The Presidency A to Z

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Gerhard Peters, John T. Woolley & Michael Nelson

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      CQ Press: American Government A to Z Series

      With more than 1,000 easy-to-read alphabetical entries, the CQ Press American Government A to Z Series provides concise information on the institutions of American democracy. Available in print and online, these A to Z reference works are the best sources for any American government curriculum. They are ideal for high school coursework and for undergraduate survey courses.

      Congress A to Z, 5th Edition No other volume so clearly and concisely explains the inner workings of the national legislature.

      Elections A to Z, 4th Edition This single, convenient volume explores vital aspects of campaigns and elections, from voting rights to the current state of House, Senate, and presidential elections.

      The Presidency A to Z, 5th Edition This is an invaluable quick-information guide to the executive branch and its responses to the challenges facing the nation over time.

      The U.S. Constitution A to Z, 2nd Edition This is an ideal resource for anyone who wants reliable information on the U.S. Constitution and its impact on U.S. government and politics.

      The Supreme Court A to Z, 5th Edition This is the definitive source for information on the Court, its justices, and its impact on American democracy.

      List of Figures and List of Tables

      About the Authors

      Gerhard Peters is the co-creator and director, along with John T. Woolley, of the American Presidency Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and is a professor of political science at Citrus College in Glendora, California. Peters is a frequent contributor to the media on questions regarding the presidency and has appeared as a guest on Voice of America, National Public Radio, and the BBC. He was a coauthor with Deborah Kalb and John T. Woolley in the CQ Press volume State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush.

      John T. Woolley is a professor of political science and department chair at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Co-creator and director of the American Presidency Project, Woolley has written extensively on presidents’ management of the economy, presidential vetoes, and the study of change in the presidency. Along with Gerhard Peters, he was a coauthor in State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush.

      About the Book

      The Presidency A to Z is part of CQ Press's five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government, the election of members of Congress and the president, and the nation's most important document, the Constitution. In these volumes, CQ Press's writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U.S. government in a comprehensive, ready-reference encyclopedia format. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics.

      The Presidency A to Z offers accessible information about the historical foundations of the American presidency, the institution's development over time, the organization of the executive branch, presidential elections, the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, and the lives of presidents and vice presidents. The volume also includes a detailed index, reference materials about presidential backgrounds, elections, and cabinet members, and a bibliography.

      The fifth edition of The Presidency A to Z has been thoroughly updated to incorporate contemporary events that have shaped the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama, including the 2008 presidential and the 2010 congressional elections, and developments in Afghanistan and Iraq. Controversies related to the nature of presidential power are discussed in new entries on Guantanamo Bay and the War in Afghanistan. In addition, new biographies are included for President Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and Vice President Biden. Presented in an engaging design, this edition contains a wealth of stimulating sidebar material, such as memorable quotations from the history of presidential rhetoric and numerous other features inviting the reader to explore issues in further detail.

      Preface

      Barack Obama's presidency began in January 2009 with a great burst of optimism. Polls showed that he entered office with approval ratings higher than his predecessors dating back to Reagan. Internationally, his election dramatically altered attitudes toward the United States. Within a month of his inaugural, Congress passed an economic stimulus program that was criticized as being both too small and too large. In mid-2010, Congress passed both major health care reform and financial regulatory reform. Both acts were criticized strongly by the Republican Party, and both passed with almost no opposition support.

      As time progressed, it became clear that the economic recovery would be slow despite the stimulus. Obama, despite his rhetorical gifts, seemed unable to rally public support or even to persuade most voters of the many benefits his administration had provided. The result of this was a record loss in the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections and significant losses in the Senate. A new and highly aggressive conservative movement, known as the Tea Party, arose and became a major force within the Republican Party. As Obama moved toward the 2012 elections, divisions among elected officials were sharp and persistent. Despite his intent to forge a bipartisan, moderate consensus, Obama found himself largely trapped in bitter partisan warfare.

      These developments followed a divisive George W. Bush presidency, which had begun inauspiciously in the controversial 2000 election. For the first time in over a century, a president was elected despite the fact that his opponent won more popular votes. This dubious beginning was inconsequential when terrorists attacked the United States in 2001. The Bush administration responded with war in Afghanistan and Iraq, and astonishing assertions of presidential power.

      The president's role as a crisis leader and as the agenda setter for policy reform has rarely seemed more obvious and clear. At the same time the limits on presidential leadership in an institutional setting designed to permit many actors to block innovation had rarely seemed so clear. Compared with many earlier presidents, Bush and Obama had to operate in a context of a far-reaching bureaucratic state that is closely linked to associated interest groups. It is very difficult to dramatically shift direction in such a “thick” bureaucratic and interest group environment.

      In understanding the American Presidency, we have to take into account the nature of the institutional setting (including the Constitution and statutes), the impact of events that presidents largely do not control, and the personal skills and traits of each president.

      At the most basic level, the institutions are defined in Article II of the Constitution. A large body of research on the presidency has looked at such elements as veto use, executive orders, and the position of the president as administrative head of the nation. This research has often been concerned with the philosophical foundations of our institutions as explained in The Federalist Papers. It is often also concerned with court decisions regarding executive power and the process of congressional delegation of authority to the executive.

      The classic distinction is between the narrow view of presidential authority as articulated by William Howard Taft and the broader “stewardship” view of Theodore Roosevelt. In Taft's view, “The President can exercise no power which cannot be fairly and reasonably traced to some specific grant of power or justly implied and included within such express grant as proper and necessary to its exercise.”1 Roosevelt argued by contrast that the president was a “steward of the people” bound to do whatever “the needs of the nation” demanded as long as it was not prohibited in the Constitution.

      More recent research has focused on presidential choice and bargaining in an environment of fluid party organization, interest group politics, and public opinion. The studies have often ventured into the realm of presidential psychology and personality.

      Contemporary scholarship of the presidency largely originates with Clinton Rossiter's American Presidency (1960) and Richard Neustadt's landmark Presidential Power (1960). Rossiter's landmark work considered the formal roles of the presidency—including chief of state, chief executive, diplomat, and legislator—and then moved to highlight prominent “informal roles” increasingly adopted by recent presidents—chief of party, voice of the people, protector of the people, manager of prosperity, and world leader. Rossiter signaled a shift toward a more behavioralist framework for understanding and studying the nation's highest office.

      Neustadt's seminal work on presidential persuasion and behavior, Presidential Power, placed the president squarely at the center of the political system. Unlike the traditional institutionalists, Neustadt's approach advocated an aggressive leader who, from the center of the government, would be the undisputed architect and executor of foreign policy and, especially, a wide-ranging set of domestic policies. To operate successfully from this strategic position, a president would have to utilize “personal,” not formal constitutional, power. This is commonly known as the “power of persuasion,” which is dependent on interpersonal skill and organization and the president's reputation as an able leader.

      Recent years remind us powerfully of the impact of events largely beyond presidential control. Examples include terrorist attacks and the legacies of combating terror, the incidence of financial crises, the transformation of communications and computing technology, environmental accidents, and climate change. These affect the political environment of presidents and present challenges that they must address. It is a truism of the U.S. presidency virtually from the beginning that presidents benefit from positive events and suffer from negative events, no matter what their role was in creating them.

      In the entries of this encyclopedia, we see these elements playing out again and again. Personal talent and skill is often inconsequential in light of serious crises; good luck can make mediocre leaders seem successful. It is good to be reminded of the exceptional political careers that have propelled men to contend for the presidency and to occupy high office. We are humbled to note just how few of these gifted and energetic leaders we truly know.

      GerhardPetersJohn T.WoolleyThe American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara

      1. William H. Taft, Our Chief Magistrate and His Powers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1916), chap. 6.

    • Reference Material

      U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents, 1789–2012

      Backgrounds of U.S. Presidents, 1789–2012

      Summary of Presidential Elections, 1789–2008

      Party Affiliations in Congress and the Presidency, 1789–2013

      Presidential Cabinets, 1789–2012

      Following is a list of cabinet members by administration from George Washington to Barack Obama. Included are dates of service. The list does not include those who served in ad interim appointments.

