The Third House: Lobbyists and Lobbying in the States

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Alan Rosenthal

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    Dedication

    To Patrick, Kelly, Chas, Dylan, and Tori

    Preface

    When asked by friends and colleagues why I was writing this book, I usually explained as follows. I had studied and written about legislators for years, but legislators did not really appreciate my efforts. Then I wrote a book about governors and legislatures. To my dismay, I found that governors are oblivious to mortals who are not themselves governors, so no acknowledgment came from that direction either. It finally occurred to me that if I switched gears and wrote about lobbyists, I could at least expect free food and drink by way of appreciation. Some of my interviews with lobbyists—people who are alleged to be genetically programmed to pick up the tab—were conducted over breakfast, lunch, or dinner. It turned out, however, that I paid more often than they did. So much for my quest for acknowledgment.

    Over the years, however, I got some of the acknowledgment I was seeking. People who read the first edition appreciated the book. Experienced lobbyists reported to me that it nicely captured their enterprise. New lobbyists found it helpful. Students thought it was interesting and offered a different perspective on lobbying. CQ Press apparently was satisfied, because Brenda Carter, director of college publications, persuaded me that a revision of The Third House would be well worth the effort.

    I originally wrote this book to challenge the conventional wisdom about lobbyists and lobbying. That is not to say that lobbyists do not buy legislators meals or entertain them in other ways. They certainly do (much less nowadays than formerly), but there is much more to lobbying than that. Anyone who has spent as long as I have studying and consulting with legislatures would at some point have to become interested in lobbyists. The surprising thing is that it took a while for my interest to emerge. One of my early books, Legislative Life, ignored lobbying almost entirely—an enormous oversight. My latest book, The Decline of Representative Democracy, does not have the same deficiency.

    A few years before writing the first edition of this book, I began to conduct, in collaboration with the State Governmental Affairs Council, a program designed to enhance the professional skills of representatives of member companies and associations. This enterprise involved me in questions of direct lobbying, coalition building, grassroots mobilization, and ethics. It also brought me into contact with many lobbyists. Instead of catching a dread disease, however, I became more and more interested in the subject. Then, in 1990, I was appointed chairman of a New Jersey commission on legislative ethics and campaign finance. The members of the commission (four legislators and five citizens) examined the regulation of lobbying, among other matters, and made several recommendations for legislative action. My involvement with this commission further whetted my appetite.

    The lobbying of state legislatures is in need of study. The media have a narrow, and even distorted, perspective on lobbyists and lobbying. The public's comprehension is likewise limited and unduly negative. In contrast, my firsthand observations and experiences have given me an appreciation for both the lobbyists I have met and the institution of lobbying. I have become one of the not-too-many people outside the field who believe lobbying to be an honorable profession. But then I also believe politics to be an honorable profession.

    My original account of lobbyists and lobbying in the states was based largely on interviews with about one hundred lobbyists in California, Colorado, Florida, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Texas, as well as a few in Maryland and Washington, D.C. Those interviews remain of value in this new edition, although I have cast a wider net this time and drawn on lobbying in other states as well. Lobbying life is described mainly from the point of view of lobbyists themselves. This vantage point is essential, I believe, for conveying a feel for the enterprise and for understanding what lobbying entails. But it is also important that we make judgments. Thus I have endeavored to step back, acquire distance, and analyze the practices and effects of lobbying and its role in representative democracy.

    In writing this book (and also in its revision), I owe special thanks to individuals in several different communities. The first is the community of political scientists, in which I claim membership. Political scientists have by no means been idle in this area. They have produced a substantial body of knowledge on lobbyists and on the interest groups lobbyists represent. Their writings have been extremely useful to me, and their findings are reflected throughout this work. I am grateful to these colleagues and hope that this book contributes to the discipline. Several political scientists were of special help in my writing of the first edition. Allan Cigler of the University of Kansas and Clive Thomas of the University of Alaska read the manuscript and made a number of comments. Malcolm Jewell, Ronald Hrebenar, and an anonymous reviewer offered their critiques of my proposal.

    Another community to which I owe a debt of gratitude is the state capitol community, consisting of legislators, legislative staff, lobbyists, and journalists from across the nation. These are the people with whom I have worked and about whom and for whom I have been writing. They have provided material for my book and are primarily responsible for my education—or miseducation—over these past years. I hope that I have helped in their education as well.

    Without support from two other communities—the Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, and the state of New Jersey, which has paid my salary—I would not have been able to devote myself to state legislatures as I have. I do not take for granted all the privileges we academics have. Academics are a fortunate lot. The late Don Herzberg, my predecessor as director of Eagleton, afforded me my initial opportunity, recruiting me just when the state legislative modernization movement was getting under way. Since then, Rutgers University has enabled me and the rest of us at the institute to take advantage of many opportunities to engage in public service and basic and applied research. I owe special and personal thanks to the institute's faculty and administrative and secretarial staff, and in particular to Chris Lenart, Joanne Pfeiffer, and Erin Toomey.

    The publisher has also been helpful. I want to thank CQ Press, which I regard as the foremost publisher of books dealing with politics and government in the states. I trust that the present book in its revised form will advance that enterprise. It is always a pleasure to work with CQ's fine editorial staff.

    Finally, I want to thank the most important and ultimately the most supportive community of all—family and friends. My children, who have taken on their own distinctive shapes, are a continuing delight and even an inspiration. I appreciate them and I like them—John, Lisa, Kai, and Tony. Also their spouses—Lisa, Garrison, and Kathleen. Who knows, perhaps one of my grandchildren—Patrick, Kelly, Chas, Dylan, and Tori—will turn out to be a lobbyist. Stranger things happen.

