The Presidency A to Z

The Presidency A to Z

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Gerhard Peters, John T. Woolley & Michael Nelson

Abstract

The "Presidency A to Z" is an invaluable tool for understanding the presidency, both historically and today and for appraising how it and the executive branch have responded to the challenges facing the nation. It provides readers with quick information and in-depth background on the presidency through a comprehensive encyclopedia of more than 300 easy-to-read entries. Readers will find: biographies of every president and many others important to the office; explanations of broader concepts and powers relating to the presidency; and discussions of relations with Congress, the Supreme Court, the bureaucracy, political parties, the media, interest groups and the public.

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    • Copyright

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      About the Authors

      Gerhard Peters is the co-creator and director, along with John T. Woolley, of the American Presidency Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and is a professor of political science at Citrus College in Glendora, California. Peters is a frequent contributor to the media on questions regarding the presidency and has appeared as a guest on Voice of America and National Public Radio in southern California. He was a coauthor with Deborah Kalb and John T. Woolley in the CQ Press volume State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush.

      John T. Woolley is a professor of political science and department chair at the University of California, Santa Barbara. One of the creators of the American Presidency Project, Woolley has written extensively on presidents’ management of the economy, presidential vetoes, and the study of change in the presidency. Along with Gerhard Peters, he was a coauthor in State of the Union: Presidential Rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush.

      About the Book

      The Presidency A to Z is part of CQ Press’s five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government, the election of members of Congress and the president, and the nation’s most important document, the Constitution. In these volumes, CQ Press’s writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U.S. government in a comprehensive, ready-reference encyclopedia format. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics.

      The Presidency A to Z offers accessible information about the historical foundations of the American presidency, the institution’s development over time, the organization of the executive branch, presidential elections, the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, and the lives of presidents and vice presidents. The volume also includes a detailed index, reference materials about presidential backgrounds, elections, and cabinet members, and a bibliography.

      The fourth edition of The Presidency A to Z has been thoroughly updated to incorporate contemporary events that have shaped the presidency of George W. Bush, including developments in Iraq and the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In addition, new controversies related to the nature of presidential power and the executive’s relationship to Congress are discussed in new entries on signing statements and the unitary executive theory. Presented in a new and engaging design, this edition contains a wealth of stimulating side-bar material, such as memorable quotations from the history of presidential rhetoric, and numerous other features inviting the reader to explore issues in further detail.

      Preface

      When George W. Bush assumed office in January 2001, it seemed that he had, like his predecessors in the post–World War II era, succeeded in obtaining from the American people the badge of legitimacy. This was especially important because his electoral college triumph was the climax of arguably the most bitterly contested vote in presidential election history, and a rare instance in which a newly elected chief executive received fewer popular votes than his major opponent. Once the Supreme Court halted the manual recount of ballots in Florida by way of its 5–4 decision in Bush v. Gore, effectively assuring Bush of a narrow electoral college victory, questions arose as to whether the president-elect would be able to govern effectively.

      Americans, however, tend to set aside a certain degree of partisanship each four to eight years. Since the era of reliable public opinion polling on presidential job approval was begun by George Gallup in the 1930s, surveys have revealed that new presidents enjoy public approval from a percentage of Americans greater than that which elected them. Although the public’s final opinion of Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Clinton vary, each of these men enjoyed a short “honeymoon” period following their inaugurations in which public approval of their job performances hovered well above 50 percent, and more commonly as high as two-thirds of those polled. George W. Bush was no exception, as he enjoyed support from more than half of the country in early 2001, effectively integrating support from some of those citizens who had voted for Al Gore the previous November.

      Presidential honeymoon periods do come to an end as a combination of many forces, some beyond the president’s control and others wholly within the president’s grasp, begin to shape the president’s ability to lead the nation. Expectations of sweeping changes, as promised by the new president on the campaign trail, usually collide with America’s separated system of government. The promise of substantial new public policies are regularly tempered by the reality that in a system of pluralism, only incremental change may become immediately possible.

      Independent events also start to drive perceptions of presidential leadership. Ronald Reagan, who saw his job approval rating reach almost 70 percent during his first months in office, experienced a protracted decline to the mid-30s over the next two years, as the nation suffered through one of the deepest recessions since the Great Depression. Although Reagan, like all presidents before and after him, could not immediately solve the problems of unemployment through executive order or other forms of unilateral action, Americans’ confidence in his leadership mirrored their financial situation. Fortunately for the president, the economy rebounded, and a robust expansion came just in time for his 1984 reelection campaign.

      As the year 2001 progressed, there were many indications that the Bush administration would continue to press for implementation of Bush’s “compassionate conservative” domestic agenda, including tax cuts, education reform, and promotion of “faith-based” initiatives. His legacy, and prospects for reelection, appeared to hinge on many of the same forces affecting his predecessors: the state of the economy and his ability to forge a bipartisan coalition in Congress and among the electorate by following presidential scholar Richard Neustadt’s advice to use persuasion as a tool.

      Then, on September 11, the most serious attack against the United States since Pearl Harbor served as a tectonic moment in American history that would irreversibly alter the course of the Bush presidency. The public rallied behind its commander in chief as it has done throughout history when American interests are threatened by foreign actors. In the days that followed, the president’s job approval ratings reached the highest point any president had ever enjoyed, topping out at 90 percent. The country was united behind Bush, and he faced virtually no political opposition in retaliating against the al Qaeda terrorist network and its state sponsor, the Taliban government in Afghanistan. As further evidence of the consequence of war, in the 2002 midterm congressional election, the Republicans gained seats in both houses of Congress, bucking a decades-long trend in which an incumbent first-term president’s party loses seats. As Bush said in a 2004 interview on the Sunday morning news program Meet the Press, he had become a “war president.”