      George Washington, 1789–1797

      Secretary of State

      • Thomas Jefferson March 22, 1790–Dec. 31, 1793
      • Edmund Randolph Jan. 2, 1794–Aug. 20, 1795
      • Timothy Pickering Dec. 10, 1795–May 12, 1800

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Alexander Hamilton Sept. 11, 1789–Jan. 31, 1795
      • Oliver Wolcott Jr. Feb. 3, 1795–Dec. 31, 1800

      Secretary of War

      • Henry Knox Sept. 12, 1789–Dec. 31, 1794
      • Timothy Pickering Jan. 2–Dec. 10, 1795
      • James McHenry Jan. 27, 1796–May 13, 1800

      Attorney General

      • Edmund Randolph Sept. 26, 1789–Jan. 2, 1794
      • William Bradford Jan. 27, 1794–Aug. 23, 1795
      • Charles Lee Dec. 10, 1795–Feb. 18, 1801

      Postmaster General

      • Samuel Osgood Sept. 26, 1789–Aug. 18, 1791
      • Timothy Pickering Aug. 19, 1791–Jan. 2, 1795
      • Joseph Habersham July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801
      John Adams, 1797–1801

      Secretary of State

      • Timothy Pickering Dec. 10, 1795–May 12, 1800
      • John Marshall June 6, 1800–Feb. 4, 1801

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Oliver Wolcott Jr. Feb. 3, 1795–Dec. 31, 1800
      • Samuel Dexter Jan. 1–May 13, 1801

      Secretary of War

      • James McHenry Jan. 27, 1796–May 13, 1800
      • Samuel Dexter May 13–Dec. 31, 1800

      Attorney General

      • Charles Lee Dec. 10, 1795–Feb. 18, 1801

      Postmaster General

      • Joseph Habersham July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Benjamin Stoddert June 18, 1798–March 31, 1801
      Thomas Jefferson, 1801–1809

      Secretary of State

      • James Madison May 2, 1801–March 3, 1809

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Samuel Dexter Jan. 1–May 13, 1801
      • Albert Gallatin May 14, 1801–Feb. 8, 1814

      Secretary of War

      • Henry Dearborn March 5, 1801–March 7, 1809

      Attorney General

      • Levi Lincoln March 5, 1801–March 3, 1805
      • John C. Breckinridge Aug. 7, 1805–Dec. 14, 1806
      • Caesar Augustus Rodney Jan. 20, 1807–Dec. 11, 1811

      Postmaster General

      • Joseph Habersham July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801
      • Gideon Granger Nov. 28, 1801–Feb. 25, 1814

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Benjamin Stoddert June 18, 1798–March 31, 1801
      • Robert Smith July 27, 1801–March 7, 1809
      James Madison, 1809–1817

      Secretary of State

      • Robert Smith March 6, 1809–April 1, 1811
      • James Monroe April 6, 1811–Sept. 30, 1814 Feb. 28, 1815–March 3, 1817

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Albert Gallatin May 14, 1801–Feb. 8, 1814
      • George Washington Campbell Feb. 9–Oct. 5, 1814
      • Alexander James Dallas Oct. 6, 1814–Oct. 21, 1816
      • William Harris Crawford Oct. 22, 1816–March 6, 1825

      Secretary of War

      • William Eustis March 7, 1809–Jan. 13, 1813
      • John Armstrong Jan. 13, 1813–Sept. 27, 1814
      • James Monroe Oct. 1, 1814–Feb. 28, 1815
      • William Harris Crawford Aug. 1, 1815–Oct. 22, 1816

      Attorney General

      • Caesar Augustus Rodney Jan. 20, 1807–Dec. 11, 1811
      • William Pinkney Dec. 11, 1811–Feb. 10, 1814
      • Richard Rush Feb. 10, 1814–Nov. 13, 1817

      Postmaster General

      • Gideon Granger Nov. 28, 1801–Feb. 25, 1814
      • Return Jonathan Meigs Jr. April 11, 1814–June 30, 1823

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Robert Smith July 27, 1801–March 7, 1809
      • Paul Hamilton May 15, 1809–Dec. 31, 1812
      • William Jones Jan. 19, 1813–Dec. 1, 1814
      • Benjamin Williams Crowninshield Jan. 16, 1815–Sept. 30, 1818
      James Monroe, 1817–1825

      Secretary of State

      • John Quincy Adams Sept. 22, 1817–March 3, 1825

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Harris Crawford Oct. 22, 1816–March 6, 1825

      Secretary of War

      • John C. Calhoun Oct. 8, 1817–March 7, 1825

      Attorney General

      • Richard Rush Feb. 10, 1814–Nov. 13, 1817
      • William Wirt Nov. 13, 1817–March 3, 1829

      Postmaster General

      • Return Jonathan Meigs Jr. April 11, 1814–June 30, 1823
      • John McLean July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Benjamin Williams Crowninshield Jan. 16, 1815–Sept. 30, 1818
      • Smith Thompson Jan. 1, 1819–Aug. 31, 1823
      • Samuel Lewis Southard Sept. 16, 1823–March 3, 1829
      John Quincy Adams, 1825–1829

      Secretary of State

      • Henry Clay March 7, 1825–March 3, 1829

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Richard Rush March 7, 1825–March 5, 1829

      Secretary of War

      • James Barbour March 7, 1825–May 23, 1828
      • Peter Buell Porter May 26, 1828–March 9, 1829

      Attorney General

      • William Wirt Nov. 13, 1817–March 3, 1829

      Postmaster General

      • John McLean July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Samuel Lewis Southard Sept. 16, 1823–March 3, 1829
      Andrew Jackson, 1829–1837

      Secretary of State

      • Martin Van Buren March 28, 1829–March 23, 1831
      • Edward Livingston May 24, 1831–May 29, 1833
      • Louis McLane May 29, 1833–June 30, 1834
      • John Forsyth July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Samuel Delucenna Ingham March 6, 1829–June 20, 1831
      • Louis McLane Aug. 8, 1831–May 28, 1833
      • William John Duane May 29–Sept. 22, 1833
      • Roger B. Taney Sept. 23, 1833–June 25, 1834
      • Levi Woodbury July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of War

      • John Henry Eaton March 9, 1829–June 18, 1831
      • Lewis Cass Aug. 1, 1831–Oct. 5, 1836

      Attorney General

      • John Macpherson Berrien March 9, 1829–July 20, 1831
      • Roger B. Taney July 20, 1831–Sept. 23, 1833
      • Benjamin Franklin Butler Nov. 15, 1833–Sept. 1, 1838

      Postmaster General

      • John McLean July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829
      • William Taylor Barry April 6, 1829–April 30, 1835
      • Amos Kendall May 1, 1835–May 25, 1840

      Secretary of the Navy

      • John Branch March 9, 1829–May 12, 1831
      • Levi Woodbury May 23, 1831–June 30, 1834
      • Mahlon Dickerson July 1, 1834–June 30, 1838
      Martin Van Buren, 1837–1841

      Secretary of State

      • John Forsyth July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Levi Woodbury July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of War

      • Joel Roberts Poinsett March 7, 1837–March 5, 1841

      Attorney General

      • Benjamin Franklin Butler Nov. 15, 1833–Sept. 1, 1838
      • Felix Grundy Sept. 1, 1838–Dec. 1, 1839
      • Henry Dilworth Gilpin Jan. 11, 1840–March 4, 1841

      Postmaster General

      • Amos Kendall May 1, 1835–May 25, 1840
      • John Milton Niles May 26, 1840–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Mahlon Dickerson July 1, 1834–June 30, 1838
      • James Kirke Paulding July 1, 1838–March 3, 1841
      William Henry Harrison, 1841

      Secretary of State

      • Daniel Webster March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843 July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Thomas Ewing March 4–Sept. 11, 1841

      Secretary of War

      • John Bell March 5–Sept. 13, 1841

      Attorney General

      • John Jordan Crittenden March 5–Sept. 13, 1841July 22, 1850– March 3, 1853

      Postmaster General

      • Francis Granger March 8–Sept. 13, 1841

      Secretary of the Navy

      • George Edmund Badger March 6–Sept. 11, 1841
      John Tyler, 1841–1845

      Secretary of State

      • Daniel Webster March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843 July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852
      • Abel Parker Upshur July 24, 1843–Feb. 28, 1844
      • John C. Calhoun April 1, 1844–March 10, 1845

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Thomas Ewing March 4–Sept. 11, 1841
      • Walter Forward Sept. 13, 1841–March 1, 1843
      • John Canfield Spencer March 8, 1843–May 2, 1844
      • George Mortimer Bibb July 4, 1844–March 7, 1845

      Secretary of War

      • John Bell March 5–Sept. 13, 1841
      • John Canfield Spencer Oct. 12, 1841–March 3, 1843
      • James Madison Porter March 8, 1843–Jan. 30, 1844
      • William Wilkins Feb. 15, 1844–March 4, 1845

      Attorney General

      • John Jordan Crittenden March 5–Sept. 13, 1841 July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853
      • Hugh Swinton Legare Sept. 13, 1841–June 20, 1843
      • John Nelson July 1, 1843–March 3, 1845

      Postmaster General

      • Francis Granger March 8–Sept. 13, 1841
      • Charles Anderson Wickliffe Oct. 13, 1841–March 6, 1845

      Secretary of the Navy

      • George Edmund Badger March 6–Sept. 11, 1841
      • Abel Parker Upshur Oct. 11, 1841–July 23, 1843
      • David Henshaw July 24, 1843–Feb. 18, 1844
      • Thomas Walker Gilmer Feb. 19–Feb. 28, 1844
      • John Young Mason March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845 Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849
      James K. Polk, 1845–1849

      Secretary of State

      • John C. Calhoun April 1, 1844–March 10, 1845
      • James Buchanan March 10, 1845–March 7, 1849

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • George Mortimer Bibb July 4, 1844–March 7, 1845
      • Robert John Walker March 8, 1845–March 5, 1849

      Secretary of War

      • William Wilkins Feb. 15, 1844–March 4, 1845
      • William Learned Marcy March 6, 1845–March 4, 1849

      Attorney General

      • John Nelson July 1, 1843–March 3, 1845
      • John Young Mason March 11, 1845–Sept. 9, 1846
      • Nathan Clifford Oct. 17, 1846–March 17, 1848
      • Isaac Toucey June 21, 1848–March 3, 1849

      Postmaster General

      • Charles Anderson Wickliffe Oct. 13, 1841–March 6, 1845
      • Cave Johnson March 7, 1845–March 5, 1849

      Secretary of the Navy

      • John Young Mason March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845 Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849
      • George Bancroft March 11, 1845–Sept. 9, 1846

