilities imposed by the third section of the fourteenth amendment. Congress, by a vote of. Amendment 14:3

TWO-THIRDS of both houses shall deem it necessary. Congress shall propose amendments to the Constitution whenever. Article 5

TWO-THIRDS of the legislatures of the several states. Congress shall call a convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution on the application of. Article 5

TWO-THIRDS of the members present. No person shall be convicted on an impeachment without the concurrence of. Article 1:3:6

TWO-THIRDS of the senators present concur. The president shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided. Article 2:2:2

TWO-THIRDS of the states. When the choice of a president shall devolve on the House of Representatives, a quorum shall consist of a member or members from. Amendment 12

TWO-THIRDS of the whole number of senators. A quorum of the Senate, when choosing a vice president, shall consist of. Amendment 12

TWO YEARS. Appropriations for raising and supporting armies shall not be for a longer term than. Article 1:8:12

U

UNION. To establish a more perfect. Preamble

• The president shall, from time to time, give to Congress information of the state of the. Article 2:3:1
• New states may be admitted by Congress into this. Article 4:3:1
• But no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of another. Article 4:3:1

UNREASONABLE SEARCHES AND SEIZURES. The people shall be secured in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against. Amendment 4

• And no warrants shall be issued but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment 4

UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS inflicted. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and. Amendment 8

USE without just compensation. Private property shall not be taken for public. Amendment 5

USEFUL ARTS, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and inventions. Congress shall have power to promote the progress of science and. Article 1:8:8

V

VACANCIES happening in the representation of a state. The executive thereof shall issue writs of election to fill. Article 1:2:4

VACANCIES happening in the representation of a state in the Senate. The executive thereof shall issue writs of election to fill. Amendment 17:2

VACANCIES happening in the Senate in the recess of the legislature of a state. How filled. Article 1:3:2

VACANCIES that happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of the next session. The president shall have power to fill. Article 2:2:3

VALIDITY of the public debt incurred in suppressing insurrection against the United States, including debt for pensions and bounties, shall not be questioned. Amendment 14:4

VESSELS bound to or from the ports of one state, shall not be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another state. Article 1:9:6

VETO of a bill by the president. Proceedings of the two houses upon the. Article 1:7:2

VICE PRESIDENT of the United States shall be president of the Senate. Article 1:3:4

• He shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided. Article 1:3:4
• The Senate shall choose a president pro tempore in the absence of the. Article 1:3:5
• He shall be chosen for the term of four years. Article 2:1:1
• The number and the manner of appointing electors for president and. Article 2:1:2
• In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, the powers and duties of his office shall devolve on the. Article 2:1:6 and Amendment 25
• Congress may provide by law for the case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability both of the president and. Article 2.1.6 and Amendment 25
• On impeachment for and conviction of treason, and other high crimes and misdemeanors, shall be removed from office. The. Article 2:4

VICE PRESIDENT. The manner of choosing the. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for president and vice president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. Amendment 12

• Additional provision for succession through act of Congress. Amendment 20:4
• Nomination by president in case of vacancy in office. Amendment 25:2
• Term of office, beginning and ending. Amendment 20:1
• The electors shall name, in distinct ballots, the person voted for as vice president. Amendment 12
• They shall make distinct lists of the persons voted for as vice president, which lists they shall sign and certify, and send sealed to the seat of Government, directed to the president of the Senate. Amendment 12
• The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall be then counted. Amendment 12
• The person having the greatest number of votes shall be vice president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors. Amendment 12
• If no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the vice president. Amendment 12
• A quorum for this purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators; and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. Amendment 12
• But if the house shall make no choice of a president before the 4th of March next following, then the vice president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president. Amendment 12
• No person constitutionally ineligible as president shall be eligible as. Amendment 12
• In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, the powers and duties of his office shall devolve upon the. Amendment 25
• Nomination by president of successor in event of vacancy in office of. Amendment 25:2

VIOLENCE. The United States shall guarantee to every state a republican form of government, and shall protect each state against invasion and domestic. Article 4:4

VIRGINIA entitled to ten representatives in the first Congress. Article 1:2:3

VOTE. Each senator shall have one. Article 1:3:1

• The vice president, unless the Senate be equally divided, shall have no. Article 1:3:4
• Requiring the concurrence of the two houses (except upon a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president. Every order, resolution, or. Article 1:7:3
• Shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The right of citizens of the United States to. Amendment 15:1
• Right of citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex. Amendment 19
• Shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. The right of citizens of the United States to. Amendment 24:1
• Right of citizens who are eighteen years of age or older to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state, on account of age. Amendment 26:1

VOTE OF TWO-THIRDS. Each house may expel a member by a. Article 1:5:2

• A bill vetoed by the president may be repassed in each house by a. Article 1:7:2
• No person shall be convicted on an impeachment except by a. Article 1:3:6
• Whenever both houses shall deem it necessary, Congress may propose amendments to the Constitution by a. Article 5
• The president may make treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate, by a. Article 2:2:2
• Disabilities incurred by participation in insurrection or rebellion, may be relieved by Congress by a. Amendment 14:3

W

WAR against the United States, adhering to their enemies, and giving them aid and comfort. Treason shall consist only in levying. Article 3:3:1

WAR, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water. Congress shall have power to declare. Article 1:8:11

• For governing the land and naval forces. Congress shall have power to make rules. Article 1:8:14
• No state shall, without the consent of Congress, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay, engage in. Article 1:10:3

WARRANTS shall issue but upon probable cause, on oath or affirmation, describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized. No. Amendment 4

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Congress shall fix the standard of. Article 1:8:5

WELFARE. Congress shall have power to provide for the common defense and general. Article 1:8:1

WELFARE and to secure the blessings of liberty, etc. To promote the general. Preamble

WITNESS against himself. No person shall, in a criminal case, be compelled to be a. Amendment 5

WITNESSES against him. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall be confronted with the. Amendment 6

WITNESSES in his favor. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have compulsory process for obtaining. Amendment 6

WITNESSES to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two. Article 3:3:1

WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS shall not be suspended unless in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. Article 1:9:2

WRITS of election to fill vacancies in the representation of any state. The executives of the state shall issue. Article 1:2:4

WRITTEN opinion of the principal officer in each of the executive departments on any subject relating to the duties of his office. The president may require the. Article 2:2:1

Y

YEAS AND NAYS of the members of either house shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journals. Article 1:5:3

• The votes of both houses upon the reconsideration of a bill returned by the president with his objections shall be determined by. Article 1:7:2

SOURCE: The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended. House Document No. 106–214. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2000.