  • Notes

    Chapter 1 (Pages 1–14)

    1. James Deakin, The Lobbyists (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1966), 54.

    2. Salt Lake Tribune, July 1, 1990.

    3. Deakin, Lobbyists, 34.

    4. Jonathan Rauch, Demosclerosis: The Silent Killer of American Government (New York: Times Books, 1994), 38.

    5. Jack L. Walker, “The Origin and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America,” American Political Science Review 77 (June 1983): 390–406, and Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991).

    6. See Martin Ryan Haley and James M. Kiss, “Larger Stakes in Statehouse Lobbying,” Harvard Business Review 52 (January–February 1974): 125–135; and Ronald G. Shaiko, “More Bang for the Buck: The New Era of Full-Service Public Interest Organizations,” in Interest Groups Politics, 3d ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1991), 112–114.

    7. Jeffrey M. Berry, The Interest Group Society (Boston: Little, Brown, 1984), and The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999).

    8. Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth L. Leech, Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 103.

    9. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald Hrebenar, “Who's Got Clout? Interest Group Power in the States,” State Legislatures, April 1999, 34.

    10. Virginia Gray and David Lowery, “The World of Contract Lobbying,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, April 6–8, 1995, Chicago.

    11. Daniel J. Elazar, Virginia Gray, and Wyman Spano, Minnesota Politics and Government (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999), 55.

    12. Salt Lake Tribune, July 1, 1990; Council of State Governments, The Book of the States 1998–99 (Lexington, Ky.: 1998).

    13. Sacramento Bee, July 16, 1995.

    14. The Book of the States 1998–99.

    15. Haley and Kiss, “Larger Stakes,” 126.

    16. Donald G. Herzberg and Jesse Unruh, Essays on the State Legislative Process (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970), 18.

    17. Kenneth G. Crawford, The Pressure Boys: The Inside Story of Lobbying in America (New York: Arno Press, 1974), 38.

    18. Charles G. Bell and Charles M. Price, California Government Today (Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey Press, 1980), 132–133, 140–141; Collier's, August 18, 1949.

    19. St. Paul Pioneer Press, special reprint, April 1992.

    20. Collins Center for Public policy, transcript of discussion by members of press at session for Florida House of Representatives, December 11, 1995.

    21. Pew Center for the People and the Press, “Politics, Morality, Entitlements Sap Confidence,” Washington, D.C., 1997.

    22. Christopher Schwarz, “Re-Modeling the Lobby,” State Government News, May 1994, 31.

    23. Baumgartner and Leech, Basic Interests, 89–90; Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady, Voice and Equality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995): 62, 65–66, 69, 71, 84, 131.

    24. Generally speaking, unless a book, journal, periodical, or newspaper is specifically cited, the information (but not my own analysis) comes from the lobbyists I interviewed. This is not the first time that a political scientist, in order to acquire sensitive information, has assured a respondent anonymity. Nor is it the first time that the reader will have to trust in a scholar's integrity to report and use interview information accurately.

    25. Remarks to Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (currently the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America), Washington, D.C., November 4, 1991.

    26. Allan J. Cigler and Dwight C. Kiel, The Changing Nature of Interest Group Politics in Kansas (Topeka: Capitol Complex Center, University of Kansas, June 1988), 21–23; Anthony J. Nownes and Patricia Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 1996.

    Chapter 2 (Pages 15–40)

    1. Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady, Voice and Equality, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 56.

    2. Jerry B. Briscoe and Charles G. Bell, “California Lobbyists—Preliminary Report,” (Davis, Calif.: Institute of Government Affairs, University of California, Davis, n.d.). See also Allan J. Cigler and Dwight C. Kiel, The Changing Nature of Interest Group Politics in Kansas, (Topeka: Capitol Complex Center, University of Kansas, June 1988), 21.

    3. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States, 5th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Herbert Jacob, and Robert B. Albritton (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown Higher Education, 1990), 148.

    4. Lester W. Milbrath, The Washington Lobbyists (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963), 8.

    5. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 7th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999), 127–128.

    6. Jeffrey M. Berry, The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 369, and Ken Kollman, Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 51.

    7. Miami Herald, May 19, 1991.

    8. Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969), 46–48.

    9. Briscoe and Bell, “California Lobbyists.”

    10. John A. Straayer, The Colorado General Assembly (Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1990), 186. Also see Cigler and Kiel, Interest Group Politics, 21.

    11. Thomas and Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States” (1999), 129.

    12. Robert H. Salisbury, “Washington Lobbyists: A Collective Portrait,” in Interest Group Politics, 2d ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986), 153.

    13. Briscoe and Bell, “California Lobbyists.”

    14. Baltimore Sun, December 19, 1994.

    15. Miami Herald, May 19, 1991.

    16. Straayer, Colorado General Assembly, 184–185; Don W. Driggs and Leonard E. Goodall, Nevada Politics and Government (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996), 148.

    17. Mary Lynne Vellinga, “Legislating to Lobbying,” California Journal, August 2000, 46, 50–52.

    18. Arkansas Democrat, June 24, 1990.

    19. Alan Ehrenhalt, “In Alabama Politics, the Teachers Are Sitting at the Head of the Class,” Governing, December 1988, 22.

    20. Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 27.

    21. Zeigler and Baer, Lobbying, 61.

    22. Robert H. Salisbury et al., “Who You Know Versus What You Know: The Uses of Government Experience for Washington Lobbyists,” American Journal of Political Science 33 (February 1989): 175–195.

    23. Kim Rogers Burdick, “A Folklorist Looks at Lobbyists” (College of Urban Affairs, University of Delaware, May 1990), 22.

    24. James Deakin, The Lobbyists (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1966), 154.

    25. Ginger Gold, “Lobbyists: A Love Story” (New Brunswick, N.J.: Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 14, 1990). Gold later on worked as a lobbyist for Nancy Becker Associates and is currently a lobbyist with the New Jersey Education Association.