      Secretary of State

      • James Buchanan
      Zachary Taylor, 1849–1850

      Secretary of State

      • James Buchanan March 10, 1845-March 7, 1849
      • John Middleton Clayton March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Robert John Walker March 8, 1845–March 5, 1849
      • William Morris Meredith March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of War

      • William Learned Marcy March 6, 1845–March 4, 1849
      • George Washington Crawford March 8, 1849–July 23, 1850

      Attorney General

      • Isaac Toucey June 21, 1848–March 3, 1849
      • Reverdy Johnson March 8, 1849–July 20, 1850

      Postmaster General

      • Cave Johnson March 7, 1845–March 5, 1849
      • Jacob Collamer March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Navy

      • John Young Mason March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845 Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849
      • William Ballard Preston March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Thomas Ewing March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      Millard Fillmore, 1850–1853

      Secretary of State

      • John Middleton Clayton March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      • Daniel Webster March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843 July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852
      • Edward Everett Nov. 6, 1852–March 3, 1853

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Morris Meredith March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      • Thomas Corwin July 23, 1850–March 6, 1853

      Secretary of War

      • George W. Crawford March 8, 1849–July 23, 1850
      • Charles Magill Conrad Aug. 15, 1850–March 7, 1853

      Attorney General

      • Reverdy Johnson March 8, 1849–July 20, 1850
      • John Jordan Crittenden March 5–Sept. 13, 1841 July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853

      Postmaster General

      • Jacob Collamer March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      • Nathan Kelsey Hall July 23, 1850–Sept. 13, 1852
      • Samuel Dickinson Hubbard Sept. 14, 1852–March 7, 1853

      Secretary of the Navy

      • William Ballard Preston March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      • William Alexander Graham Aug. 2, 1850–July 25, 1852
      • John Pendleton Kennedy July 26, 1852–March 7, 1853

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Thomas Ewing March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850
      • Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan Aug. 15–Aug. 26, 1850
      • Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart Sept. 12, 1850–March 7, 1853
      Franklin Pierce, 1853–1857

      Secretary of State

      • William Learned Marcy March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Thomas Corwin July 23, 1850–March 6, 1853
      • James Guthrie March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of War

      • Charles Magill Conrad Aug. 15, 1850–March 7, 1853
      • Jefferson Davis March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Attorney General

      • John Jordan Crittenden March 5–Sept. 13, 1841
      • July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853Caleb Cushing March 7, 1853–March 3, 1857

      Postmaster General

      • Samuel Dickinson Hubbard Sept. 14, 1852–March 7, 1853
      • James Campbell March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Navy

      • John Pendleton Kennedy July 26, 1852–March 7, 1853
      • James Cochran Dobbin March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart Sept. 12, 1850–March 7, 1853
      • Robert McClelland March 8, 1853–March 9, 1857
      James Buchanan, 1857–1861

      Secretary of State

      • William Learned Marcy March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857
      • Lewis Cass March 6, 1857–Dec. 14, 1860
      • Jeremiah Sullivan Black Dec. 17, 1860–March 5, 1861

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • James Guthrie March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857
      • Howell Cobb March 7, 1857–Dec. 8, 1860
      • Philip Francis Thomas Dec. 12, 1860–Jan. 14, 1861
      • John Adams Dix Jan. 15–March 6, 1861

      Secretary of War

      • John Buchanan Floyd March 6, 1857–Dec. 29, 1860
      • Joseph Holt Jan. 18–March 5, 1861

      Attorney General

      • Caleb Cushing March 7, 1853–March 3, 1857
      • Jeremiah Sullivan Black March 6, 1857–Dec. 17, 1860
      • Edwin Stanton Dec. 20, 1860–March 3, 1861

      Postmaster General

      • James Campbell March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857
      • Aaron Venable Brown March 7, 1857–March 8, 1859
      • Joseph Holt March 14, 1859–Dec. 31, 1860 Horatio King Feb. 12–March 9, 1861

      Secretary of the Navy

      • James Cochran Dobbin March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857
      • Isaac Toucey March 7, 1857–March 6, 1861

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Robert McClelland March 8, 1853–March 9, 1857
      • Jacob Thompson March 10, 1857–Jan. 8, 1861
      Abraham Lincoln, 1861–1865

      Secretary of State

      • Jeremiah Sullivan Black Dec. 17, 1860–March 5, 1861
      • William Henry Seward March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • John Adams Dix Jan. 15–March 6, 1861
      • Salmon P. Chase March 7, 1861–June 30, 1864
      • William Pitt Fessenden July 5, 1864–March 3, 1865
      • Hugh McCulloch March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869 Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      • Joseph Holt Jan. 18–March 5, 1861Simon Cameron March 5, 1861–Jan. 14, 1862
      • Edwin Stanton Jan. 20, 1862–May 28, 1868

      Attorney General

      • Edwin Stanton Dec. 20, 1860–March 3, 1861
      • Edward Bates March 5, 1861–Sept. 1864
      • James Speed Dec. 2, 1864–July 17, 1866

      Postmaster General

      • Horatio King Feb. 12–March 9, 1861
      • Montgomery Blair March 9, 1861–Sept. 30, 1864
      • William Dennison Jr. Oct. 1, 1864–July 16, 1866

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Isaac Toucey March 7, 1857–March 6, 1861
      • Gideon Welles March 7, 1861–March 3, 1869

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Caleb Blood Smith March 5, 1861–Dec. 31, 1862
      • John Palmer Usher Jan. 1, 1863–May 15, 1865
      Andrew Johnson, 1865–1869

      Secretary of State

      • William Henry Seward March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Hugh McCulloch March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869 Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      • Edwin Stanton Jan. 20, 1862–May 28, 1868
      • John McAllister Schofield June 1, 1868–March 13, 1869

      Attorney General

      • James Speed Dec. 2, 1864–July 17, 1866
      • Henry Stanberry July 23, 1866–March 12, 1868
      • William Maxwell Evarts July 15, 1868–March 3, 1869

      Postmaster General

      • William Dennison Jr. Oct. 1, 1864–July 16, 1866
      • Alexander Williams Randall July 25, 1866–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Gideon Welles March 7, 1861–March 3, 1869

      Secretary of the Interior

      • John Palmer Usher Jan. 1, 1863–May 15, 1865
      • James Harlan May 15, 1865–Aug. 31, 1866
      • Orville Hickman Browning Sept. 1, 1866–March 4, 1869
      Ulysses S. Grant, 1869–1877

      Secretary of State

      • William Henry Seward March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869
      • Elihu Benjamin Washburne March 5–March 16, 1869
      • Hamilton Fish March 17, 1869–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Hugh McCulloch March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869 Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885
      • George Sewel Boutwell March 12, 1869–March 16, 1873
      • William Adams Richardson March 17, 1873–June 3, 1874
      • Benjamin Helm Bristow June 4, 1874–June 20, 1876
      • Lot Myrick Morrill July 7, 1876–March 9, 1877

      Secretary of War

      • John McAllister Schofield June 1, 1868–March 13, 1869
      • John Aaron Rawlins March 13–Sept. 6, 1869
      • William Tecumseh Sherman Sept. 11–Oct. 25, 1869
      • William Worth Belknap Oct. 25, 1869–March 2, 1876
      • Alphonso Taft March 8–May 22, 1876
      • James Donald Cameron May 22, 1876–March 3, 1877

      Attorney General

      • Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar March 5, 1869–June 23, 1870
      • Amos Tappan Akerman June 23, 1870–Jan. 10, 1872
      • George Henry Williams Jan. 10, 1872–May 15, 1875
      • Edwards Pierrepont May 15, 1875–May 22, 1876
      • Alphonso Taft May 22, 1876–March 11, 1877

      Postmaster General

      • John Angel James Creswell March 6, 1869–July 6, 1874
      • James William Marshall July 7–Aug. 31, 1874
      • Marshall Jewell Sept. 1, 1874–July 12, 1876
      • James Noble Tyner July 13, 1876–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Adolph Edward Borie March 9–June 25, 1869
      • George Maxwell Robeson June 26, 1869–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Jacob Dolson Cox March 5, 1869–Oct. 31, 1870
      • Columbus Delano Nov. 1, 1870–Sept. 30, 1875
      • Zachariah Chandler Oct. 19, 1875–March 11, 1877
      Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877–1881

      Secretary of State

      • Hamilton Fish March 17, 1869–March 12, 1877
      • William Maxwell Evarts March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Lot Myrick Morrill July 7, 1876–March 9, 1877
      • John Sherman March 10, 1877–March 3, 1881

      Secretary of War

      • James Donald Cameron May 22, 1876–March 3, 1877
      • George Washington McCrary March 12, 1877–Dec. 10, 1879
      • Alexander Ramsey Dec. 10, 1879–March 5, 1881

      Attorney General

      • Alphonso Taft May 22, 1876–March 11, 1877
      • Charles Devens March 12, 1877–March 6, 1881

      Postmaster General

      • James Noble Tyner July 13, 1876–March 12, 1877
      • David McKendree Key March 13, 1877–Aug. 24, 1880
      • Horace Maynard Aug. 25, 1880–March 7, 1881

      Secretary of the Navy

      • George Maxwell Robeson June 26, 1869–March 12, 1877
      • Richard Wigginton Thompson March 13, 1877–Dec. 20, 1880
      • Nathan Goff Jr. Jan. 7–March 6, 1881