      Later that year, with the nation still concerned with its security, Bush won reelection in a relatively close race, this time squeaking out a narrow majority of popular votes over his rival, John Kerry, a Vietnam War–decorated junior senator from Massachusetts. Although Bush’s victory can hardly be considered a landslide similar to the reelection triumphs of Reagan in 1984, Nixon in 1972, Johnson in 1964, Eisenhower in 1956, or Franklin Roosevelt’s multiple successes in 1936, 1940, and 1944, it was perceived by the president as a mandate, one that he claimed earned him “political capital.”

      As Bush’s second term began, the effects of war appeared to have greatly enhanced his ability to dominate the political agenda. Even in wartime, however, the president’s ability to lead is still dependent on public approval, congressional support, and the complexities of America’s separated system. When James K. Polk, another war president, explained in an annual message to Congress that “the war with Mexico has thus fully developed the capacity of republican governments to prosecute successfully a just and foreign war with all the vigor usually attributed to more arbitrary forms of government,” in essence what he declared was that representative government had historically been perceived as too weak and complex to respond effectively to emergencies. Popular sentiment and checks and balances might constrain an executive at the very moment when rapid unilateral decision making is essential.

      In the case of President Bush, Congress continued to support operations in Iraq during the first two years of his second term, partially in deference to his role as commander in chief. As the occupation of Iraq seemed to continue with no apparent end in sight, however, the public’s overall perception of the president’s job performance steadily eroded, and his “political capital” rapidly evaporated. The result was the Republican 109th Congress’s rejection of Bush’s plan for Social Security reform. Following the Republicans’ defeat in the 2006 midterm congressional elections, which was partially a result of the public’s frustration with progress in Iraq, the now Democratic 110th Congress rejected immigration reform in 2007, with opposition this time coming from the GOP minority. President Bush’s political base was crumbling, in large part because of his inability to persuade the nation and thus other actors in the policymaking infrastructure.

      Until about 1960 research on the presidency examined the role of the chief executive as defined in Article II of the Constitution. This narrower, often descriptive, body of research looked at formal roles and powers such as veto use, executive orders, and the position of the president as administrative head of the nation. In addition, much of this research was oriented toward using philosophical foundations such as The Federalist Papers, as well as legal precedents regarding executive power and an examination of delegated authority.

      The “strict constructionist” model of presidential leadership, as articulated by William Howard Taft, provides an example. Taft’s attitude toward the use of noninstitutional and potential presidential power was limited and strict. Ironically, Taft was also a chief justice of the United States following his single-term presidency (1909–1913). As a jurist who used restraint in interpreting the Constitution, Taft noted:

      Although Taft’s philosophic contribution is significant, it is worth noting that his treatise, faithfully implemented in practice when he sat in the White House, was written during the administration of Democrat Woodrow Wilson, who was elected, arguably, because of the intraparty challenge Theodore Roosevelt thrust on American politics with his Progressive Party challenge of, among other issues, Taft’s restrained view of leadership. Taft’s static attitude toward the use of presidential power, while a central contribution to the state of scholarship during the first half of the twentieth century, was already being undermined by developing changes in leadership style practiced by the men who served as president immediately before and after his term.

      In the evolution of presidential scholarship, this strict approach to studying presidential power in the first half of the twentieth century typically excluded or downplayed variables such as interest group politics, public opinion, and bargaining, which have been well integrated into contemporary scholarship. Other variables such as economic conditions and foreign crises or, borrowing from psychological studies, the distinct personalities of presidents, were essentially absent from this earlier body of knowledge.

      Beginning with Clinton Rossiter’s American Presidency (1960), and especially with Richard Neustadt’s landmark Presidential Power (1960), presidency scholarship significantly shifted its coverage and understanding of the office. Keeping with the basic approach of traditional presidency research, Rossiter’s landmark work considered the formal roles of the presidency—including chief of state, chief executive, diplomat, and legislator—yet it moved beyond to highlight five prominent “informal roles” increasingly portrayed by modern presidents—chief of party, voice of the people, protector of the people, manager of prosperity, and world leader. With one foot in the original paradigm and one foot examining newer and more explicitly political and behavioral roles, Rossiter signaled a shift toward a different theoretical framework for understanding and studying the nation’s highest office.

      Neustadt’s seminal work on presidential persuasion and behavior, Presidential Power, placed the president squarely at the center of the political system. Unlike the constitutional approach, which grew in part from a historical tradition of weak executives and a reflexive antagonism toward strong chief executives, this new approach advocated an aggressive leader who, from the center of the government, would be the undisputed architect and executor of foreign policy and, especially, a wide-ranging set of domestic policies. To operate successfully from this strategic position, a president would have to utilize “personal,” not formal constitutional, power. This is commonly known as the “power of persuasion,” which is dependent on interpersonal skill and organization and the president’s reputation as an able leader.

      Returning to the administration of George W. Bush: Bush’s service to the nation as a “war president,” is being tested during his last months in office. Only time will tell whether he was able to maintain the political capital needed to dominate Washington or if he has already assumed “lame duck” status and thus had lost the ability to persuade.