    26. Washington Post, March 17, 1995.

    27. Cited in Zeigler and Baer, Lobbying, 77.

    28. “Third House Holds Capitol Power,” Gainesville Sun, December 7, 1987.

    29. New York Times, February 7, 1997.

    30. The Sun (Baltimore), March 13, 1983.

    31. Dallas Morning News, March 29, 1987.

    32. James Q. Wilson, Political Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 315.

    Chapter 3 (Pages 41–59)

    1. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 7th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999), 127.

    2. Public Affairs Council, State Government Relations: Results of a Survey of Fifty-five Corporations (Washington, D.C.: The Council, 1986), 16.

    3. State Government Relations Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey, July 12, 1990.

    4. Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 24. The Conference Board has not updated the Lusterman study.

    5. Thomas J. Watson, Jr., Father, Son and Co. (New York: Bantam Books, 1990), 400.

    6. Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations, vii.

    7. See Richard A. Armstrong, “Corporations and State Government Relations: An Overview,” in Leveraging State Government Relations, ed. Wesley Pedersen (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1990), 9–12.

    8. Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations, 4.

    9. James E. Post and Jennifer J. Griffin, The State of Corporate Public Affairs: 1996 Survey (Foundation for Public Affairs and Boston University School of Management, 1997).

    10. H. C. Pittman, Inside the Third House (Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1992), 219.

    11. Jeffrey M. Berry, The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 2, 3, 73, 369, 371; Ken Kollman, Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 51.

    12. Daniel J. Elazar, Virginia Gray, and Wyman Spano, Minnesota Politics and Government (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999), 59.

    13. John C. Berg, “Massachusetts: Citizen Power and Corporate Power,” in Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993), 187–188.

    14. Charles S. Mack, The Executive's Handbook of Trade and Business Associations (Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1991), 79–80.

    15. Pittman, Inside the Third House, 219.

    16. Marjorie R. Hershey, “Direct Action and the Abortion Issue: The Political Participation of Single-Issue Groups,” in Interest Group Politics, 2d ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986), 28.

    17. Kathy Beasley, “Low-Budget Lobbyists,” California, Journal, September 1988, 28.

    18. Malcolm E. Jewell and Penny M. Miller, The Kentucky Legislature (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988), 264–266.

    19. Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations, 8.

    20. The waivers guarantee that the rental company will not sue customers if a car is damaged and add $12 to $15 a day to the cost of renting a car.

    21. See Robert H. Salisbury, “The Paradox of Interest Groups in Washington—More Groups, Less Clout,” in The New American Political System, 2d ed., ed. Anthony King (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1990), 224.

    Chapter 4 (Pages 60–78)

    1. Robert H. Salisbury, “Putting Interests Back into Interest Groups,” in Interest Group Politics, 3d ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett Loomis (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1991), 383–384.

    2. Information provided by the National Conference of State Legislatures, January 27, 2000.

    3. Council of State Governments, Book of the States 1998–99 (Lexington, Kentucky: Council of State Governments, 1998), 105–109.

    4. Kathleen Sylvester, “The Tobacco Industry Will Walk a Mile to Stop an Anti-Smoking Law,” Governing, May 1989, 37.

    5. Tom Watson, “Dale Florio: A Lobbyist's Middleman Who Helps Business Navigate State Capitol Halls,” Governing, February 1989, 32–34, 37–38.

    6. It was important to specify all the possible codes, otherwise something would be missed. A lobbyist for a telephone company, for example, would key the word “utilities” because such bills can also be amended to apply to telephone companies.

    7. Randy Welch, “Lobbyists, Lobbyists All Over the Lot,” State Legislatures, February 1989, 21.

    8. This section on the Internet is based on Tom Price, Creating a Digital Democracy: The Impact of the Internet on Public Policy-Making (Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Public Affairs, 1999), 12–13.

    9. A draft was provided to the author by Wade Hopping, a Florida lobbyist.

    10. Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969), 134.

    11. Keith E. Hamm, Charles W. Wiggins, and Charles G. Bell. “Interest Group Involvement, Conflict, and Success in State Legislatures,” paper delivered at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, September 1–4, 1983, 16–17.

    12. Kathleen Sylvester, “The Chastening of the Trial Lawyers,” Governing, February 1991, 28.

    13. James Q. Wilson, Political Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 333–334.

    14. Ibid., 335–336.

    15. Welch, “Lobbyists, Lobbyists,” 19.

    16. Robin Cincotta, internship paper, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 3, 1996.

    17. Jennifer Getz, internship paper, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 8, 1998.

    18. New York Times, April 8, 1996.

    19. One of the reasons for the plight of the massage therapists was that they were listed in the yellow pages of the telephone book along with massage parlor therapists, a profession of a somewhat different order. In Iowa, for example, the former speaker (who was then working as a lobbyist) shepherded a bill through the house that would distinguish legitimate massage therapists from so-called massage parlors, which, the therapists claim, are little more than houses of prostitution. Des Moines Sunday Register, March 29, 1992.

    Chapter 5 (Pages 79–107)

    1. Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 51.

    2. John C. Wahlke et al., The Legislative System (New York: Wiley, 1962), 331. Also Daniel J. Elazar, American Federalism: A View from the States, 2d ed. (New York: Crowell, 1972), and Alan Rosenthal and Maureen Moakley, eds., The Political Life of the American States (New York: Praeger, 1984).

    2. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States, 7th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999), 137. An earlier classification of the strength of pressure groups ran along the same lines, with Florida and Texas “strong,” California “moderately strong,” and Colorado, Minnesota, and New Jersey “weak.” Sarah McCally Morehouse, State Politics, Parties and Policy (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981).