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Zachariah Chandler Oct. 19, 1875–March 11, 1877
      • Carl Schurz March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881
      James A. Garfield, 1881

      Secretary of State

      • William Maxwell Evarts March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881
      • James G. Blaine March 7–Dec. 19, 1881 March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Windom March 8–Nov. 13, 1881 March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891

      Secretary of War

      • Alexander Ramsey Dec. 10, 1879–March 5, 1881
      • Robert Todd Lincoln March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885

      Attorney General

      • Charles Devens March 12, 1877–March 6, 1881
      • Wayne MacVeagh March 7–Oct. 24, 1881

      Postmaster General

      • Horace Maynard Aug. 25, 1880–March 7, 1881
      • Thomas Lemuel James March 8, 1881–Jan. 4, 1882

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Nathan Goff Jr. Jan. 7–March 6, 1881
      • William Henry Hunt March 7, 1881–April 16, 1882

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Carl Schurz March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881
      • Samuel Jordan Kirkwood March 8, 1881–April 17, 1882
      Chester A. Arthur, 1881–1885

      Secretary of State

      • James G. Blaine March 7–Dec. 19, 1881 March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892
      • Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen Dec. 19, 1881–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Windom March 8–Nov. 13, 1881 March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891
      • Charles James Folger Nov. 14, 1881–Sept. 4, 1884
      • Walter Quintin Gresham Sept. 5–Oct. 30, 1884
      • Hugh McCulloch March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869 Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      • Robert Todd Lincoln March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885

      Attorney General

      • Wayne MacVeagh March 7–Oct. 24, 1881
      • Benjamin Harris Brewster Jan. 2, 1882–March 5, 1885

      Postmaster General

      • Thomas Lemuel James March 8, 1881–Jan. 4, 1882
      • Timothy Otis Howe Jan. 5, 1882–March 25, 1883
      • Walter Quintin Gresham April 11, 1883–Sept. 24, 1884
      • Frank Hatton Oct. 15, 1884–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Navy

      • William Henry Hunt March 7, 1881–April 16, 1882
      • William Eaton Chandler April 16, 1882–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Samuel Jordan Kirkwood March 8, 1881–April 17, 1882
      • Henry Moore Teller April 18, 1882–March 3, 1885
      Grover Cleveland, 1885–1889

      Secretary of State

      • Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen Dec. 19, 1881–March 6, 1885
      • Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. March 7, 1885–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Hugh McCulloch March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869 Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885
      • Daniel Manning March 8, 1885–March 31, 1887
      • Charles Stebbins Fairchild April 1, 1887–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of War

      • Robert Todd Lincoln March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885
      • William Crowninshield Endicott March 5, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Attorney General

      • Benjamin Harris Brewster Jan. 2, 1882–March 5, 1885
      • Augustus Hill Garland March 6, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Postmaster General

      • Frank Hatton Oct. 15, 1884–March 6, 1885
      • William Freeman Vilas March 7, 1885–Jan. 16, 1888
      • Donald McDonald Dickinson Jan. 17, 1888–March 5, 1889

      Secretary of the Navy

      • William Eaton Chandler April 16, 1882–March 6, 1885
      • William Collins Whitney March 7, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar March 6, 1885–Jan. 10, 1888
      • William Freeman Vilas Jan. 16, 1888–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Norman Jay Colman Feb. 15–March 6, 1889
      Benjamin Harrison, 1889–1893

      Secretary of State

      • Thomas Francis Bayard Sr. March 7, 1885–March 6, 1889
      • James G. Blaine March 7–Dec. 19, 1881 March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892
      • John Watson Foster June 29, 1892–Feb. 23, 1893

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Charles Stebbins Fairchild April 1, 1887–March 6, 1889
      • William Windom March 8–Nov. 13, 1881 March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891
      • Charles Foster Feb. 25, 1891–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of War

      • William Crowninshield Endicott March 5, 1885–March 5, 1889
      • Redfield Proctor March 5, 1889–Nov. 5, 1891
      • Stephen Benton Elkins Dec. 17, 1891–March 5, 1893

      Attorney General

      • Augustus Hill Garland March 6, 1885–March 5, 1889
      • William Henry Harrison Miller March 5, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Postmaster General

      • Donald McDonald Dickinson Jan. 17, 1888–March 5, 1889
      • John Wanamaker March 6, 1889–March 7, 1893

      Secretary of the Navy

      • William Collins Whitney March 7, 1885–March 5, 1889
      • Benjamin Franklin Tracy March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of the Interior

      • William Freeman Vilas Jan. 16, 1888–March 6, 1889
      • John Willock Noble March 7, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Norman Jay Colman Feb. 15–March 6, 1889
      • Jeremiah McLain Rusk March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893
      Grover Cleveland, 1893–1897

      Secretary of State

      • Walter Quintin Gresham March 7, 1893–May 28, 1895
      • Richard Olney June 10, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Charles Foster Feb. 25, 1891–March 6, 1893
      • John Griffin Carlisle March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of War

      • Stephen Benton Elkins Dec. 17, 1891–March 5, 1893
      • Daniel Scott Lamont March 5, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Attorney General

      • William Henry Harrison Miller March 5, 1889–March 6, 1893
      • Richard Olney March 6, 1893–June 7, 1895
      • Judson Harmon June 8, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Postmaster General

      • John Wanamaker March 6, 1889–March 7, 1893
      • Wilson Shannon Bissel March 8, 1893–April 3, 1895
      • William Lyne Wilson April 4, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Benjamin Franklin Tracy March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893
      • Hilary Abner Herbert March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Interior

      • John Willock Noble March 7, 1889–March 6, 1893
      • Hoke Smith March 6, 1893–Sept. 1, 1896
      • David Rowland Francis Sept. 3, 1896–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Jeremiah McLain Rusk March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893
      • Julius Sterling Morton March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897
      William McKinley, 1897–1901

      Secretary of State

      • Richard Olney June 10, 1895–March 5, 1897
      • John Sherman March 6, 1897–April 27, 1898
      • William Rufus Day April 28–Sept. 16, 1898
      • John Milton Hay Sept. 30, 1898–July 1, 1905

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • John Griffin Carlisle March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897
      • Lyman Judson Gage March 6, 1897–Jan. 31, 1902

      Secretary of War

      • Daniel Scott Lamont March 5, 1893–March 5, 1897
      • Russell Alexander Alger March 5, 1897–Aug. 1, 1899
      • Elihu Root Aug. 1, 1899–Jan. 31, 1904

      Attorney General

      • Judson Harmon June 8, 1895–March 5, 1897
      • Joseph McKenna March 5, 1897–Jan. 25, 1898
      • John William Griggs June 25, 1898–March 29, 1901
      • Philander Chase Knox April 5, 1901–June 30, 1904

      Postmaster General

      • William Lyne Wilson April 4, 1895–March 5, 1897
      • James Albert Gary March 6, 1897–April 22, 1898
      • Charles Emory Smith April 23, 1898–Jan. 14, 1902

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Hilary Abner Herbert March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897
      • John Davis Long March 6, 1897–April 30, 1902

      Secretary of the Interior

      • David Rowland Francis Sept. 3, 1896–March 5, 1897
      • Cornelius Newton Bliss March 6, 1897–Feb. 19, 1899
      • Ethan Allen Hitchcock Feb. 20, 1899–March 4, 1907

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Julius Sterling Morton March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897
      • James Wilson March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913
      Theodore Roosevelt, 1901–1909

      Secretary of State

      • John Milton Hay Sept. 30, 1898–July 1, 1905
      • Elihu Root July 19, 1905–Jan. 27, 1909
      • Robert Bacon Jan. 27–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Lyman Judson Gage March 6, 1897–Jan. 31, 1902
      • Leslie Mortier Shaw Feb. 1, 1902–March 3, 1907
      • George Bruce Cortelyou March 4, 1907–March 7, 1909

      Secretary of War

      • Elihu Root Aug. 1, 1899–Jan. 31, 1904
      • William Howard Taft Feb. 1, 1904–June 30, 1908
      • Luke Edward Wright July 1, 1908–March 11, 1909

      Attorney General

      • Philander Chase Knox April 5, 1901–June 30, 1904
      • William Henry Moody July 1, 1904–Dec. 17, 1906
      • Charles Joseph Bonaparte Dec. 17, 1906–March 4, 1909

      Postmaster General

      • Charles Emory Smith April 23, 1898–Jan. 14, 1902
      • Henry Clay Payne Jan. 15, 1902–Oct. 4, 1904
      • Robert John Wynne Oct. 10, 1904–March 4, 1905
      • George Bruce Cortelyou March 7, 1905–March 3, 1907
      • George von Lengerke Meyer March 4, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Navy

      • John Davis Long March 6, 1897–April 30, 1902
      • William Henry Moody May 1, 1902–June 30, 1904
      • Paul Morton July 1, 1904–July 1, 1905
      • Charles Joseph Bonaparte July 1, 1905–Dec. 16, 1906
      • Victor Howard Metcalf Dec. 17, 1906–Nov. 30, 1908
      • Truman Handy Newberry Dec. 1, 1908–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Ethan Allen Hitchcock Feb. 20, 1899–March 4, 1907
      • James Rudolph Garfield March 5, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • James Wilson March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Commerce and Labor