      Gerhard Peters

      John T. Woolley

      The American Presidency Project

      University of California, Santa Barbara

      List of Entries

    • Appendix

      U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents

      Appendix

      Backgrounds of U.S. Presidents, 1789–2007

      Appendix

      Summary of Presidential Elections, 1789–2004

      Appendix

      Party Affiliations in Congress and the Presidency

      Appendix

      Presidential Cabinets, 1789–2007

      Following is a list of cabinet members by administration from George Washington to George W. Bush. Included are dates of service. The list does not include those who served in ad interim appointments.

      George Washington, 1789–1797
      Secretary of State

      Thomas Jefferson

          March 22, 1790–Dec. 31, 1793

      Edmund Randolph

          Jan. 2, 1794–Aug. 20, 1795

      Timothy Pickering

          Dec. 10, 1795–May 12, 1800

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Alexander Hamilton

          Sept. 11, 1789–Jan. 31, 1795

      Oliver Wolcott Jr.

          Feb. 3, 1795–Dec. 31, 1800

      Secretary of War

      Henry Knox

          Sept. 12, 1789–Dec. 31, 1794

      Timothy Pickering

          Jan. 2–Dec. 10, 1795

      James McHenry

          Jan. 27, 1796–May 13, 1800

      Attorney General

      Edmund Randolph

          Sept. 26, 1789–Jan. 2, 1794

      William Bradford

          Jan. 27, 1794–Aug. 23, 1795

      Charles Lee

          Dec. 10, 1795–Feb. 18, 1801

      Postmaster General

      Samuel Osgood

          Sept. 26, 1789–Aug. 18, 1791

      Timothy Pickering

          Aug. 19, 1791–Jan. 2, 1795

      Joseph Habersham

          July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801

      John Adams, 1797–1801
      Secretary of State

      Timothy Pickering

          Dec. 10, 1795–May 12, 1800

      John Marshall

          June 6, 1800–Feb. 4, 1801

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Oliver Wolcott Jr.

          Feb. 3, 1795–Dec. 31, 1800

      Samuel Dexter

          Jan. 1–May 13, 1801

      Secretary of War

      James McHenry

          Jan. 27, 1796–May 13, 1800

      Samuel Dexter

          May 13–Dec. 31, 1800

      Attorney General

      Charles Lee

          Dec. 10, 1795–Feb. 18, 1801

      Postmaster General

      Joseph Habersham

          July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801

      Secretary of the Navy

      Benjamin Stoddert

          June 18, 1798–March 31, 1801

      Thomas Jefferson, 1801–1809
      Secretary of State

      James Madison

          May 2, 1801–March 3, 1809

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Samuel Dexter

          Jan. 1–May 13, 1801

      Albert Gallatin

          May 14, 1801–Feb. 8, 1814

      Secretary of War

      Henry Dearborn

          March 5, 1801–March 7, 1809

      Attorney General

      Levi Lincoln

          March 5, 1801–March 3, 1805

      John C. Breckinridge

          Aug. 7, 1805–Dec. 14, 1806

      Caesar Augustus Rodney

          Jan. 20, 1807–Dec. 11, 1811

      Postmaster General

      Joseph Habersham

          July 1, 1795–Nov. 2, 1801

      Gideon Granger

          Nov. 28, 1801–Feb. 25, 1814

      Secretary of the Navy

      Benjamin Stoddert

          June 18, 1798–March 31, 1801

      Robert Smith

          July 27, 1801–March 7, 1809

      James Madison, 1809–1817
      Secretary of State

      Robert Smith

          March 6, 1809–April 1, 1811

      James Monroe

          April 6, 1811–Sept. 30, 1814,

          Feb. 28, 1815–March 3, 1817

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Albert Gallatin

          May 14, 1801–Feb. 8, 1814

      George Washington Campbell

          Feb. 9–Oct. 5, 1814

      Alexander James Dallas

          Oct. 6, 1814–Oct. 21, 1816

      William Harris Crawford

          Oct. 22, 1816–March 6, 1825

      Secretary of War

      William Eustis

          March 7, 1809–Jan. 13, 1813

      John Armstrong

          Jan. 13, 1813–Sept. 27, 1814

      James Monroe

          Oct. 1, 1814–Feb. 28, 1815

      William Harris Crawford

          Aug. 1, 1815–Oct. 22, 1816

      Attorney General

      Caesar Augustus Rodney

          Jan. 20, 1807–Dec. 11, 1811

      William Pinkney

          Dec. 11, 1811–Feb. 10, 1814

      Richard Rush

          Feb. 10, 1814–Nov. 13, 1817

      Postmaster General

      Gideon Granger

          Nov. 28, 1801–Feb. 25, 1814

      Return Jonathan Meigs Jr.

          April 11, 1814–June 30, 1823

      Secretary of the Navy

      Robert Smith

          July 27, 1801–March 7, 1809

      Paul Hamilton

          May 15, 1809–Dec. 31, 1812

      William Jones

          Jan. 19, 1813–Dec. 1, 1814

      Benjamin Williams Crowninshield

          Jan. 16, 1815–Sept. 30, 1818

      James Monroe, 1817–1825
      Secretary of State

      John Quincy Adams

          Sept. 22, 1817–March 3, 1825

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Harris Crawford

          Oct. 22, 1816–March 6, 1825

      Secretary of War

      John C. Calhoun

          Oct. 8, 1817–March 7, 1825

      Attorney General

      Richard Rush

          Feb. 10, 1814–Nov. 13, 1817

      William Wirt

          Nov. 13, 1817–March 3, 1829

      Postmaster General

      Return Jonathan Meigs Jr.