    4. See Alan Rosenthal, The Decline of Representative Democracy (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998), 49–84.

    5. See Rob Gurwitz, “California, Here We Come: The Professional Legislature and Its Discontents,” Governing, August 1991, 64–69.

    6. “Calendar” days run consecutively, while “legislative” days may exclude Saturdays and Sundays and those days during periods when the legislature is in recess.

    7. New York Times, September 4, 1995.

    8. Kay Lehman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Democracy (New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 302–303.

    9. Richard A. Armstrong, “Corporations and State Government Relations: An Overview,” in Leveraging State Government Relations, ed. Wesley Pedersen (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1990), 8.

    10. Dallas Morning News, March 29, 1987.

    11. Bruce C. Wolpe and Bertram J. Levine, Lobbying Congress: How the System Works, 2d ed. (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1996), 11.

    12. William R. Bryant, Jr., Quantum Politics: Greening State Legislatures for the New Millennium (Kalamazoo: New Issues Press, 1993), 128, 138, 142.

    13. Joseph Vitale, “Confessions of a Lobbyist,” New Jersey Monthly, October 1990, 95.

    14. Paul Hollrah, “Lobbying State Capitols: Rules for a New Game,” State Policy, January 1984, 4.

    15. John A. Straayer, The Colorado General Assembly (Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1990), 67–68.

    16. Karl T. Kurtz, “The Old Statehouse, She Ain't What She Used to Be,” National Conference of State Legislatures, July 26, 1993, photocopy, 16.

    17. Phil Keisling, “Thrills, Spills and Bills,” Washington Monthly, October 1990, 11–12.

    18. John Powers, “Altered State: It's a New Era on Beacon Hill, with New Players, New Rules and New Attitudes,” Boston Globe Magazine, June 16, 1996, 19.

    19. Jeffrey L. Katz, “Sipping from the Cup of Corruption,” Governing, November 1991, 27–28.

    20. New York Times, December 14, 29, 1999, and April 11, 2000.

    21. Alan Rosenthal, Drawing the Line: Legislative Ethics in the States (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996), 125, 128.

    22. Correspondence provided author by Representative Phyllis Kahn.

    23. Other capitals have also seen a decline in the restaurant business with the increase in ethics regulations.

    24. Christopher Schwarz, “Re-Modeling the Lobby,” State Government News, May 1994, 28, 29.

    25. H. C. Pittman, Inside the Third House (Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1992), 240.

    26. Figures provided by New Jersey Election Law Enforcement Commission.

    27. The survey, by Ken DeBow, is cited in Ronald J. Hrebenar and Ruth K. Scott, Interest Group Politics in America, 2d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990), 255.

    28. Thomas and Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” 152.

    29. Mary Lynn Vellinga, “Legislating to Lobbying,” California Journal, August 2000, 50.

    30. Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif, Wadsworth, 1969), 67.

    31. Star-Tribune, April 5, 1998.

    32. Testimony of Katherine Burke Moore before the Subcommittee on Ethical Conduct, Minnesota Senate, April 7, 1998.

    33. Interview with John Berglund, June 19, 1998.

    34. Letter from Minnesota Governmental Relations Council to Senator Ember Junge, March 26, 1998, and April 3, 1998.

    Chapter 6 (Pages 108–124)

    1. New York Times, February 7, 1997.

    2. William K. Muir, Jr., Legislature: California's School for Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 21.

    3. Pensacola Journal, June 26, 1990.

    4. Jack D. Fleer, North Carolina Government and Politics, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999), p. 184.

    5. Arkansas Democrat, June 24, 1990.

    6. St. Petersburg Times, July 18, 1991.

    7. Keith F. Girard, “Bruce Bereano,” Regardie's, June 1987, 33; The Sun (Baltimore), March 13, 1983.

    8. New York Times, July 23, 1989.

    9. Arkansas Democrat, June 24, 1990.

    10. Miami Herald, December 11, 1990.

    11. Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969), 102–103.

    12. Gallup Organization, “The 1987 Gallup Survey of the New Jersey State Legislature” (Princeton, N.J.: Gallup, 1987), 17; Craig H. Grau, “Minnesota: Labor and Business in an Issue-Oriented State,” in Interest Group Politics in the Midwestern States, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993), 145–164; Anthony J. Nownes, “Solicited Advice and Lobbyist Power: Evidence from Three American States,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 24 (May 1999): 117–118.

    13. We shall examine campaign activity and what money buys as separate issues in chapter 7, below.

    14. Zeigler and Baer, Lobbying, 136.

    15. Paul Hollrah, “Lobbying State Capitols: Rules for a New Game,” State Policy, January 1984, 4.

    16. Arkansas Democrat, June 24, 1990.

    17. Berne Henderson, “Lobbyist's Ten Commandments,” Virginia Capitol Connections, fall 1996, 17.

    18. St. Petersburg Times, July 31, 1991.

    19. Pensacola Journal, June 26, 1991.

    20. Robert H. Salisbury, “The Paradox of Interest Groups in Washington—More Groups, Less Clout,” in The New American Political System, 2d ed., ed. Anthony King (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1990), 203–229.

    21. Elizabeth A. Capell, “The Rich Get Richer: Term Limits and Interest Groups in California,” undated paper, 4–5, 14.

    Chapter 7 (Pages 125–146)

    1. Robert E. Hogen and Keith E. Hamm, “Variations in District-Level Campaign Spending in State Legislatures,” in Campaign Finance in State Legislative Elections, ed. Joel A. Thompson and Gary F. Moncrief (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998), 62–63; Gary F. Moncrief, “Candidate Spending in State Legislative Races,” ibid., 37–56.