      • George Bruce Cortelyou Feb. 18, 1903–June 30, 1904
      • Victor Howard Metcalf July 1, 1904–Dec. 16, 1906
      • Oscar Solomon Straus Dec. 17, 1906–March 5, 1909
      William Howard Taft, 1909–1913

      Secretary of State

      • Robert Bacon Jan. 27–March 5, 1909
      • Philander Chase Knox March 6, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • George Bruce Cortelyou March 4, 1907–March 7, 1909
      • Franklin MacVeagh March 8, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of War

      • Luke Edward Wright July 1, 1908–March 11, 1909
      • Jacob McGavock Dickinson March 12, 1909–May 21, 1911
      • Henry Lewis Stimson May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913 July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Attorney General

      • Charles Joseph Bonaparte Dec. 17, 1906–March 4, 1909
      • George Woodward Wickersham March 5, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Postmaster General

      • George von Lengerke Meyer March 4, 1907–March 5, 1909
      • Frank Harris Hitchcock March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Truman Handy Newberry Dec. 1, 1908–March 5, 1909
      • George von Lengerke Meyer March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Secretary of the Interior

      • James Rudolph Garfield March 5, 1907–March 5, 1909
      • Richard Achilles Ballinger March 6, 1909–March 12, 1911
      • Walter Lowrie Fisher March 13, 1911–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • James Wilson March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Commerce and Labor

      • Oscar Solomon Straus Dec. 17, 1906–March 5, 1909
      • Charles Nagel March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913
      Woodrow Wilson, 1913–1921

      Secretary of State

      • Philander Chase Knox March 6, 1909–March 5, 1913
      • William Jennings Bryan March 5, 1913–June 9, 1915
      • Robert Lansing June 24, 1915–Feb. 13, 1920
      • Bainbridge Colby March 23, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Franklin MacVeagh March 8, 1909–March 5, 1913
      • William Gibbs McAdoo March 6, 1913–Dec. 15, 1918
      • Carter Glass Dec. 16, 1918–Feb. 1, 1920
      • David Franklin Houston Feb. 2, 1920–March 3, 1921

      Secretary of War

      • Henry Lewis Stimson May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913 July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945
      • Lindley Miller Garrison March 5, 1913–Feb. 10, 1916
      • Newton Diehl Baker March 9, 1916–March 4, 1921

      Attorney General

      • George W. Wickersham March 5, 1909–March 5, 1913
      • James Clark McReynolds March 5, 1913–Aug. 29, 1914
      • Thomas Watt Gregory Sept. 3, 1914–March 4, 1919
      • Alexander Mitchell Palmer March 5, 1919–March 5, 1921

      Postmaster General

      • Frank Harris Hitchcock March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913
      • Albert Sidney Burleson March 5, 1913–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of the Navy

      • George von Lengerke Meyer March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913
      • Josephus Daniels March 5, 1913–March 5, 1921

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Walter Lowrie Fisher March 13, 1911–March 5, 1913
      • Franklin Knight Lane March 6, 1913–Feb. 29, 1920
      • John Barton Payne March 15, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • James Wilson March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913
      • David Franklin Houston March 6, 1913–Feb. 2, 1920
      • Edwin Thomas Meredith Feb. 2, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Charles Nagel March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913
      • William Cox Redfield March 5, 1913–Oct. 31, 1919
      • Joshua Willis Alexander Dec. 16, 1919–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Labor

      • William Bauchop Wilson March 4, 1913–March 4, 1921
      Warren G. Harding, 1921–1923

      Secretary of State

      • Bainbridge Colby March 23, 1920–March 4, 1921
      • Charles Evans Hughes March 5, 1921–March 4, 1925

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • David Houston Feb. 2, 1920–March 3, 1921
      • Andrew William Mellon March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932

      Secretary of War

      • Newton Diehl Baker March 9, 1916–March 4, 1921
      • John Wingate Weeks March 5, 1921–Oct. 13, 1925

      Attorney General

      • Alexander Mitchell Palmer March 5, 1919–March 5, 1921
      • Harry Micajah Daugherty March 5, 1921–March 28, 1924

      Postmaster General

      • Albert Sidney Burleson March 5, 1913–March 4, 1921
      • William Harrison Hays March 5, 1921–March 3, 1922
      • Hubert Work March 4, 1922–March 4, 1923
      • Harry Stewart New March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Josephus Daniels March 5, 1913–March 5, 1921
      • Edwin Denby March 6, 1921–March 10, 1924

      Secretary of the Interior

      • John Barton Payne March 15, 1920–March 4, 1921
      • Albert Bacon Fall March 5, 1921–March 4, 1923
      • Hubert Work March 5, 1923–July 24, 1928

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Edwin Thomas Meredith Feb. 2, 1920–March 4, 1921
      • Henry Wallace March 5, 1921–Oct. 25, 1924

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Joshua Willis Alexander Dec. 16, 1919–March 4, 1921
      • Herbert Clark Hoover March 5, 1921–Aug. 21, 1928

      Secretary of Labor

      • William Bauchop Wilson March 4, 1913–March 4, 1921
      • James John Davis March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930
      Calvin Coolidge, 1923–1929

      Secretary of State

      • Charles Evans Hughes March 5, 1921–March 4, 1925
      • Frank Billings Kellogg March 5, 1925–March 28, 1929

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Andrew William Mellon March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932

      Secretary of War

      • John Wingate Weeks March 5, 1921–Oct. 13, 1925
      • Dwight Filley Davis Oct. 14, 1925–March 5, 1929

      Attorney General

      • Harry Micajah Daugherty March 5, 1921–March 28, 1924
      • Harlan Fiske Stone April 7, 1924–March 2, 1925
      • John Garibaldi Sargent March 17, 1925–March 5, 1929

      Postmaster General

      • Harry Stewart New March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Edwin Denby March 6, 1921–March 10, 1924
      • Curtis Dwight Wilbur March 19, 1924–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Hubert Work March 5, 1923–July 24, 1928
      • Roy Owen West July 25, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Henry Wallace March 5, 1921–Oct. 25, 1924
      • Howard Mason Gore Nov. 22, 1924–March 4, 1925
      • William Marion Jardine March 5, 1925–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Herbert C. Hoover March 5, 1921–Aug. 21, 1928
      • William Fairfield Whiting Aug. 22, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Labor

      • James John Davis March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930
      Herbert C. Hoover, 1929–1933

      Secretary of State

      • Frank Billings Kellogg March 5, 1925–March 28, 1929
      • Henry Lewis Stimson March 28, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Andrew William Mellon March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932
      • Ogden Livingston Mills Feb. 13, 1932–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of War

      • Dwight Filley Davis Oct. 14, 1925–March 5, 1929
      • James William Good March 6–Nov. 18, 1929
      • Patrick Jay Hurley Dec. 9, 1929–March 3, 1933

      Attorney General

      • John Garibaldi Sargent March 17, 1925–March 5, 1929
      • William DeWitt Mitchell March 5, 1929–March 3, 1933

      Postmaster General

      • Harry Stewart New March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929
      • Walter Folger Brown March 5, 1929–March 5, 1933

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Curtis Dwight Wilbur March 19, 1924–March 4, 1929
      • Charles Francis Adams March 5, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Roy Owen West July 25, 1928–March 4, 1929
      • Ray Lyman Wilbur March 5, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • William Marion Jardine March 5, 1925–March 4, 1929
      • Arthur Mastick Hyde March 6, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of Commerce

      • William Fairfield Whiting Aug. 22, 1928–March 4, 1929
      • Robert Patterson Lamont March 5, 1929–Aug. 7, 1932
      • Roy Dikeman Chapin Aug. 8, 1932–March 3, 1933

      Secretary of Labor

      • James John Davis March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930
      • William Nuckles Doak Dec. 9, 1930–March 4, 1933
      Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933–1945

      Secretary of State

      • Cordell Hull March 4, 1933–Nov. 30, 1944
      • Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. Dec. 1, 1944–June 27, 1945

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Hartman Woodin March 5–Dec. 31, 1933
      • Henry Morgenthau Jr. Jan. 1, 1934–July 22, 1945

      Secretary of War

      • George Henry Dern March 4, 1933–Aug. 27, 1936
      • Harry Hines Woodring Sept. 25, 1936–June 20, 1940
      • Henry Lewis Stimson May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913 July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Attorney General

      • Homer Stille Cummings March 4, 1933–Jan. 2, 1939
      • Francis William Murphy Jan. 17, 1939–Jan. 18, 1940
      • Robert Houghwout Jackson Jan. 18, 1940–July 10, 1941
      • Francis Beverley Biddle Sept. 15, 1941–June 30, 1945

      Postmaster General

      • James Aloysius Farley March 6, 1933–Aug. 31, 1940
      • Frank Comerford Walker Sept. 11, 1940–June 30, 1945

      Secretary of the Navy

      • Claude Augustus Swanson March 4, 1933–July 7, 1939
      • Charles Edison Jan. 2–June 24, 1940
      • William Franklin “Frank” Knox July 11, 1940–April 28, 1944
      • James V. Forrestal May 19, 1944–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Harold LeClair Ickes March 4, 1933–Feb. 15, 1946

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Henry A. Wallace March 4, 1933–Sept. 4, 1940
      • Claude Raymond Wickard Sept. 5, 1940–June 29, 1945