          April 11, 1814–June 30, 1823

      John McLean

          July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829

      Secretary of the Navy

      Benjamin Williams Crowninshield

          Jan. 16, 1815–Sept. 30, 1818

      Smith Thompson

          Jan. 1, 1819–Aug. 31, 1823

      Samuel Lewis Southard

          Sept. 16, 1823–March 3, 1829

      John Quincy Adams, 1825–1829
      Secretary of State

      Henry Clay

          March 7, 1825–March 3, 1829

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Richard Rush

          March 7, 1825–March 5, 1829

      Secretary of War

      James Barbour

          March 7, 1825–May 23, 1828

      Peter Buell Porter

          May 26, 1828–March 9, 1829

      Attorney General

      William Wirt

          Nov. 13, 1817–March 3, 1829

      Postmaster General

      John McLean

          July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829

      Secretary of the Navy

      Samuel Lewis Southard

          Sept. 16, 1823–March 3, 1829

      Andrew Jackson, 1829–1837
      Secretary of State

      Martin Van Buren

          March 28, 1829–March 23, 1831

      Edward Livingston

          May 24, 1831–May 29, 1833

      Louis McLane

          May 29, 1833–June 30, 1834

      John Forsyth

          July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Samuel Delucenna Ingham

          March 6, 1829–June 20, 1831

      Louis McLane

          Aug. 8, 1831–May 28, 1833

      William John Duane

          May 29–Sept. 22, 1833

      Roger B. Taney

          Sept. 23, 1833–June 25, 1834

      Levi Woodbury

          July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of War

      John Henry Eaton

          March 9, 1829–June 18, 1831

      Lewis Cass

          Aug. 1, 1831–Oct. 5, 1836

      Attorney General

      John Macpherson Berrien

          March 9, 1829–July 20, 1831

      Roger B. Taney

          July 20, 1831–Sept. 23, 1833

      Benjamin Franklin Butler

          Nov. 15, 1833–Sept. 1, 1838

      Postmaster General

      John McLean

          July 1, 1823–March 9, 1829

      William Taylor Barry

          April 6, 1829–April 30, 1835

      Amos Kendall

          May 1, 1835–May 25, 1840

      Secretary of the Navy

      John Branch

          March 9, 1829–May 12, 1831

      Levi Woodbury

          May 23, 1831–June 30, 1834

      Mahlon Dickerson

          July 1, 1834–June 30, 1838

      Martin Van Buren, 1837–1841
      Secretary of State

      John Forsyth

          July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Levi Woodbury

          July 1, 1834–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of War

      Joel Roberts Poinsett

          March 7, 1837–March 5, 1841

      Attorney General

      Benjamin Franklin Butler

          Nov. 15, 1833–Sept. 1, 1838

      Felix Grundy

          Sept. 1, 1838–Dec. 1, 1839

      Henry Dilworth Gilpin

          Jan. 11, 1840–March 4, 1841

      Postmaster General

      Amos Kendall

          May 1, 1835–May 25, 1840

      John Milton Niles

          May 26, 1840–March 3, 1841

      Secretary of the Navy

      Mahlon Dickerson

          July 1, 1834–June 30, 1838

      James Kirke Paulding

          July 1, 1838–March 3, 1841

      William Henry Harrison, 1841
      Secretary of State

      Daniel Webster

          March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843,

          July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Thomas Ewing

          March 4–Sept. 11, 1841

      Secretary of War

      John Bell

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841

      Attorney General

      John Jordan Crittenden

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841,

          July 22, 1850– March 3, 1853

      Postmaster General

      Francis Granger

          March 8–Sept. 13, 1841

      Secretary of the Navy

      George Edmund Badger

          March 6–Sept. 11, 1841

      John Tyler, 1841–1845
      Secretary of State

      Daniel Webster

          March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843,

          July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852

      Abel Parker Upshur

          July 24, 1843–Feb. 28, 1844

      John C. Calhoun

          April 1, 1844–March 10, 1845

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Thomas Ewing

          March 4–Sept. 11, 1841

      Walter Forward

          Sept. 13, 1841–March 1, 1843

      John Canfield Spencer

          March 8, 1843–May 2, 1844

      George Mortimer Bibb

          July 4, 1844–March 7, 1845

      Secretary of War

      John Bell

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841

      John Canfield Spencer

          Oct. 12, 1841–March 3, 1843

      James Madison Porter

          March 8, 1843–Jan. 30, 1844

      William Wilkins

          Feb. 15, 1844–March 4, 1845

      Attorney General

      John Jordan Crittenden

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841,

          July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853

      Hugh Swinton Legare

          Sept. 13, 1841–June 20, 1843

      John Nelson

          July 1, 1843–March 3, 1845

      Postmaster General

      Francis Granger

          March 8–Sept. 13, 1841

      Charles Anderson Wickliffe

          Oct. 13, 1841–March 6, 1845

      Secretary of the Navy

      George Edmund Badger

          March 6–Sept. 11, 1841

      Abel Parker Upshur

          Oct. 11, 1841–July 23, 1843

      David Henshaw

          July 24, 1843–Feb. 18, 1844

      Thomas Walker Gilmer

          Feb. 19–Feb. 28, 1844

      John Young Mason

          March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845,

          Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849

      James K. Polk, 1845–1849
      Secretary of State

      John C. Calhoun

          April 1, 1844–March 10, 1845

      James Buchanan

          March 10, 1845–March 7, 1849

      Secretary of the Treasury

      George Mortimer Bibb

          July 4, 1844–March 7, 1845

      Robert John Walker

          March 8, 1845–March 5, 1849

      Secretary of War

      William Wilkins

          Feb. 15, 1844–March 4, 1845

      William Learned Marcy

          March 6, 1845–March 4, 1849

      Attorney General

      John Nelson

          July 1, 1843–March 3, 1845

      John Young Mason

          March 11, 1845–Sept. 9, 1846

      Nathan Clifford

          Oct. 17, 1846–March 17, 1848

      Isaac Toucey

          June 21, 1848–March 3, 1849

      Postmaster General

      Charles Anderson Wickliffe

          Oct. 13, 1841–March 6, 1845

      Cave Johnson

          March 7, 1845–March 5, 1849

      Secretary of the Navy

      John Young Mason

          March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845,

          Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849

      George Bancroft

          March 11, 1845–Sept. 9, 1846

      Zachary Taylor, 1849–1850
      Secretary of State

      James Buchanan

          March 10, 1845–March 7, 1849

      John Middleton Clayton

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Robert John Walker

          March 8, 1845–March 5, 1849

      William Morris Meredith

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of War

      William Learned Marcy

          March 6, 1845–March 4, 1849

      George Washington Crawford

          March 8, 1849–July 23, 1850

      Attorney General

      Isaac Toucey

          June 21, 1848–March 3, 1849

      Reverdy Johnson

          March 8, 1849–July 20, 1850

      Postmaster General

      Cave Johnson

          March 7, 1845–March 5, 1849

      Jacob Collamer

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Navy

      John Young Mason

          March 26, 1844–March 10, 1845,

          Sept. 10, 1846–March 7, 1849

      William Ballard Preston

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Secretary of the Interior

      Thomas Ewing

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Millard Fillmore, 1850–1853
      Secretary of State

      John Middleton Clayton

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Daniel Webster

          March 6, 1841–May 8, 1843,

          July 23, 1850–Oct. 24, 1852

      Edward Everett

          Nov. 6, 1852–March 3, 1853

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Morris Meredith

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Thomas Corwin

          July 23, 1850–March 6, 1853

      Secretary of War

      George W. Crawford

          March 8, 1849–July 23, 1850

      Charles Magill Conrad

          Aug. 15, 1850–March 7, 1853

      Attorney General

      Reverdy Johnson

          March 8, 1849–July 20, 1850

      John Jordan Crittenden

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841,

          July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853

      Postmaster General

      Jacob Collamer

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Nathan Kelsey Hall

          July 23, 1850–Sept. 13, 1852

      Samuel Dickinson Hubbard

          Sept. 14, 1852–March 7, 1853

      Secretary of the Navy

      William Ballard Preston

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      William Alexander Graham