    2. Moncrief, “Candidate Spending,” 56.

    3. Anthony J. Nownes and Patricia Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 1996, Table 11.

    4. Sekhar Padmanabhan, “Calls for Cash: They Keep Coming …,” California, Journal, August 1999, 24, 26.

    5. New York Times, June 2, 1999.

    6. Daniel J. Elazar, Virginia Gray, and Wyman Spano, Minnesota Politics and Government (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999), 83.

    7. Alan Rosenthal, Drawing the Line: Legislative Ethics in the States (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996), 147–149.

    8. Charles S. Mack, The Executive's Handbook of Trade and Business Associations (Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1991), 89.

    9. Public Affairs Council, State Government Relations: Results of a Survey of Fifty-five Corporations (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1986), 26; also Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 10.

    10. James E. Post and Jennifer J. Griffin, The State of Corporate Public Affairs: 1996 Survey (Foundation for Public Affairs and Boston University School of Management, 1997).

    11. Charles S. Mack, Lobbying and Government Relations: A Guide for Executives (Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1989), 155.

    12. William E. Cassie and Joel A. Thompson, “Patterns of PAC Contributions to State Legislative Candidates,” in Thompson and Moncrief, State Finance in State Legislative Elections, 158–184.

    13. Daniel Carson, “The Cable TV Tangle: A New Industry Learns the Legislative Ropes,” California Journal, June 1988, 252.

    14. A. G. Block and Stephanie Carviello, “Putting on the Squeeze,” California Journal, April 1987, 179.

    15. See Michael J. Malbin and Thomas L. Gais, The Day after Reform (Albany: Rockefeller Institute Press, 1998).

    16. Ed McCool, quoted in Star-Ledger (Newark, N.J.), June 29, 1990.

    17. David B. Magleby and Candice J. Nelson, The Money Chase: Congressional Campaign Finance Reform (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1990), 77–79; Kay Lehman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Democracy (New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 256.

    18. John R. Wright, “Contributions, Lobbying, and Committee Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives,” American Political Science Review 84 (June 1990): 434.

    19. Richard L. Hall and Frank W. Wayman, “Buying Time: Moneyed Interests and the Mobilization of Bias in Congressional Committees,” American Political Science Review 84 (September 1990): 798, 814.

    20. The following section is based in part on Rosenthal, Drawing the Line, 151–158.

    21. Daniel M. Weintraub, “California Leaders Look at Limits,” State Legislatures (July 1994), 41.

    22. A. G. Block, “The Ethics Jungle,” California Journal, April 1990, 177.

    23. Kathleen Sylvester, “The Chastening of the Trial Lawyers,” Governing, February 1991, 30.

    24. Malbin and Gais, The Day after Reform, 89, 98–99.

    25. Alan Ehrenhalt, “Political Pawns,” Governing, July 2000, 20–24.

    26. Nownes and Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States.”

    27. This section draws on Elizabeth Gerber, The Populist Paradox: Interest Group Influence and the Promise of Direct Legislation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).

    28. Charles Mahtesian, “Grassroots Charade,” Governing, November 1998, 41.

    Chapter 8 (Pages 147–177)

    1. James Q. Wilson defines a coalition very differently—as “an enduring arrangement.” And for him an alliance is a “temporary arrangement.” Political Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 267, 277–278.

    2. Jennifer Getz, “The GluckShaw Group: Three Case Studies,” internship paper, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 8, 1998, 14–15.

    3. Kathleen Sylvester, “The Chastening of the Trial Lawyers,” Governing, February 1991, 29.

    4. Charles S. Mack, Lobbying and Government Relations: A Guide for Executives (Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1989), 118–119.

    5. Christine Stearns, “Coalitions,” internship paper, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 1996, 7.

    6. Ibid., 6.

    7. Ralph J. Marlart, “The Art of the Deal—Advanced Association Lobbying,” unpublished paper, n.d.

    8. Kenneth M. Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 3.

    9. See Ken Kollman, Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 3, 23, 57. Also Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 7th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999), 125.

    10. Quoted in Karl T. Kurtz, “The Old Statehouse, She Ain't What She Used to Be,” National Conference of State Legislatures, July 26, 1993, photocopy, 13.

    11. Kollman, Outside Lobbying, 4, 23.

    12. Anthony J. Nownes and Patricia Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 1996.

    13. James E. Post and Jennifer J. Griffin, The State of Corporate Public Affairs: 1996 Survey (Foundation for Public Affairs and Boston University School of Management, 1997).

    14. Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady, Voice and Equality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 56.

    15. Elizabeth A. Capell, “The Rich Get Richer: Term Limits and Interest Groups in California,” undated paper, 15.

    16. New York Times, May 21, 2000.

    17. Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation, 61; Laureen Lazarovici, “The Rise of the Wind-Makers,” California Journal, June 1995, 17; Tom Price, Creating a Digital Democracy: The Impact of the Internet on Public Policy-Making (Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Public Affairs, 1999), 12.

    18. Kollman, Outside Lobbying, 52; Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America, 64.

    19. Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 24, 28–31.

    20. Richard A. Armstrong, “Corporations and State Government Relations: An Overview,” in Leveraging State Government Relations, ed. Wesley Pedersen (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1990), 10–11.

    21. Mack, Lobbying and Government Relations, 131–136.

    22. Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation, 62.

    23. Price, Creating a Digital Democracy, 9.

    24. Kim Rogers Burdick, “A Folklorist Looks at Lobbyists,” College of Urban Affairs, University of Delaware, unpublished paper, May 1990, 34–35.

    25. Star-Ledger, May 18, 1990.

    26. New York Times, May 25, 1997.

    27. It should be noted that the questions asked were introduced by the statement: “Estimates are that legalized sports betting would generate an additional 50–150 million dollars in added revenues to fund utility and prescription drug assistance for senior citizens.” This might help to explain the telephone survey's positive response rate.