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Daniel Calhoun Roper March 4, 1933–Dec. 23, 1938
      • Harry Hopkins Dec. 24, 1938–Sept. 18, 1940
      • Jesse Holman Jones Sept. 19, 1940–March 1, 1945
      • Henry A. Wallace March 2, 1945–Sept. 20, 1946

      Secretary of Labor

      • Frances Perkins March 4, 1933–June 30, 1945
      Harry S. Truman, 1945–1953

      Secretary of State

      • Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. Dec. 1, 1944–June 27, 1945
      • James Francis Byrnes July 3, 1945–Jan. 21, 1947
      • George C. Marshall Jan. 21, 1947–Jan. 20, 1949
      • Dean Acheson Jan. 21, 1949–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Henry Morgenthau Jr. Jan. 1, 1934–July 22, 1945
      • Frederick Moore Vinson July 23, 1945–June 23, 1946
      • John Wesley Snyder June 25, 1946–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of War

      • Henry Lewis Stimson May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913 July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945
      • Robert Porter Patterson Sept. 27, 1945–July 18, 1947
      • Kenneth Claiborne Royall July 19–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of Defense

      • James Vincent Forrestal Sept. 17, 1947–March 27, 1949
      • Louis Arthur Johnson March 28, 1949–Sept. 19, 1950
      • George Catlett Marshall Sept. 21, 1950–Sept. 12, 1951
      • Robert Abercrombie Lovett Sept. 17, 1951–Jan. 20, 1953

      Attorney General

      • Francis Beverley Biddle Sept. 15, 1941–June 30, 1945
      • Thomas Campbell Clark July 1, 1945–Aug. 24, 1949
      • James Howard McGrath Aug. 24, 1949–April 7, 1952
      • James Patrick McGranery May 27, 1952–Jan. 20, 1953

      Postmaster General

      • Frank Comerford Walker Sept. 11, 1940–June 30, 1945
      • Robert Emmet Hannegan July 1, 1945–Dec. 15, 1947
      • Jesse Monroe Donaldson Dec. 16, 1947–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of the Navy

      • James V. Forrestal May 19, 1944–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Harold LeClair Ickes March 4, 1933–Feb. 15, 1946
      • Julius Albert Krug March 18, 1946–Dec. 1, 1949
      • Oscar Littleton Chapman Dec. 1, 1949–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Claude Raymond Wickard Sept. 5, 1940–June 29, 1945
      • Clinton Presba Anderson June 30, 1945–May 10, 1948
      • Charles Franklin Brannan June 2, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Henry A. Wallace March 2, 1945–Sept. 20, 1946
      • W. Averell Harriman Oct. 7, 1946–April 22, 1948
      • Charles Sawyer May 6, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Labor

      • Frances Perkins March 4, 1933–June 30, 1945
      • Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach July 1, 1945–June 10, 1948
      • Maurice Joseph Tobin Aug. 13, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953
      Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953–1961

      Secretary of State

      • John Foster Dulles Jan. 21, 1953–April 22, 1959
      • Christian Archibald Herter April 22, 1959–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • George Magoffn Humphrey Jan. 21, 1953–July 29, 1957
      • Robert Bernard Anderson July 29, 1957–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Defense

      • Charles Erwin Wilson Jan. 28, 1953–Oct. 8, 1957
      • Neil Hosler McElroy Oct. 9, 1957–Dec. 1, 1959
      • Thomas Sovereign Gates Jr. Dec. 2, 1959–Jan. 20, 1961

      Attorney General

      • Herbert Brownell Jr. Jan. 21, 1953–Nov. 8, 1957
      • William Pierce Rogers Nov. 8, 1957–Jan. 20, 1961

      Postmaster General

      • Arthur Summerfield Jan. 21, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Douglas McKay Jan. 21, 1953–April 15, 1956
      • Fred Andrew Seaton June 8, 1956–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Ezra Taft Benson Jan. 21, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Charles Sinclair Weeks Jan. 21, 1953–Nov. 10, 1958
      • Frederick Henry Mueller Aug. 10, 1959–Jan. 19, 1961

      Secretary of Labor

      • Martin Patrick Durkin Jan. 21–Sept. 10, 1953
      • James Paul Mitchell Oct. 9, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Oveta Culp Hobby April 11, 1953–July 31, 1955
      • Marion Bayard Folsom Aug. 1, 1955–July 31, 1958
      • Arthur Sherwood Flemming Aug. 1, 1958–Jan. 19, 1961
      John F. Kennedy, 1961–1963

      Secretary of State

      • David Dean Rusk Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • C. Douglas Dillon Jan. 21, 1961–April 1, 1965

      Secretary of Defense

      • Robert S. McNamara Jan. 21, 1961–Feb. 29, 1968

      Attorney General

      • Robert F. Kennedy Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 3, 1964

      Postmaster General

      • James Edward Day Jan. 21, 1961–Aug. 9, 1963
      • John A. Gronouski Jr. Sept. 30, 1963–Nov. 2, 1965

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Stewart Lee Udall Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Orville Lothrop Freeman Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Luther Hartwell Hodges Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 15, 1965

      Secretary of Labor

      • Arthur Joseph Goldberg Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 20, 1962
      • William Willard Wirtz Sept. 25, 1962–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Abraham Alexander Ribicoff Jan. 21, 1961–July 13, 1962
      • Anthony Joseph Celebrezze July 31, 1962–Aug. 17, 1965
      Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–1969

      Secretary of State

      • David Dean Rusk Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • C. Douglas Dillon Jan. 21, 1961–April 1, 1965
      • Henry Hamill Fowler April 1, 1965–Dec. 20, 1968
      • Joseph Walker Barr Dec. 21, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Defense

      • Robert S. McNamara Jan. 21, 1961–Feb. 29, 1968
      • Clark McAdams Clifford March 1, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Attorney General

      • Robert F. Kennedy Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 3, 1964
      • Nicholas de Belleville Katzenbach Feb. 11, 1965–Oct. 2, 1966
      • William Ramsey Clark March 2, 1967–Jan. 20, 1969

      Postmaster General

      • John A. Gronouski Jr. Sept. 30, 1963–Nov. 2, 1965
      • Lawrence Francis O'Brien Nov. 3, 1965–April 26, 1968
      • William Marvin Watson April 26, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Stewart Lee Udall Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Orville Lothrop Freeman Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Luther Hartwell Hodges Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 15, 1965
      • John Thomas Connor Jan. 18, 1965–Jan. 31, 1967
      • Alexander Buel Trowbridge June 14, 1967–March 1, 1968
      • Cyrus Rowlett Smith March 6, 1968–Jan. 19, 1969

      Secretary of Labor

      • William Willard Wirtz Sept. 25, 1962–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Anthony Joseph Celebrezze July 31, 1962–Aug. 17, 1965
      • John William Gardner Aug. 18, 1965–March 1, 1968
      • Wilbur Joseph Cohen May 16, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Robert Clifton Weaver Jan. 18, 1966–Dec. 3, 1968

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Alan Stephenson Boyd Jan. 23, 1967–Jan. 20, 1969
      Richard Nixon, 1969–1974

      Secretary of State

      • William Pierce Rogers Jan. 22, 1969–Sept. 3, 1973
      • Henry Alfred Kissinger Sept. 22, 1973–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • David Matthew Kennedy Jan. 22, 1969–Feb. 10, 1971
      • John Bowden Connally Feb. 11, 1971–June 12, 1972
      • George Pratt Shultz June 12, 1972–May 8, 1974
      • William Edward Simon May 8, 1974–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Defense

      • Melvin Robert Laird Jan. 22, 1969–Jan. 29, 1973
      • Elliot Lee Richardson Jan. 30–May 24, 1973
      • James Rodney Schlesinger July 2, 1973–Nov. 19, 1975

      Attorney General

      • John Newton Mitchell Jan. 21, 1969–March 1, 1972
      • Richard Gordon Kleindienst June 12, 1972–May 24, 1973
      • Elliot Lee Richardson May 25–Oct. 20, 1973
      • William Bart Saxbe Jan. 4, 1974–Feb. 3, 1975

      Postmaster General

      • Winton Malcolm Blount Jan. 22, 1969–Jan. 12, 1971

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Walter Joseph Hickel Jan. 24, 1969–Nov. 25, 1970
      • Rogers Clark Ballard Morton Jan. 29, 1971–April 30, 1975

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Clifford Morris Hardin Jan. 21, 1969–Nov. 17, 1971
      • Earl Lauer Butz Dec. 2, 1971–Oct. 4, 1976

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Maurice Hubert Stans Jan. 21, 1969–Feb. 15, 1972
      • Peter George Peterson Feb. 29, 1972–Feb. 1, 1973
      • Frederick Baily Dent Feb. 2, 1973–March 26, 1975

      Secretary of Labor

      • George Pratt Shultz Jan. 22, 1969–July 1, 1970
      • James Day Hodgson July 2, 1970–Feb. 1, 1973
      • Peter Joseph Brennan Feb. 2, 1973–March 15, 1975

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Robert Hutchinson Finch Jan. 21, 1969–June 23, 1970
      • Elliot Lee Richardson June 24, 1970–Jan. 29, 1973
      • Caspar Willard Weinberger Feb. 12, 1973–Aug. 8, 1975

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • George Wilcken Romney Jan. 20, 1969–Feb. 2, 1973
      • James Thomas Lynn Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 10, 1975