          Aug. 2, 1850–July 25, 1852

      John Pendleton Kennedy

          July 26, 1852–March 7, 1853

      Secretary of the Interior

      Thomas Ewing

          March 8, 1849–July 22, 1850

      Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan

          Aug. 15–Aug. 26, 1850

      Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart

          Sept. 12, 1850–March 7, 1853

      Franklin Pierce, 1853–1857
      Secretary of State

      William Learned Marcy

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Thomas Corwin

          July 23, 1850–March 6, 1853

      James Guthrie

          March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of War

      Charles Magill Conrad

          Aug. 15, 1850–March 7, 1853

      Jefferson Davis

          March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Attorney General

      John Jordan Crittenden

          March 5–Sept. 13, 1841,

          July 22, 1850–March 3, 1853

      Caleb Cushing

          March 7, 1853–March 3, 1857

      Postmaster General

      Samuel Dickinson Hubbard

          Sept. 14, 1852–March 7, 1853

      James Campbell

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Navy

      John Pendleton Kennedy

          July 26, 1852–March 7, 1853

      James Cochran Dobbin

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Secretary of the Interior

      Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart

          Sept. 12, 1850–March 7, 1853

      Robert McClelland

          March 8, 1853–March 9, 1857

      James Buchanan, 1857–1861
      Secretary of State

      William Learned Marcy

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Lewis Cass

          March 6, 1857–Dec. 14, 1860

      Jeremiah Sullivan Black

          Dec. 17, 1860–March 5, 1861

      Secretary of the Treasury

      James Guthrie

          March 7, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Howell Cobb

          March 7, 1857–Dec. 8, 1860

      Philip Francis Thomas

          Dec. 12, 1860–Jan. 14, 1861

      John Adams Dix

          Jan. 15–March 6, 1861

      Secretary of War

      John Buchanan Floyd

          March 6, 1857–Dec. 29, 1860

      Joseph Holt

          Jan. 18–March 5, 1861

      Attorney General

      Caleb Cushing

          March 7, 1853–March 3, 1857

      Jeremiah Sullivan Black

          March 6, 1857–Dec. 17, 1860

      Edwin Stanton

          Dec. 20, 1860–March 3, 1861

      Postmaster General

      James Campbell

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Aaron Venable Brown

          March 7, 1857–March 8, 1859

      Joseph Holt

          March 14, 1859–Dec. 31, 1860

      Horatio King

          Feb. 12–March 9, 1861

      Secretary of the Navy

      James Cochran Dobbin

          March 8, 1853–March 6, 1857

      Isaac Toucey

          March 7, 1857–March 6, 1861

      Secretary of the Interior

      Robert McClelland

          March 8, 1853–March 9, 1857

      Jacob Thompson

          March 10, 1857–Jan. 8, 1861

      Abraham Lincoln, 1861–1865
      Secretary of State

      Jeremiah Sullivan Black

          Dec. 17, 1860–March 5, 1861

      William Henry Seward

          March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Treasury

      John Adams Dix

          Jan. 15–March 6, 1861

      Salmon P. Chase

          March 7, 1861–June 30, 1864

      William Pitt Fessenden

          July 5, 1864–March 3, 1865

      Hugh McCulloch

          March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869,

          Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      Joseph Holt

          Jan. 18–March 5, 1861

      Simon Cameron

          March 5, 1861–Jan. 14, 1862

      Edwin Stanton

          Jan. 20, 1862–May 28, 1868

      Attorney General

      Edwin Stanton

          Dec. 20, 1860–March 3, 1861

      Edward Bates

          March 5, 1861–Sept. 1864

      James Speed

          Dec. 2, 1864–July 17, 1866

      Postmaster General

      Horatio King

          Feb. 12–March 9, 1861

      Montgomery Blair

          March 9, 1861–Sept. 30, 1864

      William Dennison Jr.

          Oct. 1, 1864–July 16, 1866

      Secretary of the Navy

      Isaac Toucey

          March 7, 1857–March 6, 1861

      Gideon Welles

          March 7, 1861–March 3, 1869

      Secretary of the Interior

      Caleb Blood Smith

          March 5, 1861–Dec. 31, 1862

      John Palmer Usher