    28. See Ginger Gold, “Lobbyists: A Love Story,” internship paper, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 14, 1990.

    29. Janet B. Johnson and Joseph A. Pika, “Delaware: Friends and Neighbors Politics,” in Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993), 67–68.

    30. Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation, 39, 45; Kollman, Outside Lobbying, 4; and Buddy Gill, “Credit Unions vs. Banks,” Campaigns and Elections, July 1998, 42.

    31. Kollman, Outside Lobbying, 8, 22, 23.

    32. Mack, Lobbying and Government Relations, 145–150.

    33. Nownes and Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States.”

    34. William P. Browne, “Issue Niches and the Limits of Interest Group Influence,” in Interest Group Politics, 3d ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis, (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1991), 359.

    35. Ibid.; also Jeffrey Berry, “The Rise of Citizen Groups,” in Civic Engagement in American Democracy, ed. Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 387.

    36. Samuel K. Gove and James D. Nowlan, Illinois Politics and Government (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996), 59.

    37. Ann Bancroft, “The Consultant Is In,” California Journal, September 1991, 411–412.

    38. Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Everything You Think You Know about Politics … And Why You're Wrong (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 125–126, 128, 129.

    39. Kollman, Outside Lobbying, 36.

    40. Nownes and Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States.”

    41. New York Times, March 21, 1995.

    42. New York Times, April 11, 2000.

    Chapter 9 (Pages 178–210)

    1. Kay Lehman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Democracy (New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 150. The authors conducted a survey in which they asked federal lobbyists about twenty-seven techniques of exercising influence.

    2. Anthony J. Nownes and Patricia Freeman, “Interest Group Activity in the States,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 1996.

    3. Arkansas Democrat, June 24, 1990.

    4. Loren Otis, “The Big Schmooze,” New Jersey Monthly, August 1998, 69.

    5. H. C. Pittman, Inside the Third House (Austin: Eakin Press, 1992), 255.

    6. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Ruth K. Scott, Interest Group Politics in America, 2d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1990), 96; also Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969), 162.

    7. Michael J. BeVier, Politics Backstage: Inside the California Legislature (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979), 74–76.

    8. Paul Hollrah, “Lobbying State Capitols: Rules for a New Game,” State Policy, January 1984, 5.

    9. Zeigler and Baer, Lobbying, 132–133.

    10. Alan Ehrenhalt, “In Alabama Politics, the Teachers Are Sitting at the Head of the Class,” Governing, December 1988, 27.

    11. Max Boot, “Business Associations—Big Names, Less Clout,” California Journal, October 1988, 454.

    12. Michael Baer, “Legislative Lobbying: In Washington and the States,” Georgia Political Science Association Journal 2 (1974): 26.

    13. William K. Muir, Jr., Legislature: California's School for Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 19.

    14. Frank R. Baumgartner, Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and Political Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 140.

    15. Ginger Gold, “Lobbyists: A Love Story,” Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University, May 14, 1990.

    16. Jeffery M. Berry, The Interest Group Society (Boston: Little, Brown, 1984), 121.

    17. Alan Ehrenhalt, The United States of Ambition (New York: Times Books, 1991), 205.

    18. Muir, Legislature, 19.

    19. Randy Welch, “Lobbyists, Lobbyists All Over the Lot,” State Legislatures, February 1989, 19.

    20. State Government Relations Institute, New Brunswick, N.J., July 9, 1990.

    21. Malcolm E. Jewell and Penny M. Miller, The Kentucky Legislature: Two Decades of Change (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988), 276.

    22. James Richardson, Willie Brown: A Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 347–351. It should be noted that consumers were not satisfied with the “Napkin Deal” and a year later passed Proposition 103, which imposed drastic rollbacks on insurance companies.

    Chapter 10 (Pages 211–229)

    1. Robert E. Wood, “Measuring Performance: The Critical Factors,” in Leveraging State Government Relations, ed. Wesley Pedersen (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1990), 50–51.

    2. Seymour Lusterman, Managing Business-State Government Relations (New York: The Conference Board, 1983), 13.

    3. Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth L. Leech, Basic Interest: The Importance of Groups in Politics and Political Science (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), 36–37.

    4. Andrew Baker, MetPath (remarks at the State Government Relations' Institute, New Brunswick, N.J., July 12, 1990).

    5. The survey is reported in Kay Lehman Schlozman and John T. Tierney, Organized Interests and American Democracy (New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 104.

    6. Stanley Arnoff, quoted in Columbus Dispatch, February 2, 2000.

    7. Rowland Stiteler, “Influence Peddling,” Florida Magazine, Orlando Sentinel, May 29, 1988.

    8. Gallup Organization, “The 1987 Gallup Survey of the New Jersey State Legislature” (Princeton, N.J.: Gallup, 1987).

    9. Jack D. Fleer, North Carolina Government and Politics (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 185.

    10. James Q. Wilson, Political Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 308.

    11. Stiteler, “Influence Peddling.”

    12. Harmon Zeigler and Michael A. Baer, Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969), 133.

    13. W. John Moore, “Have Smarts, Will Travel,” National Journal, November 28, 1987, 3023.

    14. Schlozman and Tierney, Organized Interests, 314.

    15. William J. Crotty et al., eds., Representing Interests and Interest Group Representation (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1994), 29; Fleer, North Carolina Government, 183; Keith E. Hamm and Charles Wiggins, “Texas: The Transformation from Personal to Informational Lobbying,” in Interest Group Politics in the Southern States, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992), 174–175.

    16. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” in Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 7th ed., ed. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999), 134–135.

    17. Ibid., 132; also Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar, “Who's Got Clout? Interest Group Power in the States,” State Legislatures, April 1999, 31.