      Secretary of Transportation

      • John Anthony Volpe Jan. 22, 1969–Feb. 1, 1973
      • Claude Stout Brinegar Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 1, 1975
      Gerald R. Ford, 1974–1977

      Secretary of State

      • Henry Alfred Kissinger Sept. 22, 1973–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • William Edward Simon May 8, 1974–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Defense

      • James Rodney Schlesinger July 2, 1973–Nov. 19, 1975
      • Donald Henry Rumsfeld Nov. 20, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Attorney General

      • William Bart Saxbe Jan. 4, 1974–Feb. 3, 1975
      • Edward Hirsh Levi Feb. 6, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Rogers Clark Ballard Morton Jan. 29, 1971–April 30, 1975
      • Stanley Knapp Hathaway June 12–Oct. 9, 1975
      • Thomas Savig Kleppe Oct. 17, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Earl Lauer Butz Dec. 2, 1971–Oct. 4, 1976
      • John Albert Knebel Nov. 4, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Frederick Baily Dent Feb. 2, 1973–March 26, 1975
      • Rogers Clark Ballard Morton May 1, 1975–Feb. 2, 1976
      • Elliot Lee Richardson Feb. 2, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Labor

      • Peter Joseph Brennan Feb. 2, 1973–March 15, 1975
      • John Thomas Dunlop March 18, 1975–Jan. 31, 1976
      • William Julian Usery Jr. Feb. 10, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Caspar Willard Weinberger Feb. 12, 1973–Aug. 8, 1975
      • Forrest David Mathews Aug. 8, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • James Thomas Lynn Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 10, 1975
      • Carla Anderson Hills March 10, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Claude Stout Brinegar Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 1, 1975
      • William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. March 7, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977
      Jimmy Carter 1977–1981

      Secretary of State

      • Cyrus Roberts Vance Jan. 23, 1977–April 28, 1980
      • Edmund Sixtus Muskie May 8, 1980–Jan. 18, 1981

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Werner Michael Blumenthal Jan. 23, 1977–Aug. 4, 1979
      • George William Miller Aug. 7, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Defense

      • Harold Brown Jan. 21, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Attorney General

      • Griffin Boyette Bell Jan. 26, 1977–Aug. 16, 1979
      • Benjamin Richard Civiletti Aug. 16, 1979–Jan. 19, 1981

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Cecil Dale Andrus Jan. 23, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Robert Selmer Bergland Jan. 23, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Juanita Morris Kreps Jan. 23, 1977–Oct. 31, 1979
      • Philip M. Klutznick Jan. 9, 1980–Jan. 19, 1981

      Secretary of Labor

      • Fred Ray Marshall Jan. 27, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      • Joseph Anthony Califano Jr. Jan. 25, 1977–Aug. 3, 1979
      • Patricia Roberts Harris Aug. 3, 1979–May 4, 1980

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Patricia Roberts Harris May 4, 1980–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Patricia Roberts Harris Jan. 23, 1977–Aug. 3, 1979
      • Maurice Edwin “Moon” Landrieu Sept. 24, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Brockman “Brock” Adams Jan. 23, 1977–July 22, 1979
      • Neil Goldschmidt July 27, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Energy

      • James Rodney Schlesinger Aug. 6, 1977–Aug. 23, 1979
      • Charles William Duncan Jr. Aug. 24, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Education

      • Shirley Mount Hufstedler Dec. 6, 1979–Jan. 19, 1981
      Ronald Reagan, 1981–1989

      Secretary of State

      • Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. Jan. 22, 1981–July 5, 1982
      • George Pratt Shultz July 16, 1982–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Donald Thomas Regan Jan. 22, 1981–Feb. 1, 1985
      • James Addison Baker III Feb. 4, 1985–Aug. 17, 1988
      • Nicholas Frederick Brady Sept. 16, 1988–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of Defense

      • Caspar Willard Weinberger Jan. 21, 1981–Nov. 21, 1987
      • Frank Charles Carlucci Nov. 23, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Attorney General

      • William French Smith Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 24, 1985
      • Edwin Meese III Feb. 25, 1985–Aug. 12, 1988
      • Richard Lewis Thornburgh Aug. 12, 1988–Aug. 9, 1991

      Secretary of the Interior

      • James Gaius Watt Jan. 23, 1981–Nov. 8, 1983
      • William Patrick Clark Nov. 18, 1983–Feb. 7, 1985
      • Donald Paul Hodel Feb. 8, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • John Rusling Block Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 14, 1986
      • Richard Edmund Lyng March 7, 1986–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Malcolm Baldrige Jan. 20, 1981–July 25, 1987
      • Calvin William Verity Jr. Oct. 19, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Labor

      • Raymond James Donovan Feb. 4, 1981–March 15, 1985
      • William Emerson Brock III April 29, 1985–Oct. 31, 1987
      • Ann Dore McLaughlin Dec. 17, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Richard Schultz Schweiker Jan. 22, 1981–Feb. 3, 1983
      • Margaret Mary O'shaughnessy Heckler March 9, 1983–Dec. 13, 1985
      • Otis Ray Bowen Dec. 13, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Samuel Riley Pierce Jr. Jan. 23, 1981–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Andrew Lindsay “Drew” Lewis Jr. Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 1, 1983
      • Elizabeth Hanford Dole Feb. 7, 1983–Sept. 30, 1987
      • James Horace Burnley IV Dec. 3, 1987–Jan. 30, 1989

      Secretary of Energy

      • James Burrows Edwards Jan. 23, 1981–Nov. 5, 1982
      • Donald Paul Hodel Nov. 5, 1982–Feb. 7, 1985
      • John Stewart Herrington Feb. 11, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Education

      • Terrel Howard Bell Jan. 23, 1981–Dec. 31, 1984
      • William John Bennett Feb. 6, 1985–Sept. 20, 1988
      • Lauro Fred Cavazos Sept. 20, 1988–Dec. 12, 1990
      George H. W. Bush, 1989–1993

      Secretary of State

      • James Addison Baker III Jan. 27, 1989–Aug. 23, 1992
      • Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger Dec. 8, 1992–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Nicholas Frederick Brady Sept. 16, 1988–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of Defense

      • Richard Bruce Cheney March 21, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Attorney General

      • Richard Lewis Thornburgh Aug. 12, 1988–Aug. 9, 1991
      • William Pelham Barr Nov. 26, 1991–Jan. 15, 1993

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Manuel Lujan Jr. Feb. 8, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Clayton Keith Yeutter Feb. 16, 1989–March 1, 1991
      • Edward Rell Madigan March 12, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Robert Adam Mosbacher Feb. 3, 1989–Jan. 15, 1992
      • Barbara Hackman Franklin Feb. 27, 1992–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Labor

      • Elizabeth Hanford Dole Jan. 30, 1989–Nov. 23, 1990
      • Lynn Morley Martin Feb. 22, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Louis Wade Sullivan March 10, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Jack French Kemp Feb. 13, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Samuel Knox Skinner Feb. 6, 1989–Dec. 16, 1991
      • Andrew Hill Card Jr. Feb. 24, 1992–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Energy

      • James David Watkins March 9, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Education

      • Lauro Fred Cavazos Sept. 20, 1988–Dec. 12, 1990
      • Lamar Alexander March 22, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      • Edward Joseph Derwinski March 15, 1989–Sept. 26, 1992
      Bill Clinton, 1993–2001

      Secretary of State

      • Warren Christopher Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 1997
      • Madeleine K. Albright Jan. 23, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Lloyd Bentsen Jan. 22, 1993–Dec. 22, 1994
      • Robert E. Rubin Jan. 19, 1995–July 2, 1999
      • Lawrence H. Summers July 2, 1999–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Defense

      • Les Aspin Jan. 22, 1993–Feb. 2, 1994
      • William J. Perry Feb. 3, 1994–Jan. 22, 1997
      • William S. Cohen Jan. 24, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Attorney General

      • Janet Reno March 12, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Bruce Edward Babbit Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 2, 2001

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Mike Espy Jan. 22, 1993–Dec. 31, 1994
      • Dan Glickman March 30, 1995–Jan. 19, 2001

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Ronald H. Brown Jan. 22, 1993–April 3, 1996
      • William M. Daley Jan. 30, 1997–July 19, 2000
      • Norman Y. Mineta July 21, 2000–Jan. 19, 2001

      Secretary of Labor

      • Robert B. Reich Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 10, 1997
      • Alexis Herman May 1, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Donna E. Shalala Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Henry G. Cisneros Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 17, 1997
      • Andrew M. Cuomo Jan. 29, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Frederico F. Peña Jan. 22, 1993–Feb. 14, 1997
      • Rodney Slater Feb. 14, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Energy

      • Hazel R. O'Leary Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 1997
      • Frederico F. Peña March 12, 1997–June 30, 1998
      • Bill Richardson July 31, 1998–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Education

      • Richard W. Riley Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      • Jesse Brown Jan. 22, 1993–July 1, 1997
      • Togo D. West Jr. April 28, 1998–July 24, 2000
      George W. Bush, 2001–2009

      Secretary of State

      • Colin Powell Jan. 20, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005
      • Condoleezza Rice Jan. 26, 2005–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Paul O'Neill Jan. 20, 2001–Dec. 6, 2002
      • John Snow Jan. 13, 2003–June 30, 2006
      • Henry M. Paulson July 10, 2006–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Defense

      • Donald Rumsfeld Jan. 20, 2001–Dec. 18, 2006
      • Robert M. Gates Dec. 18, 2006–July 1, 2011