## Appendix

Table of Cases

Cases in boldface indicate those featured as entries in this book.

Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1963)

Abood v. Detroit Board of Education, 431 U.S. 209 (1977)

Abraham v. Ordway, 158 U.S. 416 (1895)

Abrams v. Martin, 467 U.S. 253 (1984)

Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616 (1919)

Adair v. United States, 208 U.S. 161 (1908)

Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46 (1947)

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, 515 U.S. 200 (1995)

Aetna Health v. Davila, 540 U.S. 200 (2004)

Afroynim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967)

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation v. Environmental Protection Agency, 540 U.S. 461 (2004)

Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 382 U.S. 70 (1965)

Allegheny Pittsburgh Coal v. Webster County, 488 U.S. 336 (1989)

Allgeyer v. Louisiana, 165 U.S. 578 (1897)

Al Odah v. United States, 000 U.S. 05-5064

American Booksellers v. Hudnut, 791 F. 2d 323, aff’d, 475 U.S. 1001 (1985)

American Communications Association v. Douds, 339 U.S. 382 (1950)

American Insurance Co. v. Canter 26 U.S. 511 (1828)

American Party of Texas v. White, 415 U.S. 767 (1974)

The Appollon, 22 U.S. 362 (1824)

Aptheker v. Secretary of State, 378 U.S. 500 (1964)

Argersinger v. Hamlin, 407 U.S. 25 (1972)

Arkansas Writers’ Project, Inc. v. Ragland, 481 U.S. 221 (1987)

Armour and Co. v. North Dakota, 240 U.S. 510 (1916)

Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union, 535 U.S. 564 (2002)

Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union, 542 U.S. 656 (2004)

Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 535 U.S. 234 (2002)

Ashcroft v. Kim Ho Ma, 533 U.S. 678 (2001)

Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436 (1970)

Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority, 297 U.S. 288 (1936)

Association of Data Processing Service Org. v. Camp, 397 U.S. 150 (1970)

Astoria Federal Saving and Loan Association v. Solimino, 502 U.S. 104 (1991)

Atherton v. Atherton, 181 U.S. 155 (1901)

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)

Atlantic Coast Line Railroad v. City of Goldsboro, 232 U.S. 548 (1914)

Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 381 (2001)

Austin v. Michigan State Chamber of Commerce, 494 U.S. 652 (1990)

Austin v. United States, 509 U.S. 602 (1993)

Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England, 546 U.S. 320 (2006)

Bailey v. Alabama, 219 U.S. 219 (1911)

Bailey v. Richardson, 182 F.2d 46, aff’d, 341 U.S. 918 (1951)

Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186 (1962)

Baldwin v. Montana Fish and Game Commission, 436 U.S. 371 (1978)

Bananti v. United States, 355 U.S. 96 (1957)

Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Sabatino, 376 U.S. 398 (1964)

Barlow v. Collins, 397 U.S. 159 (1970)

Barnes v. Glen Theater, 501 U.S. 560 (1991)

Barr v. Mateo, 360 U.S. 564 (1959)

Barron v. City of Baltimore, 32 U.S. 243 (1833)

Bas v. Tingy, 4 U.S. 37 (1800)

Bates v. Dow AgroSciences LLC, 544 U.S. 431 (2005)

BE & K Construction Co. v. National Labor Relations Board, 536 U.S. 516 (2002)

Beazell v. Ohio, 269 U.S. 167 (1925)

Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520 (1979)

Belle Terre v. Boraas, 416 U.S. 1 (1974)

Bendix Autolite Corp. v. Midwesco Enterprises, Inc., 486 U.S. 888 (1988)

Bennis v. Michigan, 516 U.S. 442 (1996)

Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S. 784 (1969)

Berger v. New York, 41 U.S. 784 (1967)

Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1942)

Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 430 U.S. 388 (1971)

Black and White Taxicab and Transfer Co. v.

Brown and Yellow Taxicab and Transfer Co., 276 U.S. 518 (1928)

Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296 (2004)

Blockburger v. United States, 284 U.S. 299 (1932)

BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore, 517 U.S. 559 (1996)

Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 v. Earls, 536 U.S. 822 (2002)

Board of Education v. Allen, 392 U.S. 236 (1968)

Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools v. Dowell 498 U.S. 237 (1991)

Board of Regents v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (1972)

Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth, 529 U.S. 217 (2000)

Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001)

Board of Trustees, State University of New York v. Fox, 492 U.S. 469 (1989)

Boddie v. Connecticut, 410 U.S. 371 (1971)

Boerne, City of v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997)

Bollman, Ex parte, 8 U.S. 75 (1807)

Bond v. Floyd, 385 U.S. 116 (1966)

Bonito Boats v. Thunder Craft Boats, 489 U.S. 141 (1989)

A Book Named “John Cleland’s Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure” [Fanny Hill] v. Attorney General of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 383 U.S. 413 (1966)

Boston Beer Co. v. Massachusetts, 97 U.S. 25 (1877)

Bounds v. Smith, 430 U.S. 817 (1977)

Bowen v. Michigan Academy of Family Physicians, 476 U.S. 667 (1986)

Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986)

Bowles v. Willingham, 321 U.S. 503 (1944)

Bowsher v. Synar, 478 U.S. 714 (1986)

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S. 640 (2000)

Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 (1886)

Bradley v. Fisher, 80 U.S. 335 (1871)

Bradwell v. Illinois, 83 U.S. 130 (1873)

Brady v. United States, 397 U.S. 742 (1970)

Bragdon v. Abbott, 163 F.3d 87 (1998), cert. den., 526 U.S. 1805 (1999)

Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969)

Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972)

Braunfield v. Brown, 336 U.S. 599 (1961)

Breed v. Jones, 421 U.S. 519 (1975)

Brown v. Allen, 344 U.S. 443 (1953)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka II, 349 U.S. 294 (1955)

Brown v. Glines, 444 U.S. 348 (1980)

Brown v. Louisiana, 383 U.S. 131 (1966)

Brown v. Maryland, 25 U.S. 419 (1827)

Brown v. Mississippi, 297 U.S. 278 (1936)

Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. 1616 (1977)

Browning-Ferris Industries v. Kelco Disposal, Inc., 492 U.S. 257 (1989)

Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927)