          Jan. 1, 1863–May 15, 1865

      Andrew Johnson, 1865–1869
      Secretary of State

      William Henry Seward

          March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Hugh McCulloch

          March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869,

          Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      Edwin Stanton

          Jan. 20, 1862–May 28, 1868

      John McAllister Schofield

          June 1, 1868–March 13, 1869

      Attorney General

      James Speed

          Dec. 2, 1864–July 17, 1866

      Henry Stanberry

          July 23, 1866–March 12, 1868

      William Maxwell Evarts

          July 15, 1868–March 3, 1869

      Postmaster General

      William Dennison Jr.

          Oct. 1, 1864–July 16, 1866

      Alexander Williams Randall

          July 25, 1866–March 4, 1869

      Secretary of the Navy

      Gideon Welles

          March 7, 1861–March 3, 1869

      Secretary of the Interior

      John Palmer Usher

          Jan. 1, 1863–May 15, 1865

      James Harlan

          May 15, 1865–Aug. 31, 1866

      Orville Hickman Browning

          Sept. 1, 1866–March 4, 1869

      Ulysses S. Grant, 1869–1877
      Secretary of State

      William Henry Seward

          March 6, 1861–March 4, 1869

      Elihu Benjamin Washburne

          March 5–March 16, 1869

      Hamilton Fish

          March 17, 1869–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Hugh McCulloch

          March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869,

          Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      George Sewel Boutwell

          March 12, 1869–March 16, 1873

      William Adams Richardson

          March 17, 1873–June 3, 1874

      Benjamin Helm Bristow

          June 4, 1874–June 20, 1876

      Lot Myrick Morrill

          July 7, 1876–March 9, 1877

      Secretary of War

      John McAllister Schofield

          June 1, 1868–March 13, 1869

      John Aaron Rawlins

          March 13–Sept. 6, 1869

      William Tecumseh Sherman

          Sept. 11–Oct. 25, 1869

      William Worth Belknap

          Oct. 25, 1869–March 2, 1876

      Alphonso Taft

          March 8–May 22, 1876

      James Donald Cameron

          May 22, 1876–March 3, 1877

      Attorney General

      Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar

          March 5, 1869–June 23, 1870

      Amos Tappan Akerman

          June 23, 1870–Jan. 10, 1872

      George Henry Williams

          Jan. 10, 1872–May 15, 1875

      Edwards Pierrepont

          May 15, 1875–May 22, 1876

      Alphonso Taft

          May 22, 1876–March 11, 1877

      Postmaster General

      John Angel James Creswell

          March 6, 1869–July 6, 1874

      James William Marshall

          July 7–Aug. 31, 1874

      Marshall Jewell

          Sept. 1, 1874–July 12, 1876

      James Noble Tyner

          July 13, 1876–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Navy

      Adolph Edward Borie

          March 9–June 25, 1869

      George Maxwell Robeson

          June 26, 1869–March 12, 1877

      Secretary of the Interior

      Jacob Dolson Cox

          March 5, 1869–Oct. 31, 1870

      Columbus Delano

          Nov. 1, 1870–Sept. 30, 1875

      Zachariah Chandler

          Oct. 19, 1875–March 11, 1877

      Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877–1881
      Secretary of State

      Hamilton Fish

          March 17, 1869–March 12, 1877

      William Maxwell Evarts

          March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Lot Myrick Morrill

          July 7, 1876–March 9, 1877

      John Sherman

          March 10, 1877–March 3, 1881

      Secretary of War

      James Donald Cameron

          May 22, 1876–March 3, 1877

      George Washington McCrary

          March 12, 1877–Dec. 10, 1879

      Alexander Ramsey

          Dec. 10, 1879–March 5, 1881

      Attorney General

      Alphonso Taft

          May 22, 1876–March 11, 1877

      Charles Devens

          March 12, 1877–March 6, 1881

      Postmaster General

      James Noble Tyner

          July 13, 1876–March 12, 1877

      David McKendree Key

          March 13, 1877–Aug. 24, 1880

      Horace Maynard

          Aug. 25, 1880–March 7, 1881

      Secretary of the Navy

      George Maxwell Robeson

          June 26, 1869–March 12, 1877

      Richard Wigginton Thompson

          March 13, 1877–Dec. 20, 1880

      Nathan Goff Jr.