      Attorney General

      • John Ashcroft Feb. 1, 2001–Feb. 3, 2005
      • Alberto Gonzales Feb. 3, 2005–Sep. 17, 2007
      • Michael Mukasey Nov. 9, 2007-Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Gale Norton Jan. 31, 2001–Mar. 31, 2006
      • Dirk Kempthorne June 7, 2006–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Ann M. Veneman Jan. 20, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005
      • Mike Johanns Jan. 21, 2005–Sep. 20, 2007
      • Ed Schafer Jan. 28, 2008-Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Don Evans Jan. 20, 2001–Feb. 7, 2005
      • Carlos M. Gutierrez Feb. 7, 2005–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Labor

      • Elaine Chao Jan. 29, 2001–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Tommy Thompson Feb. 2, 2001–Jan. 26, 2005
      • Michael Leavitt Jan. 26, 2005–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Mel Martinez Jan. 24, 2001–Dec. 12, 2003
      • Alphonso Jackson Mar. 31, 2004–April 18, 2008
      • Steve Preston June 5, 2008-Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Norman Mineta Jan. 25, 2001–July 7, 2006
      • Mary Peters Sep. 30, 2006–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Energy

      • Spencer Abraham Jan. 20, 2001–Feb. 1, 2005
      • Samuel Bodman Feb. 1, 2005–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Education

      • Roderick Paige Jan. 20, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005
      • Margaret Spellings Jan. 20, 2005–Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      • Anthony Principi Jan. 23, 2001–Jan. 26, 2005
      • James Nicholson Jan. 26, 2005–Oct. 1, 2007
      • James Peake Dec. 20, 2007-Jan. 20, 2009

      Secretary of Homeland Security

      • Tom Ridge Jan. 24, 2003–Feb. 1, 2005
      • Michael Chertoff Feb. 15, 2005–Jan. 21, 2009
      Barack Obama, 2009–

      Secretary of State

      • Hillary Clinton Jan. 21, 2009–

      Secretary of the Treasury

      • Timothy Geithner Jan. 26, 2009–

      Secretary of Defense

      • Robert M. Gates Dec. 18, 2006–July 1, 2011
      • Leon Panetta July 1, 2011–

      Attorney General

      • Eric Holder Feb. 3, 2009–

      Secretary of the Interior

      • Ken Salazar Jan. 20, 2009–

      Secretary of Agriculture

      • Tom Vilsack Jan. 20, 2009–

      Secretary of Commerce

      • Gary Locke Mar. 26, 2009–Aug. 1, 2011
      • John Bryson Oct. 21, 2011–

      Secretary of Labor

      • Hilda Solis Feb. 24, 2009–

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      • Kathleen Sebelius Apr. 28, 2009–

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      • Shaun Donovan Jan. 26, 2009–

      Secretary of Transportation

      • Ray LaHood Jan. 23, 2009–

      Secretary of Energy

      • Steven Chu Jan. 20, 2009–

      Secretary of Education

      • Arne Duncan Jan. 21, 2009–

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      • Eric Shinseki Jan. 20, 2009–

      Secretary of Homeland Security

      • Janet Napolitano Jan. 21, 2009–
      The Government of the United States

      Federal Government Resources on the Web

      The federal government operates thousands of websites that offer free access to transcripts of presidential speeches, the full texts of bills introduced in Congress, health information, consumer publications about everything from buying a house to helping your child learn to read, and more.

      It's often easiest to find specific government information by starting at a federal gateway or search engine. These sites offer seamless entry to the vast resources the federal government offers online. The sites described below are some of the best federal gateways and search engines currently available.

      University of Michigan Clark Library Government Information Collection

      http://www.lib.umich.edu/clark-library/collections/government-information

      This site offers a superb collection of annotated links to federal government sites and includes statistics, reports, legislation, and policy from all levels of government. This library is a congressionally designated depository for U.S. Government information.

      GPO Access

      http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/

      GPO Access, which is operated by the Government Printing Office, offers the full texts of a huge range of documents from the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Some of the highlights include the texts of all bills introduced in Congress, the Congressional Record, the federal budget, the Federal Register, the U.S. Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, the Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, and electronic versions of the Statistical Abstract of the United States and the United States Government Manual.

      The White House

      http://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government

      The White House provides this page, which has links to sites operated by dozens of federal agencies and commissions. They include the Agency for International Development, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board, Commission on Civil Rights, Environmental Protection Agency, Immigration and Naturalization Service, International Labor Organization, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and National Endowment for the Humanities, among many others.

      The American Presidency Project

      http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu

      The American Presidency Project is an online resource that has consolidated, coded, and organized into a single searchable database the public papers of presidents dating back to George Washington. Founded by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley at the University of California at Santa Barbara, the archives contain over 100,000 documents related to the study of the presidency, including the Public Papers of the Presidents.

      LSU Libraries Federal Agencies Directory

      http://www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/index.html

      This directory is a partnership between Louisiana State University and the Federal Depository Library Program. It provides links to websites operated by federal agencies, departments, boards, commissions, and committees that are listed in the United States Government Manual. The links are not annotated.

      Doc-Law Web Agency Index

      http://www.washlaw.edu/doclaw/executive5m.html

      The Washington University School of Law operates this handy site. Besides providing links to the home pages of federal agency websites, for many agencies it also provides direct links to pages with publications, organizational charts, forms, opinions, manuals, and directories. There also are direct links to libraries operated by many federal agencies.

      FirstGov

      http://www.usa.gov/

      FirstGov is the official gateway and search engine for federal and state government information. The main part of the site is separated into areas that provide links to information for citizens, businesses, and governments. It also has an index of federal and state government websites, e-mail addresses and telephone numbers for federal agencies and departments, a variety of federal forms, and the texts of laws and regulations.

      Constitution of the United States

      We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

      Article I

      Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

      Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

      No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

      [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.]1 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

      When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

      The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

      Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]2 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

      Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.]3

      No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

      The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

      The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

      The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

      Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

      Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

      The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall [be on the first Monday in December],4 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

      Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

      Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

      Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

      Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

      Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

      No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

      Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

      Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

      Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

      Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

      To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

      To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

      To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

      To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

      To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

      To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

      To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

      To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

      To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

      To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

      To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

      To provide and maintain a Navy;

      To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

      To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

      To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

      To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

      To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

      Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

      The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

      No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

      No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.5

      No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

      No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

      No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

      No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

      Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

      No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

      No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

      Article II

      Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

      Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

      [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like Manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice President.]6

      The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

      No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

      In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,7 the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

      The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

      Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

      Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

      He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

      The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by grant-ing Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

      Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

      Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

      Article III

      Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

      Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; —to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; —to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; —to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; —to Controversies between two or more States; —between a State and Citizens of another State; —between Citizens of different States; —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.8

      In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

      The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

      Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

      The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

      Article IV

      Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

      Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

      A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

      [No Person held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labor, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due.]9

      Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

      The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

      Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

      Article V

      The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided [that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and]10 that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

      Article VI

      All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

      This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

      The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

      Article VII

      The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

      Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. IN WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

      George Washington, President and deputy from Virginia.

      [The language of the original Constitution, not including the Amendments, was adopted by a convention of the states on September 17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the states on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.

      Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.

      The Constitution subsequently was ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10, 1791.]

      Amendments
      Amendment I

      (First ten amendments ratified December 15, 1791.)

      Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

      Amendment II

      A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

      Amendment III

      No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

      Amendment IV

      The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

      Amendment V

      No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

      Amendment VI

      In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.

      Amendment VII

      In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

      Amendment VIII

      Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

      Amendment IX

      The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

      Amendment X

      The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

      Amendment XI (Ratified February 7, 1795)

      The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

      Amendment XII (Ratified June 15, 1804)

      The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; —The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; —The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. —]11 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

      Amendment XIII (Ratified December 6, 1865)

      Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

      Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868)

      Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

      Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,12 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

      Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

      Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

      Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

      Amendment XV (Ratified February 3, 1870)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XVI (Ratified February 3, 1913)

      The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

      Amendment XVII (Ratified April 8, 1913)

      The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

      When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

      This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

      Amendment XVIII (Ratified January 16, 1919)

      Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

      Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.]13

      Amendment XIX (Ratified August 18, 1920)

      The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

      Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XX (Ratified January 23, 1933)

      Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

      Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

      Section 3.14 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

      Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

      Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

      Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

      Amendment XXI (Ratified December 5, 1933)

      Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

      Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

      Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

      Amendment XXII (Ratified February 27, 1951)

      Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

      Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

      Amendment XXIII (Ratified March 29, 1961)

      Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

      A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXIV (Ratified January 23, 1964)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXV (Ratified February 10, 1967)

      Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

      Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

      Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

      Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

      Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

      Amendment XXVI (Ratified July 1, 1971)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXVII (Ratified May 7, 1992)

      No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

      source: U.S. Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary, The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended, 100th Cong., 1st sess., 1987, H Doc 100–94.

      Notes

      1. The part in brackets was changed by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

      2. The part in brackets was changed by the first paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

      3. The part in brackets was changed by the second paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

      4. The part in brackets was changed by Section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment.

      5. The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to tax incomes.

      6. The material in brackets was superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

      7. This provision was affected by the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

      8. These clauses were affected by the Eleventh Amendment.

      9. This paragraph was superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment.

      10. Obsolete.

      11. The part in brackets was superseded by Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

      12. See the Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments.

      13. This amendment was repealed by Section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment.

      14. See the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

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