Buckley v. American Constitutional Law Foundation, 525 U.S. 182 (1998)

Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976)

Burch v. Louisiana, 441 U.S. 131 (1979)

Burdick v. United States, 236 U.S. 79 (1915)

Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White, 548 U.S. 53 (2006)

Bush v. Gore, 121 S.Ct 525 (2000)

Bushell’s Case, 124 Eng, Rep. 1006 (1670)

Butler v. Boston and S.S.S. Co., 130 U.S. 527 (1889)

Butler v. Goreley, 146 U.S. 303 (1892)

Caban v. Mohammed, 441 U.S. 380 (1979)

C&A Carbone, Inc. v. Clarkstown, 511 U.S. 383 (1994)

Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. 386 (1798)

Califano v. Goldfarb, 430 U.S. 386 (1977)

California v. Ciraolo, 476 U.S. 207 (1986)

California Democratic Party v. Jones, 530 U.S. 567 (2000)

Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296 (1940)

Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board v. Pinette, 515 U.S. 753 (1995)

Carey v. Musladin, 000 U.S. 05-785 (2006)

Carlisle v. United States, 517 U.S. 416 (1996)

Carlson v. Landon, 342 U.S. 524 (1952)

Carter v. Carter Coal Co., 298 U.S. 238 (1936)

Castle Rock Co. v. Gonzales, 545 U.S. 748 (2005)

Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corp. v. Public Service Commission of New York, 447 U.S. 557 (1980)

Central Virginia Community College v. Katz, 546 U.S. 356 (2006)

Chae Chan Ping v. United States, 130 U.S. 581 (1889) (Chinese Exclusion Case)

Chambers v. Mississippi, 410 U.S. 284 (1973)

Champion v. Ames, 188 U.S. 321 (1903) (Lottery Case)

Chandler v. Miller, 520 U.S. 305 (1997)

Chastleton Corp. v. Sinclair, 264 U.S. 543 (1924)

Chatterton v. Secretary of State of India, 2 Q.B. 189 (1895)

Chavez v. Martinez, 538 U.S. 760 (2003)

Cheney v. United States District Court for the District of Columbia, 542 U.S. 367 (2004)

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. 1 (1831) The Cherokee Tobacco, 78 U.S. 616 (1871)

Chicago and Alton Railroad v. Tranbarger, 238 U.S. 67 (1915)

Chicago and Southern Air Lines v. Waterman S.S. Corp., 333 U.S. 103 (1948)

Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railway v. Chicago, 166 U.S. 226 (1897)

Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419 (1793)

Choate v. Trapp, 224 U.S. 665 (1912)

Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Haileah, 508 U.S. 520 (1993)

Circuit City Stores, Inc. v. Adams, 532 U.S. 105 (2001)

Cincinnati, City of v. Discovery Network, Inc., 507 U.S. 410 (1993)

City of ______. See name of city.

Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883)

Clark v. Community for Creative Non-Violence, 468 U.S. 288 (1984)

Clark v. Martinez, 543 U.S. 371 (2005)

Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc., 473 U.S. 432 (1985)

Cleveland Board of Education v. La Fleur, 414 U.S. 632 (1974)

Clingman v. Beaver, 544 U.S. 581 (2005)

Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998)

Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1997)

Cohens v. Virginia, 19 U.S. 264 (1821)

Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 549 (1946)

Coleman v. Miller, 307 U.S. 433 (1939)

Colgrove v. Battin, 413 U.S. 140 (1973)

Collector v. Day, 78 U.S. 113 (1871)

Columbia Broadcasting System v. Democratic National Committee, 412 U.S. 94 (1973)

Commodities Futures Trading Commission v. Schor, 478 U.S. 833 (1986)

Community Communications Co. v. City of Boulder, 445 U.S. 40 (1982)

Connell Construction Co. v. Plumbers and Steamfitters Local 100, 421 U.S. 616 (1975)

Cooley v. Board of Wardens, 53 U.S. 299 (1851)

Cooper v. Oklahoma, 517 U.S. 348 (1996)

Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1 (1915)

Corfield v. Coryell, 6 Fed Cas 546 (1823)

Cornelius v. NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., 437 U.S. 788 (1985)

Couch v. United States, 409 U.S. 322 (1973)

Counselman v. Hitchcock, 142 U.S. 547 (1892)

Coyle v. Smith, 221 U.S. 559 (1911)

Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976)

Crandall v. Nevada, 73 U.S. 35 (1868)

Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004)

Crist v. Bretz, 437 U.S. 28 (1978)

Crosby v. National Foreign Trade Council, 530 U.S. 363 (2000)

Cruz v. Beto, 405 U.S. 319 (1972)

Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261 (1990)

Culombe v. Connecticut, 367 U.S. 568 (1961)

Cummings v. Missouri, 71 U.S. 277 (1867)

Cunard Steamship Co. v. Mellon, 262 U.S. 100

Cutter v. Wilkinson, 544 U.S. 709 (2005)

DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 547 U.S. 332 (2006)

Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 U.S. 654 (1981)

Dandridge v. Williams, 397 U.S. 471 (1970)

Darnel’s Case, 3 How. St. Tr. 1 (1627)

Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518 (1819)

Daubert v. Merrell Dow, 509 U.S. 579 (1993)

Davenport v. Washington Education Association, 000 U.S. 05-1589 (2007)

Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U.S. 109 (1986)

Davis v. Beason, 133 U.S. 333 (1890)

Davis v. Massachusetts, 167 U.S. 43 (1897)

Davis v. Washington, 000 U.S. 05-5224 (2006)

De Jonge v. Oregon, 299 U.S. 353 (1937)

Dean Milk Co. v. Madison, 340 U.S. 349 (1951)

Deck v. Missouri, 544 U.S. 622 (2005)

Delo v. Blair, 509 U.S. 823 (1993)

Demore v. Kim, 538 U.S. 510 (2003)

Dennis v. Higgins, 498 U.S. 439 (1991)

Denver Area Educational Telecommunications Consortium v. Federal Communications Commission, 518 U.S. 727 (1996)

Department of Agriculture v. Moreno, 413 U.S. 528 (1973)

Department of Commerce v. United States House of Representatives, 525 U.S. 316 (1999)

Department of Justice v. Landano, 508 U.S. 165 (1993)

Department of Revenue of Montana v. Ranch, 511 U.S. 767 (1994)

Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (2004)

Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980)

Dickerson v. United States, 530 U.S. 428 (2000)

Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)