          Jan. 7–March 6, 1881

      Secretary of the Interior

      Zachariah Chandler

          Oct. 19, 1875–March 11, 1877

      Carl Schurz

          March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881

      James A. Garfield, 1881
      Secretary of State

      William Maxwell Evarts

          March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881

      James G. Blaine

          March 7–Dec. 19, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Windom

          March 8–Nov. 13, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891

      Secretary of War

      Alexander Ramsey

          Dec. 10, 1879–March 5, 1881

      Robert Todd Lincoln

          March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885

      Attorney General

      Charles Devens

          March 12, 1877–March 6, 1881

      Wayne MacVeagh

          March 7–Oct. 24, 1881

      Postmaster General

      Horace Maynard

          Aug. 25, 1880–March 7, 1881

      Thomas Lemuel James

          March 8, 1881–Jan. 4, 1882

      Secretary of the Navy

      Nathan Goff Jr.

          Jan. 7–March 6, 1881

      William Henry Hunt

          March 7, 1881–April 16, 1882

      Secretary of the Interior

      Carl Schurz

          March 12, 1877–March 7, 1881

      Samuel Jordan Kirkwood

          March 8, 1881–April 17, 1882

      Chester A. Arthur, 1881–1885

      Secretary of State

      James G. Blaine

          March 7–Dec. 19, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892

      Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen

          Dec. 19, 1881–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Windom

          March 8–Nov. 13, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891

      Charles James Folger

          Nov. 14, 1881–Sept. 4, 1884

      Walter Quintin Gresham

          Sept. 5–Oct. 30, 1884

      Hugh McCulloch

          March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869,

          Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Secretary of War

      Robert Todd Lincoln

          March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885

      Attorney General

      Wayne MacVeagh

          March 7–Oct. 24, 1881

      Benjamin Harris Brewster

          Jan. 2, 1882–March 5, 1885

      Postmaster General

      Thomas Lemuel James

          March 8, 1881–Jan. 4, 1882

      Timothy Otis Howe

          Jan. 5, 1882–March 25, 1883

      Walter Quintin Gresham

          April 11, 1883–Sept. 24, 1884

      Frank Hatton

          Oct. 15, 1884–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Navy

      William Henry Hunt

          March 7, 1881–April 16, 1882

      William Eaton Chandler

          April 16, 1882–March 6, 1885

      Secretary of the Interior

      Samuel Jordan Kirkwood

          March 8, 1881–April 17, 1882

      Henry Moore Teller

          April 18, 1882–March 3, 1885

      Grover Cleveland, 1885–1889
      Secretary of State

      Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen

          Dec. 19, 1881–March 6, 1885

      Thomas Francis Bayard Sr.

          March 7, 1885–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Hugh McCulloch

          March 9, 1865–March 3, 1869,

          Oct. 31, 1884–March 7, 1885

      Daniel Manning

          March 8, 1885–March 31, 1887

      Charles Stebbins Fairchild

          April 1, 1887–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of War

      Robert Todd Lincoln

          March 5, 1881–March 5, 1885

      William Crowninshield Endicott

          March 5, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Attorney General

      Benjamin Harris Brewster

          Jan. 2, 1882–March 5, 1885

      Augustus Hill Garland

          March 6, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Postmaster General

      Frank Hatton

          Oct. 15, 1884–March 6, 1885

      William Freeman Vilas

          March 7, 1885–Jan. 16, 1888

      Donald McDonald Dickinson

          Jan. 17, 1888–March 5, 1889

      Secretary of the Navy

      William Eaton Chandler

          April 16, 1882–March 6, 1885

      William Collins Whitney

          March 7, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Secretary of the Interior

      Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar

          March 6, 1885–Jan. 10, 1888

      William Freeman Vilas

          Jan. 16, 1888–March 6, 1889

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Norman Jay Colman

          Feb. 15–March 6, 1889

      Benjamin Harrison, 1889–1893
      Secretary of State

      Thomas Francis Bayard Sr.

          March 7, 1885–March 6, 1889

      James G. Blaine

          March 7–Dec. 19, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–June 4, 1892

      John Watson Foster

          June 29, 1892–Feb. 23, 1893

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Charles Stebbins Fairchild

          April 1, 1887–March 6, 1889

      William Windom

          March 8–Nov. 13, 1881,

          March 7, 1889–Jan. 29, 1891

      Charles Foster

          Feb. 25, 1891–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of War

      William Crowninshield Endicott

          March 5, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Redfield Proctor

          March 5, 1889–Nov. 5, 1891

      Stephen Benton Elkins

          Dec. 17, 1891–March 5, 1893

      Attorney General

      Augustus Hill Garland

          March 6, 1885–March 5, 1889

      William Henry Harrison Miller

          March 5, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Postmaster General

      Donald McDonald Dickinson

          Jan. 17, 1888–March 5, 1889

      John Wanamaker

          March 6, 1889–March 7, 1893

      Secretary of the Navy

      William Collins Whitney

          March 7, 1885–March 5, 1889

      Benjamin Franklin Tracy

          March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of the Interior

      William Freeman Vilas

          Jan. 16, 1888–March 6, 1889

      John Willock Noble

          March 7, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Norman Jay Colman

          Feb. 15–March 6, 1889

      Jeremiah McLain Rusk

          March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Grover Cleveland, 1893–1897
      Secretary of State