    18. John A. Straayer, The Colorado General Assembly (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), 179–181.

    19. Paul Brace and John A. Straayer, “Colorado: PACs, Political Candidates, and Conservatism,” in Interest Group Politics in the American West, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987), 56.

    20. Robert H. Salisbury, “The Paradox of Interest Groups in Washington—More Groups, Less Clout,” and Aaron Wildavsky, “A World of Difference—The Public Philosophies and Political Behaviors of Rival American Cultures,” in The New American Political System, 2d ed., ed. Anthony King (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute 1990), 203–229 and 263–286.

    21. Kathleen Sylvester, “The Tobacco Industry Will Walk a Mile to Stop an Anti-Smoking Law,” Governing, May 1989, 34.

    22. Janet B. Johnson and Joseph A. Pika, “Delaware: Friends and Neighbors Politics,” in Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States, ed. Ronald J. Hrebenar and Clive S. Thomas (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993), 66.

    23. Jeffrey M. Berry, The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999), 129.

    24. Ibid., 391.

    25. Quoted in Common Cause, “Lobbying Law Reform in the States,” unpublished paper, September 1988, 2.

    26. Allan J. Cigler and Dwight C. Kiel, The Changing Nature of Interest Group Politics in Kansas (Topeka: Capitol Complex Center, University of Kansas, June 1988), 16–18.