Doe v. McMillan, 412 U.S. 306 (1973)

Doggett v. United States, 505 U.S. 647 (1992)

Dombrowski v. Pfister, 380 U.S. 479 (1965)

Domino’s Pizza, Inc. v. McDonald, 000 U.S. 04-593 (2006)

Dorchy v. Kansas, 264 U.S. 286 (1924)

Douglas v. California, 372 U.S. 306 (1963)

Dr. Miles Medical Company v. John D. Park & Dons Company, 220 U.S. 373 (1911)

Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145 (1968)

Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S. 330 (1972)

Eastern Enterprises v. Apfel, 524 U.S. 498 (1998)

Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651 (1974)

Edmond v. United States, 149 F.3d, cert. den., 525 U.S. 912 (1997)

Edwards v. California, 314 U.S. 160 (1941)

Eisenstatd v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972)

Eldred v. Ashcroft, 537 U.S. 186 (2003)

Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94 (1884)

Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1 (2004)

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990)

Endo, Ex parte, 323 U.S. 283 (1944)

Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)

Erickson v. Pardus, 000 U.S. 06–7317 (2007)

Erie, City of v. Pap’s A. M., 529 U.S. 277 (2000)

Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (1964)

Espinosa v. Farah Manufacturing Co. Inc., 414 U.S. 86 (1973)

Euclid v. Ambler Realty, 272 U.S. 365 (1926)

Evans v. Gore, 253 U.S. 245 (1920)

Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township, 330 U.S. 1 (1947)

Ex parte ______. See specific name.

Factor v. Laubenheimer, 290 U.S. 276 (1933)

Fay v. New York, 332 U.S. 261 (1947)

Federal Communications Commission v. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978)

Federal Election Commission v. Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Commission, 533 U.S. 431 (2001)

Federal Election Commission v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life, Inc., 479 U.S. 238 (1986)

Federal Election Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc., 000 U.S. 06-969 (2007)

Federal Maritime Commission v. South Carolina State Ports Authority, 535 U.S. 743 (2002)

Felker v. Turpin, 518 U.S. 651 (1996)

Ferguson v. City of Charleston, 532 U.S. 67 (2001)

Ferguson v. Skrupa, 372 U.S. 726 (1936)

Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., 535 U.S. 722 (2002)

Festo v. SMC, 535 U.S. 722 (2002)

First Lutheran Church v. Los Angeles County, 482 U.S. 304 (1987)

First National Bank v. Fellows, 244 U.S. 416 (1917)

Fiske v. Kansas, 274 U.S. 380 (1927)

Fitzgerald v. Racing Association of Central Iowa, 539 U.S. 103 (2003)

Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer, 427 U.S. 445 (1976)

Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83 (1968)

Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U.S. 87 (1810)

Florida v. Bostick, 501 U.S. 429 (1991)

Florida v. Nixon, 543 U.S. 175 (2004)

Franchise Tax Board of California v. Hyatt, 538 U.S. 488 (2003)

Fong Yue Ting v. United States, 149 U.S. 87 (1893)

Fortson v. Morris, 385 U.S. 231 (1966)

Foster v. Love, 522 U.S. 67 (1997)

Foster v. Neilson, 27 U.S. 253 (1829)

Frank v. Mangum, 237 U.S. 309 (1915)

Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973)

Frothingham v. Mellon, 262 U.S. 447 (1923)

Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013 (1923)

Fullilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448 (1980)

Funk Bros. Seed Co. v. Kalo Co., 333 U.S. 127 (1948)

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)

Gannett Co., Inc. v. De Pasquale, 443 U.S. 368 (1979)

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority, 469 U.S. 528 (1985)

Gardner v. Broderick, 392 U.S. 273 (1968)

Gardner v. Florida, 430 U.S. 349 (1977)

Garland, Ex parte, 71 U.S. 333 (1867)

Gault, In re, 387 U.S. 1 (1967)

Gerstein v. Pugh, 420 U.S. 103 (1975)

Granholm v. Heald, 544 U.S. 460 (2005)

Graves v. New York ex rel. O’Keefe, 306 U.S. 466 (1939)

Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824)

Gibson v. Florida Legislative Investigation Committee, 372 U.S. 539 (1963)

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 355 (1963)

Gillette v. United States, 401 U.S. 437 (1971)

Ginsberg v. New York, 390 U.S. 629 (1968)

Ginzburg v. United States, 383 U.S. 463 (1966)

Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925)

Gladson v. Minnesota, 166 U.S. 463 (1897)

Glass v. Louisiana, 471 U.S. 1080 (1985)

Globe Newspapers Co. v. Superior Court, 457 U.S. 596 (1982)

Goesaert v. Cleary, 335 U.S. 464 (1948)

Goldberg v. Kelly, 397 U.S. 254 (1970)

Goldstein v. California, 412 U.S. 546 (1973)

Goldwater v. Carter, 444 U.S. 996 (1979)

Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339 (1960)

Gompers v. United States, 233 U.S. 604 (1914)

Gonzales v. Carhart, 000 U.S. 05-380 (2007)

Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao Do Vegtal, 546 U.S. 418 (2006)

Gonzales v. Raich, 545 U.S. 1 (2005)

Good News Club v. Milford Central School, 533 U.S. 98 (2001)

Gouled v. United States, 255 U.S. 298 (1921)

Graham v. John Deere Co. of Kansas City, 383 U.S. 1 (1966)

Graham v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 365 (1971)

Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)

Gravel v. United States, 408 U.S. 606 (1972)

Graves v. New York ex rel. O’Keefe, 306 U.S. 466 (1939)

Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368 (1963)

Gray v. United States, 21 Ct. Cl. 340 (1886)

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968)

Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184 (1957)

Greer v. Spock, 424 U.S. 828 (1976)

Gregory v. Ashcroft, 501 U.S. 452 (1991)

Griffin v. California, 380 U.S. 609 (1965)

Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U.S. 12 (1956)

Griffiths, In re, 413 U.S. 717 (1973)

Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 410 U.S. 424 (1971)

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965)

Grovey v. Townsend, 295 U.S. 45 (1935)

H. P. Hood and Sons v. DuMond, 336 U.S. 525 (1949)

Hague v. CIO, 307 U.S. 496 (1939)

Haig v. Agee, 453 U.S. 280 (1981)

Halter v. Nebraska, 205 U.S. 34 (1907)

Halbert v. Michigan, 545 U.S. 605 (2005)

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006)

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004)

Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918)

Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 U.S. 957 (1991)

Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966)

Harper and Row v. Nation Enterprises, 471 U.S. 539 (1985)

Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc., 510 U.S. 17 (1993)

Harris v. McRae, 448 U.S. 297 (1980)

Harris v. United States, 331 U.S. 145 (1947)

Haupt v. United States, 330 U.S. 661 (1947)

Hawkins v. Barney’s Lessee, 30 U.S. 457 (1831)

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988)

Hazen Paper Co. v. Biggins, 507 U.S. 604 (1993)

Heath v. Alabama, 474 U.S. 82 (1985)

Helling v. McKinney, 509 U.S. 25 (1993)

Henderson v. New York, 92 U.S. 259 (1875)

Hepburn v. Griswold, 75 U.S. 603 (1870)

Hess v. Indiana, 414 U.S. 105 (1973)

Hibbs v. Winn, 542 U.S. 88 (2004)

Hiibel v. Sixth District Court of Nevada, 542 U.S. 177 (2004)

Hill v. Colorado, 530 U.S. 703 (2000)

Hillside Dairy Inc. v. Lyons, 539 U.S. 59 (2003)

Hinderlider v. La Plata River and Cherry Creek Ditch Co., 304 U.S. 92 (1938)

Hodgson v. Minnesota, 497 U.S. 417 (1990)

Hollingsworth v. Virginia, 3 U.S. 378 (1798)

Holmes v. South Carolina, 547 U.S. 319 (2006)

Home Building and Loan Association v. Blaisdell, 290 U.S. 398 (1934)

Hope v. Pelzer, 536 U.S. 730 (2002)

Hotchkiss v. Greenwood, 52 U.S. 248 (1850)

House v. Bell, 547 U.S. 518 (2006)

Hoyt v. Florida, 368 U.S. 57 (1961)

Hudgens v. National Labor Relations Board, 424 U.S. 507 (1976)

Hudson v. McMillian, 503 U.S. 1 (1992)

Hudson v. Michigan, 547 U.S. 586 (2006)

Humphrey’s Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935)

Hunt v. Cromartie, 526 U.S. 541 (1999)

Hunt v. Cromartie, 532 U.S. 234 (2001)

Hunter v. City of Pittsburgh, 207 U.S. 161 (1907)

Hunter v. Erikson, 393 U.S. 385 (1969)

Hurley v. Irish-American Gay Group of Boston, 515 U.S. 557 (1995)

Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884)

Hutto v. Finney, 437 U.S. 678 (1978)

Hylton v. United States, 3 U.S. 171 (1796)

Illinois Central Railroad v. Illinois, 163 U.S. 142 (1896)

Illinois v. Vitale, 447 U.S. 410 (1980)

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983)

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289 (2001)

In re ______. See specific name.

Ingraham v. Wright, 430 U.S. 651 (1977)

International Shoe Co. v. Pinkus, 278 U.S. 261 (1929)

Inyo County v. Paiute-Shoshone Indians, 538 U.S. 701 (2003)

Island of Palmas Case, Hague Court Reports, Second Series, 83 (1932)

Jackson, Ex parte, 96 U.S. 727 (1878)

Jackson v. Indiana, 406 U.S. 715 (1972)

Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184 (1964)

Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905)

James v. Campbell, 104 U.S. 356 (1881)

Janklow v. Planned Parenthood, Sioux Falls Clinic, 517 U.S. 1174 (1996)

Jean v. Nelson, 472 U.S. 846 (1985)

Jefferson v. Hackney, 406 U.S. 535 (1972)

Jerome B. Grubart, Inc. v. Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Co., 513 U.S. 527 (1995)

Johnson v. Avery, 393 U.S. 483 (1969)

Johnson v. California, 545 U.S. 162 (2005)

Johnson v. Eisentrager, 339 U.S. 763 (1950)

Johnson v. Maryland, 254 U.S. 51 (1920)

Johnson v. Railway Express Agency, Inc., 421 U.S. 454 (1975)

Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458 (1938)

Johnson and Graham’s Lessee v. McIntosh, 21 U.S. 543 (1823)

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee v. McGrath, 341 U.S. 123 (1951)

Jones v. Bock, 000 U.S. 05-7058 (2007)

Jones v. United States, 529 U.S. 846 (2000)

Julliard v. Greenman, 110 U.S. 421 (1884)

Kansas v. Crane, 534 U.S. 407 (2002)

Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997)

Kastigar v. United States, 406 U.S. 441 (1972)

Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)

Kaupp v. Texas, 538 U.S. 626 (2003)

Kelly v. South Carolina, 534 U.S. 246 (2002)

Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005)

Kemmler, In re, 136 U.S. 347 (1890)

Kendall v. United States ex rel. Stokes, 37 U.S. 524 (1838)

Kent v. Dulles, 357 U.S. 116 (1958)

Kentucky Department of Corrections v. Thompson, 490 U.S. 454 (1989)

Kentucky v. Dennison, 65 U.S. 66 (1861)

Kilbourn v. Thompson, 103 U.S. 168 (1881)

Kimbrough v. United States, 000 U.S. 06-6330 (2007)

Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents, 528 U.S. 62 (2000)

Kirby v. United States, 174 U.S. 47 (1899)

Kleppe v. New Mexico, 426 U.S. 529 (1976)

Klopfer v. North Carolina, 386 U.S. 213 (1967)

Knowlton v. Moore, 178 U.S. 41 (1900)

Knox v. Lee and Parker v. Davis, 79 U.S. 457 (1871) (Legal Tender Cases)

Kohl v. United States, 91 U.S. 367 (1876)

Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944)

Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001)

Lamb’s Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District, 508 U.S. 384 (1993)

Lamont v. Postmaster General, 381 U.S. 301 (1965)

Landon v. Plasencia, 459 U.S. 21 (1982)

Langenkamp v. Culp, 498 U.S. 42 (1990)

Larson v. Valente, 456 U.S. 228 (1982)

Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974)

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003)

Leathers v. Medlock, 499 U.S. 439 (1991)

Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., 000 U.S. 05-1074 (2007)

Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992)

Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., 000 U.S. 480 (2007)

Lehr v. Robertson, 463 U.S. 248 (1983)

Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)

LeRoy Fibre Co. v. Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, 232 U.S. 340 (1914)

Lewis v. Casey, 518 U.S. 343 (1996)

Lewis v. Lewis and Clark Marine, Inc., 531 U.S. 438 (2001)

Limtiaco v. Camacho, 000 U.S. 06-116 (2007)

Lindsey v. Normet, 405 U.S. 56 (1972)

Lingle v. Chevron U.S.A., Inc., 544 U.S. 528 (2005)

Little v. Barreme, 6 U.S. 170 (1804)

Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905)

Lockett v. Ohio, 435 U.S. 586 (1978)

Lockwood, In re, 154 U.S. 116 (1894)

Loewe v. Lawlor, 208 U.S. 274 (1908) (Danbury Hatters’ Case)

Long v. Ansell, 293 U.S. 76 (1934)

Long v. Converse, 91 U.S. 105 (1875)

Lorillard Tobacco Co. v. Reilly, 533 U.S. 525 (2001)

Los Angeles, City of v. Alameda Books, Inc., 535 U.S. 425 (2002)

Lovell v. City of Griffin, 303 U.S. 444 (1938)

Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)

Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003 (1992)

Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555 (1992)

Luther v. Borden, 48 U.S. 1 (1849)

Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668 (1984)

Machinists v. Street, 367 U.S. 740 (1961)

Maher v. Roe, 432 U.S. 464 (1977)

Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964)

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961)

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 1 (1803)

Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee, 14 U.S. 304 (1816)

Martin v. Mott, 25 U.S. 19 (1827)

Martin v. City of Struthers, 319 U.S. 141 (1943)

Martin v. Wilks, 490 U.S. 755 (1989)

Maryland v. Louisiana, 451 U.S. 725 (1981)

Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, 000 U.S. 05-1120 (2007)

Massachusetts Board of Retirement v. Murgia, 427 U.S. 307 (1976)

Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319 (1976)

Mattox v. United States, 156 U.S. 237 (1895)

Maxwell v. Dow, 176 U.S. 581 (1900)

Mazer v. Stein, 347 U.S. 201 (1954)

McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1986)

McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819)

McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, 540 U.S. 93 (2003)

McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties Union, 545 U.S. 844 (2005)

McDaniel v. Paty, 435 U.S. 618 (1978)

McGautha v. California, 402 U.S. 183 (1971)

McGowan v. Maryland, 366 U.S. 420 (1961)

McKane v. Durston, 153 U.S. 684 (1894)

McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 403 U.S. 528 (1971)

McKune v. Lile, 536 U.S. 24 (2002)

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S. 637 (1950)

McPherson v. Blacker, 146 U.S. 1 (1892)

Memorial Hospital v. Maricopa County, 415 U.S. 250 (1974)

Menominee Tribe v. United States, 391 U.S. 404 (1968)

Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986)

Merryman, Ex parte, 17 Fed Cas 144 (1861)

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005)

Metropolitan Broadcasting v. FCC, 497 U.S. 547 (1990)

Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923)

Michael H. v. Gerald D., 491 U.S. 110 (1989)

Michael M. v. Superior Court, 450 U.S. 464 (1981)

Microsoft Corp. v. AT & T Corp., 000 U.S. 05-1056 (2007)

Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567 (1988)

Michigan v. Summers, 452 U.S. 692 (1981)

Miles v. Graham, 268 U.S. 501 (1925)

Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)

Miller-El v. Dretke, 545 U.S. 231 (2005)

Milligan, Ex parte, 71 U.S. 2 (1866)

Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586 (1940)

Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1875)

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)

Mississippi v. Johnson, 71 U.S. 475 (1867)

Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718 (1982)

Missouri v. Holland, 252 U.S. 416 (1920)

Missouri v. Seibert, 540 U.S. 600 (2004)

Missouri Pacific Railway Co. v. Kansas, 248 U.S. 276 (1919)

Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361 (1989)

Mitchell v. Forsyth, 472 U.S. 511 (1985)

M.L.B. v. S.L.J., 519 U.S. 102 (1996)

Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 431 U.S. 494 (1977)

Moore v. Dempsey, 261 U.S. 86 (1923)

Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988)

Morse v. Frederick, 000 U.S. 06-278 (2007)

Morton v. Mancari, 417 U.S. 535 (1974)

Motes v. United States, 178 U.S. 458 (1900)

Muehler v. Mena, 544 U.S. 93 (2005)

Muhammad v. Close, 540 U.S. 749 (2004)

Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908)

Murchison, In re, 349 U.S. 133 (1955)

Murphy v. Waterfront Commission, 378 U.S. 52 (1964)

Murray’s Lessee v. Hoboken Land and Improvement Co., 59 U.S. 272 (1855)

Muskrat v. United States, 219 U.S. 346 (1911)

Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)

N.A.A.C.P. v. Alabama, 360 U.S. 240 (1958)

N.A.A.C.P. v. Button, 371 U.S. 415 (1963)

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National Cable & Telecommunications Association v. Brand X Internet Services, 545 U.S. 967 (2005)

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National League of Cities v. Usery, 426 U.S. 833 (1976)

National Prohibition Cases, 253 U.S. 350 (1920)

National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab, 489 U.S. 656 (1989)

Near v. Minnesota ex rel. Olson, 283 U.S. 697 (1931)

Nebbia v. New York, 219 U.S. 502 (1934)

Nectow v. City of Cambridge, 277 U.S. 183 (1928)

Nelson v. Campbell, 541 U.S. 637 (2004)

Nevada v. United States, 463 U.S. 110 (1983)

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New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982)

New York v. Quarles, 467 U.S. 649 (1984)

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New York Board of Estimate v. Morris, 489U.S. 688 (1989)

New York City v. Miln, 36 U.S. 102 (1837)

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New York State Liquor Authority v. Bellanca, 452 U.S. 714 (1981)

New York Times v. Tasini, 533 U.S. 483 (2001)

New York Times v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971) (Pentagon Papers Case)

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)

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Newberry v. United States, 256 U.S. 232 (1921)

Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 533 U.S. 53 (2001)

Nichols v. Oklahoma, 534 U.S. 1086 (2002)

Nixon v. Administrator of General Services, 433 U.S. 425 (1977)

Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 731 (1982)

Nixon v. Herndon, 273 U.S. 536 (1927)

Nixon v. Missouri Municipal League, 541 U.S. 125 (2004)

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Nordlinger v. Hahn, 505 U.S. 1 (1992)

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Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937)

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Parker v. Levy, 417 U.S. 733 (1974)

Paul v. Davis, 424 U.S. 693 (1976)

Paul v. Virginia, 75 U.S. 168 (1869)

Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991)

Payton v. New York, 445 U.S. 573 (1980)

Pell v. Procunier, 417 U.S. 817 (1974)

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Pennhurst State School and Hospital v. Halderman, 465 U.S. 89 (1984)

Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922)

Pensacola Telegraph Co. v. Western Union Telegraph Co., 96 U.S. 1 (1878)

Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (1957)

Perry Education Assn. v. Perry Local Educators Assn., 460 U.S. 37 (1983)

Perry v. Sindermann, 408 U.S. 593 (1972)

Personnel Administration of Massachusetts v. Feeny, 442 U.S. 256 (1979)

Peters v. Kiff, 407 U.S. 493 (1972)

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Pilkinton v. Circuit Court, 324 F.2d 45 (1963)

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992)

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982)

Pocket Veto Case, 279 U.S. 655 (1929)

Poe v. Ullman, 367 U.S. 497 (1961)

Pointer v. Texas, 380 U.S. 400 (1965)

Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Company of Puerto Rico, 478 U.S. 328 (1986)

Potter v. United States, 155 U.S. 438 (1894)

Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45 (1932) (Scottsboro Cases)

Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486 (1969)

Powell v. Nevada, 511 U.S. 79 (1994)

Powell v. Texas, 392 U.S. 514 (1968)

Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 41 U.S. 539 (1842)

Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997)

Prize Cases, 67 U.S. 635 (1862)

Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, 447 U.S. 74 (1980)

Quirin, Ex parte, 317 U.S. 1 (1942)

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul, 505 U.S. 377 (1992)

Rabe v. Washington, 405 U.S. 313 (1972)

Railway Employees’ Department v. Hanson, 351 U.S. 225 (1956)

Randall v. Sorrell, 548 U.S. 230 (2006)

Rapanos v. United States, 547 U.S. 715 (2006)

Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004)

Rea v. United States, 350 U.S. 214 (1956)

Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971)

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)

Renne v. Geary, 501 U.S. 312 (1991)

Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521 U.S. 844 (1997)

Reno v. Condon, 528 U.S. 141 (2000)

Reno v. Flores, 507 U.S. 292 (1993)

Renton, City of v. Playtime Theatres, Inc., 475 U.S. 41 (1986)

Republic of Austria v. Altman, 541 U.S. 677 (2004)

Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964)

Reynolds v. United States, 98 U.S. 745 (1879)

Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. 269 (2005)

Rhode Island v. Innes, 446 U.S. 291 ((1980)

Rhode Island v. Palmer, 253 U.S. 350 (1920)

Rhodes v. Chapman, 452 U.S. 337 (1981)

Rice v. Cayetano, 528 U.S. 495 (2000)

Rice v. Santa Fe Elevator Corp., 331 U.S. 218 (1947)

Richardson v. Ramirez, 418 U.S. 24 (1974)

Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989)

Richmond Newspapers, Inc. v. Virginia, 448 U.S. 555 (1980)

Ristaino v. Ross, 424 U.S. 589 (1976)

Roberts v. United States Jaycees, 468 U.S. 609 (1984)

Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962)

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)

Rodriguez v. Popular Democratic Party, 457 U.S. 1 (1982)

Rogers v. Bellei, 401 U.S. 815 (1971)

Rome, City of v. United States, 446 U.S. 156 (1980)

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996)

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005)

Rose v. Lundy, 455 U.S. 509 (1982)

Rosenberg v. United States, 346 U.S. 273 (1953)

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia, 515 U.S. 819 (1995)

Ross v. Moffitt, 417 U.S. 600 (1974)

Ross v. United States, 456 U.S. 798 (1982)

Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957)

Rowan v. U.S. Post Office Department, 397 U.S. 728 (1970)

Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, 547 U.S. 47 (2006)

Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 542 U.S. 426 (2004)

Runkle v. United States, 122 U.S. 543 (1887)

Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, 497 U.S. 62 (1990)

Sable Communications, Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission, 492 U.S. 115 (1989)

Salomon v. State Tax Commission, 278 U.S. 484 (1929)

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Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon, 000 U.S. 04-10566 (2006)

Sandin v. Conner, 515 U.S. 472 (1995)

Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290 (2000)

Santosky v. Kramer, 455 U.S. 745 (1982)

Saudi Arabia v. Nelson, 507 U.S. 349 (1993)

Saxbe v. Washington Post, 417 U.S. 843 (1974)

Schad v. Mount Ephraim, 452 U.S. 61 (1981)

Schall v. Martin, 467 U.S. 253 (1984)

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Scheidler v. National Organization for Women, Inc., 537 U.S. 393 (2003)

Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919)

Scheuer v. Rhodes, 416 U.S. 232 (1974)

Schilb v. Kuebel, 404 U.S. 357 (1971)

Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966)

School Board of Nassau County, Florida v. Arline, 480 U.S. 273 (1987)

The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon, 11 U.S. 116 (1812)

Scott v. Illinois, 440 U.S. 367 (1979)

Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857) (Dred Scott case)

Semayne’s Case, 77 Eng. Rep (1603)

Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida, 577 U.S. 44 (1996)

Senn v. Tile Layers Protective Union, 301 U.S. 468 (1937)

Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 618 (1969)

Shaw v. Hunt, 517 U.S. 899 (1996)

Shaw v. Reno, 509 U.S. 630 (1993)

Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963)

Sherrer v. Sherrer, 334 U.S. 343 (1948)

Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972)

Silverman v. United States, 365 U.S. 505 (1961)

Simon and Schuster v. Members of the New York State Crime Victims Board, 502 U.S. 105 (1991)

Simpson v. Shepard, 230 U.S. 352 (1913)

Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S. 535 (1942)

Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Association, 489 U.S. 602 (1989)

Slaughter House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873)

Smith v. Doe, 538 U.S. 84 (2003)

Smith v. Goguen, 415 U.S. 556 (1974)

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Solem v. Helm, 463 U.S. 277 (1983)

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Sosna v. Iowa, 419 U.S. 393 (1975)

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Spevack v. Klein, 385 U.S. 511 (1967)

Springer v. Government of the Philippine Islands, 277 U.S. 189 (1928)

Stack v. Boyle, 342 U.S. 1 (1951)

Stanford v. Kentucky, 492 U.S. 361 (1989)

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Steele v. Louisville and Nashville Railroad Co., 323 U.S. 192 (1944)

Sternberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000)

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Stewart v. Kahn, 78 U.S. 493 (1871)