    27. Wilson, Political Organizations, 345.

    Selected Bibliography

    The following books and articles are among the most informative scholarly and applied work on lobbying and lobbyists, with emphasis on the states.
    Ambrosius, Margery M., and SusanWelch. “State Legislators’ Perceptions of Business and Labor Interests.”Legislative Studies Quarterly13 (May 1988): 199–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/439821
    Baumgartner, Frank R., and Beth L.Leech. Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9781400822485
    Berg, John C.“Massachusetts Citizen Power and Corporate Power.” In Hrebenar and Thomas, Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States, 167–198.
    Berman, David R. Arizona Politics and Government: The Quest for Autonomy, Democracy, and DevelopmentLincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
    Berry, Jeffrey M. The Interest Group Society.
    3d ed
    . N.Y.: Longman, 1997.
    Berry, Jeffrey M.“The Rise of Citizen Groups.” In Skocpol and Fiorina, 367–393.
    Berry, Jeffrey M. The New Liberalism: The Rising Power of Citizen Groups. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.
    BeVier, Michael J. Politics Backstage: Inside the California Legislature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979.
    Blair, Diane D. Arkansas Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988.
    Brisbin, Richard A., Jr., Robert JayDilger, Allan S.Hammock, and Christopher Z.Mooney. West Virginia Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    Browne, William P.“Organized Interests and Their Issue Niches: A Search for Pluralism in a Policy Domain.”Journal of Politics52 (1990): 477–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2131903
    Browne, William P., and Delbert J.Ringquist. “Michigan: Diversity and Professionalism in a Partisan Environment.” In Hrebenar and Thomas, Interest Group Politics in the Midwestern States, 117–144.
    Browne, William P., and KennethVerburg. Michigan Politics and Government: Facing Change in a Complex State. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
    Cassie, William E., and Joel A.Thompson. “Patterns of PAC Contributions to State Legislative Candidates.” In Thompson and Moncrief, 158–184.
    Chi, Keon S.“Lobbying in State Legislatures: Optimism for the Future.”State Trends Forecasts5 (September 1996): 1–41.
    Cigler, Allan J., and Burdett A.Loomis. Interest Group Politics,
    5th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998.
    Crawford, Kenneth Gale. The Pressure Boys: The Inside Story of Lobbying in America. New York: Arno Press, 1974.
    Cronin, Thomas E., and Robert D.Loevy. Colorado Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
    Crotty, William J., Mildred A.Schwartz, and John C.Green, eds. Representing Interests and Interest Group Representation, Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1994.
    Deakin, James. The Lobbyists. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1966.
    Driggs, Don W., and Leonard E.Goodall. Nevada Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    Ehrenhalt, Alan. The United States of Ambition. New York: Times Books, 1991.
    Ehrenhalt, Alan.“Political Pawns.”Governing, July 2000, 20–24.
    Elazar, Daniel J. American Federalism: A View from the States,
    2d ed.
    New York: Crowell, 1972.
    Elazar, Daniel J., VirginiaGray, and WymanSpano. Minnesota Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
    Fiorina, Morris P.“A Dark Side of Civic Engagement.” In Skocpol and Fiorina, 395–425.
    Fleer, Jack D. North Carolina Government and Politics. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
    Gerber, Elizabeth. The Populist Paradox: Interest Group Influence and the Promise of Direct Legislation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
    Gierzynski, Anthony, and David A.Breaux. “The Financing Role of Parties.” In Thompson and Moncrief, 185–205.
    Goldstein, Kenneth M. Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528019
    Gore, Samuel K., and James D.Nowlan. Illinois Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    Graham, Cole Blease, Jr., and William V.Moore. South Carolina Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
    Grau, Craig H.“Minnesota: Labor and Business in an Issue-Oriented State.” In Hrebenar and Thomas, Interest Group Politics in the Midwestern States, 145–164.
    Gray, Virginia, and DavidLowery. Population Ecology of Interest Representation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.
    Hall, Richard L., and Frank W.Wayman. “Buying Time: Moneyed Interests and the Mobilization of Bias in Congressional Committees.”American Political Science Review84 (September 1990): 797–820. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1962767
    Hayes, Michael T. Lobbyists and Legislators. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1981.
    Hogan, Robert E., and Keith E.Hamm. “Variations in District-Level Campaign Spending in State Legislatures.” In Thompson and Moncrief, 59–79.
    Hrebenar, Ronald J., and Clive S.Thomas, eds. Interest Group Politics in the American West. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1987.
    Hrebenar, Ronald J., and Clive S.Thomas, eds. Interest Group Politics in the Midwestern States. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993.
    Hrebenar, Ronald J., and Clive S.Thomas, eds. Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.
    Hrebenar, Ronald J., and Ruth K.Scott. Interest Group Politics in America,
    2d ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990.
    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. Everything You Think You Know about Politics … And Why You're Wrong. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
    Jewell, Malcolm E., and Penny M.Miller. The Kentucky Legislature: Two Decades of Change. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1988.
    Johnson, Janet B., and Joseph A.Pika. “Delaware: Friends and Neighbors Politics.” In Hrebenar and Thomas, Interest Group Politics in the Northeastern States, 61–93.
    King, Anthony, ed. The New American Political System,
    2d ed
    . Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-12337-7
    Kollman, Ken. Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
    Lupia, Arthur.“Shortcuts versus Encyclopedias: Inflation and Voting Behavior on California Insurance Reform Elections.”American Political Science Review88 (1994): 63–76.
    Lusterman, Seymour. Managing Business-State Government Relations. New York: The Conference Board, 1983.
    Mack, Charles S. Lobbying and Government Relations: A Guide for Executives. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1989.
    Mack, Charles S. The Executive's Handbook of Trade and Business Associations. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books, 1991.
    Magleby, David B., and Candice J.Nelson. The Money Chase: Congressional Campaign Finance Reform. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1990.
    Mahtesian, Charles.“Grassroots Charade.”Governing, November 1998, 38–42.
    Malbin, Michael J., and Thomas L.Gais. The Day after Reform: Sobering Campaign Finance Lessons from the American States. Albany: Rockefeller Institute Press, 1998.
    Milbrath, Lester W. The Washington Lobbyists. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963.
    Miller, Penny M. Kentucky Politics and Government: Do We Stand United?Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
    Moncrief, Gary F.“Candidate Spending in State Legislative Races.” In Thompson and Moncrief, 37–58.
    Morgan, David R., Robert E.England, and George G.Humphreys. Oklahoma Politics and Policies: Governing the Sooner State. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.
    Muir, William K., Jr.Legislature: California's School for Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
    Nownes, Anthony J. “Solicited Advice and Lobbyist Power: Evidence from Three American States.” Legislative Studies Quarterly24 (May 1999): 113–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/440303
    Palmer, Kenneth T., G. ThomasTaylor, and Marcus A.LiBrizzi. Maine Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.
    Pedeliski, Theodore B.“North Dakota: Constituency Coupling in a Moralistic Political Culture.” In Hrebenar and Thomas, Interest Group Politics in the Midwestern States, 216–242.
    Pedersen, Wesley, ed. Leveraging State Government Relations. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Council, 1990.
    Pittman, H. C. Inside the Third House. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1992.
    Post, James E., and Jennifer J.Griffin. The State of Corporate Public Affairs: 1996 Survey. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Public Affairs and Boston University School of Management, 1997.
    Price, Tom. Creating a Digital Democracy: The Impact of the Internet on Public Policy-Making. Washington, D.C.: Foundation for Public Affairs, 1999.
    Rauch, Jonathan. Demosclerosis: The Silent Killer of American Government. New York: Times Books, 1994.
    Richardson, James. Willie Brown: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
    Rosenthal, Alan. Drawing the Line: Legislative Ethics in the States. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    Rosenthal, Alan. The Decline of Representative Democracy. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998.
    Salisbury, Robert H.“Interest Representation: The Dominance of Institutions.”American Political Science Review78 (March 1984): 64–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1961249
    Salisbury, Robert H.“Who Works With Who? Interest Group Alliances and Opposition.”American Political Science Review81 (December 1987): 1217–1233. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1962586
    Salisbury, Robert H. Interested Institutions. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994.
    Salisbury, Robert H., et al. “Who You Know Versus What You Know: The Uses of Government Experience for Washington Lobbyists.”American Journal of Political Science33 (February 1989): 175–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2111258
    Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and John T.Tierney. Organized Interests and American Democracy. New York: Harper and Row, 1986.
    Skocpol, Theda, and Morris P.Fiorina, eds. Civic Engagement in American Democracy. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.
    Skocpol, Theda, and Morris P.Fiorina. “Making Sense of the Civic Engagement Debate.” In Skocpol and Fiorina, 1–23.
    Straayer, John A. The Colorado General Assembly. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990.
    Thomas, Clive S., and Ronald J.Hrebenar. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis,
    7th ed.
    , edited by VirginiaGray, Russell L.Hanson, and HerbertJacob, 113–143. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1999.
    Thomas, Clive S., and Ronald J.Hrebenar. “Who's Got Clout? Interest Group Power in the States.”State Legislature, April 1999: 30–34.
    Thompson, Joel A., and Gary F.Moncrief, eds. Campaign Finance in State Legislative Elections. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1998.
    Verba, Sidney, Kay LehmanSchlozman, and Henry E.Brady. Voice and Equality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
    Walker, Jack L., Jr.“The Origin and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America.”American Political Science Review77 (June 1983): 390–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1958924
    Walker, Jack L., Jr.Mobilizing Interest Groups in America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.
    Wilson, James Q. Political Organizations. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
    Wolpe, Bruce C., and Bertram J.Levine. Lobbying Congress: How the System Works. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1996.
    Wright, John R.“Contributions, Lobbying, and Committee Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives.”American Political Science Review84 (June 1990): 417–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1963527
    Wright, John R. Interest Groups in Congress: Lobbying, Contributions and Influence. Needham, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 1996.
    Zeigler, Harmon, and Michael A.Baer. Lobbying: Interaction and Influence in American State Legislatures. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1969.

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