Stogner v. California, 539 U.S. 607 (2003)

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Strauder v. West Virginia, 100 U.S. 303 (1880)

Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668 (1984)

Strickley v. Highland Boy Gold Mining Co., 200 U.S. 527 (1906)

Sturges v. Crowninshield, 17 U.S. 122 (1819)

Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. 349 (1978)

Sugarman v. Dougall, 413 U.S. 634 (1973)

Sun Oil Co. v. Wortman, 486 U.S. 717 (1988)

Sutherland v. Illinois, 418 U.S. 907 (1976)

Sweatt v Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950)

Sweeney v. Woodhall, 344 U.S. 86 (1952)

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Terrace v. Thompson, 263 U.S. 197 (1923)

Terry v. Adams, 345 U.S. 461 (1953)

Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968)

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Torasco v. Watkins, 367 U.S. 488 (1961)

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Tyson and Bro. v. Banton, 273 U.S. 418 (1927)

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United States v. American Tobacco Co., 221 U.S. 106 (1911)

United States v. Arjona, 120 U.S. 479 (1887)

United States v. Beard, 158 U.S. 550 (1895)

United States v. Belmont, 301 U.S. 324 (1937)

United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005)

United States v. Burr, 8 U.S. 469 (1807)

United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)

United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144 (1938)

United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946)

United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299 (1941)

United States v. Constantine, 296 U.S. 278 (1935)

United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876)

United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp., 299 U.S. 304 (1936)

United States v. Dege, 364 U.S. 51 (1960)

United States v. E. C. Knight Co., 156 U.S. 1 (1895) (Sugar Trusts Case)

United States v. Felix, 503 U.S. 378 (1992)

United States v. Furlong, 18 U.S. 184 (1820)

United States v. Gagnon, 470 U.S. 522 (1985)

United States v. Georgia, 546 U.S. 151 (2006)

United States v. Hartwell, 73 U.S. 385 (1868)

United States v. Hudson, 11 U.S. 32 (1812)

United States v. Hutcheson, 312 U.S. 219 (1941)

United States v. Jin Fuey Moy, 241 U.S. 394 (1916)

United States v. Johnson, 481 U.S. 681 (1987)

United States v. Kahriger, 345 U.S. 22 (1953)

United States v. Karo, 468 U.S. 705 (1984)

United States v. Kirby, 74 U.S. 482 (1869)

United States v. Klein, 80 U.S. 128 (1872)

United States v. Knotts, 460 U.S. 276 (1983)

United States v. Lanza, 260 U.S. 377 (1922)

United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995)

United States v. Lovett, 328 U.S. 303 (1946)

United States v. Marigold, 50 U.S. 560 (1850)

United States v. Martin Linen Supply Co., 430 U.S. 564 (1977)

United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939)

United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000)

United States v. Nice, 241 U.S. 591 (1916)

United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974)

United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative, 532 U.S. 483 (2001)

United States v. O’Brien, 391 U.S. 367 (1968)

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United States v. Salerno, 481 U.S. 739 (1987)

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United States v. Ursery, 518 U.S. 267 (1996)

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United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 (1996)

United States v. Watson, 423 U.S. 411 (1976)

United States v. Wheeler, 435 U.S. 313 (1978)

United States v. Wilson, 32 U.S. 150 (1833)

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Williams v. Zbaraz, 448 U.S. 358 (1980)

Williams v. Zuckert, 381 U.S. 531 (1963)

Williamson v. Lee Optical Co., 348 U.S. 483 (1955)

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Wilson v. Arkansas, 514 U.S. 927 (1995)

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Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476 (1993)

Wisconsin v. City of New York, 517 U.S. 1 (1996)

Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972)

Witherspoon v. Illinois, 391 U.S. 510 (1968)

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Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539 (1974)

Wong Sung v. United States, 371 U.S. 471 (1963)

Wong Wing v. United States, 163 U.S. 228 (1896)

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Yarborough v. Gentry, 540 U.S. 1 (2003)

Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886)

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Youngblood v. Romero, 457 U.S. 307 (1982)

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Zablocki v. Redhail, 434 U.S. 374 (1978)

Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678 (2001)

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, 536 U.S. 639 (2002)

Zinermon v. Burch, 494 U.S. 113 (1990)

Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (1952)

Zschernig v. Miller, 389 U.S. 429 (1968)

## Appendix

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Ackerman, Bruce A., and Ian Ayres. Voting with Dollars: A New Paradigm for Campaign Finance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Adams, Arlin M., and Charles J. Emmerich. A Nation Dedicated to Religious Liberty: The Constitutional Heritage of the Religion Clauses. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Adler, David Gray, and Michael A. Genovese, eds. The Presidency and the Law: The Clinton Legacy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

Agel, Jerome, and Mort Gerberg. The U.S. Declaration of Independence for Everyone. New York: Perigee, 2001.

Albelda, Randy P., et al. Unlevel Playing Fields: Understanding Wage Inequality and Discrimination. 2d ed. Boston: Economic Affairs Bureau, Inc., 2004.

Alexander, Yonah, and Edgar H. Brenner, eds. Terrorism and Law. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational, 2001.

American Bar Association. The ABA Complete and Easy Guide to Health Care Law: Your Guide to Protecting Your Rights as a Patient, Dealing with Hospitals, Health Insurance, Medicare, and More. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

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Anderson, Margo J., ed. Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.

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Armor, David J. Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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Baird, Douglas G. The Elements of Bankruptcy. 4th ed. Westbury, N.Y: Foundation Press, 2005.

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## Appendix

Internet Resources

A number of Internet sites offer information on the Constitution and related topics. Here are some of the best:

The Constitution

The Constitution presented by article and section with amendments.

The Constitution of the United States

A National Archives and Records Administration transcription of the text of the Constitution in its original form with amended or superseded provisions highlighted in hypertext, plus links to biographies of the framers.

The Constitution of the United States

An online version of the Constitution that contains links within the text to definitions for students and to supplementary historical material.

Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy

The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School contains materials relevant for research on the Constitution and the related fields of law, history, economics, politics, diplomacy, and government.

Library of Constitutional Classics

More than 150 entries relating to constitutional government from the eighteenth-century B.C.E. Code of Hammurabi to state constitutions and many national constitutions.

National Constitution Center

Established to promote awareness and understanding of the Constitution.

Supreme Court Cases

Key cases and other legal materials.

Note: For specific queries relating to the Constitution, the search engine at www.google.com may be helpful.