      Walter Quintin Gresham

          March 7, 1893–May 28, 1895

      Richard Olney

          June 10, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Charles Foster

          Feb. 25, 1891–March 6, 1893

      John Griffin Carlisle

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of War

      Stephen Benton Elkins

          Dec. 17, 1891–March 5, 1893

      Daniel Scott Lamont

          March 5, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Attorney General

      William Henry Harrison Miller

          March 5, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Richard Olney

          March 6, 1893–June 7, 1895

      Judson Harmon

          June 8, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Postmaster General

      John Wanamaker

          March 6, 1889–March 7, 1893

      Wilson Shannon Bissel

          March 8, 1893–April 3, 1895

      William Lyne Wilson

          April 4, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Navy

      Benjamin Franklin Tracy

          March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Hilary Abner Herbert

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of the Interior

      John Willock Noble

          March 7, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Hoke Smith

          March 6, 1893–Sept. 1, 1896

      David Rowland Francis

          Sept. 3, 1896–March 5, 1897

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Jeremiah McLain Rusk

          March 6, 1889–March 6, 1893

      Julius Sterling Morton

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      William McKinley, 1897–1901
      Secretary of State

      Richard Olney

          June 10, 1895–March 5, 1897

      John Sherman

          March 6, 1897–April 27, 1898

      William Rufus Day

          April 28–Sept. 16, 1898

      John Milton Hay

          Sept. 30, 1898–July 1, 1905

      Secretary of the Treasury

      John Griffin Carlisle

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Lyman Judson Gage

          March 6, 1897–Jan. 31, 1902

      Secretary of War

      Daniel Scott Lamont

          March 5, 1893–March 5, 1897

      Russell Alexander Alger

          March 5, 1897–Aug. 1, 1899

      Elihu Root

          Aug. 1, 1899–Jan. 31, 1904

      Attorney General

      Judson Harmon

          June 8, 1895–March 5, 1897

      Joseph McKenna

          March 5, 1897–Jan. 25, 1898

      John William Griggs

          June 25, 1898–March 29, 1901

      Philander Chase Knox

          April 5, 1901–June 30, 1904

      Postmaster General

      William Lyne Wilson

          April 4, 1895–March 5, 1897

      James Albert Gary

          March 6, 1897–April 22, 1898

      Charles Emory Smith

          April 23, 1898–Jan. 14, 1902

      Secretary of the Navy

      Hilary Abner Herbert

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      John Davis Long

          March 6, 1897–April 30, 1902

      Secretary of the Interior

      David Rowland Francis

          Sept. 3, 1896–March 5, 1897

      Cornelius Newton Bliss

          March 6, 1897–Feb. 19, 1899

      Ethan Allen Hitchcock

          Feb. 20, 1899–March 4, 1907

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Julius Sterling Morton

          March 7, 1893–March 5, 1897

      James Wilson

          March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      Theodore Roosevelt, 1901–1909
      Secretary of State

      John Milton Hay

          Sept. 30, 1898–July 1, 1905

      Elihu Root

          July 19, 1905–Jan. 27, 1909

      Robert Bacon

          Jan. 27–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Lyman Judson Gage

          March 6, 1897–Jan. 31, 1902

      Leslie Mortier Shaw

          Feb. 1, 1902–March 3, 1907

      George Bruce Cortelyou

          March 4, 1907–March 7, 1909

      Secretary of War

      Elihu Root

          Aug. 1, 1899–Jan. 31, 1904

      William Howard Taft

          Feb. 1, 1904–June 30, 1908

      Luke Edward Wright

          July 1, 1908–March 11, 1909

      Attorney General

      Philander Chase Knox

          April 5, 1901–June 30, 1904

      William Henry Moody

          July 1, 1904–Dec. 17, 1906

      Charles Joseph Bonaparte

          Dec. 17, 1906–March 4, 1909

      Postmaster General

      Charles Emory Smith

          April 23, 1898–Jan. 14, 1902

      Henry Clay Payne

          Jan. 15, 1902–Oct. 4, 1904

      Robert John Wynne

          Oct. 10, 1904–March 4, 1905

      George Bruce Cortelyou

          March 7, 1905–March 3, 1907

      George von Lengerke Meyer

          March 4, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Navy

      John Davis Long

          March 6, 1897–April 30, 1902

      William Henry Moody

          May 1, 1902–June 30, 1904

      Paul Morton

          July 1, 1904–July 1, 1905

      Charles Joseph Bonaparte

          July 1, 1905–Dec. 16, 1906

      Victor Howard Metcalf

          Dec. 17, 1906–Nov. 30, 1908

      Truman Handy Newberry

          Dec. 1, 1908–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of the Interior

      Ethan Allen Hitchcock

          Feb. 20, 1899–March 4, 1907

      James Rudolph Garfield

          March 5, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Secretary of Agriculture

      James Wilson

          March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Commerce and Labor

      George Bruce Cortelyou

          Feb. 18, 1903–June 30, 1904

      Victor Howard Metcalf

          July 1, 1904–Dec. 16, 1906

      Oscar Solomon Straus

          Dec. 17, 1906–March 5, 1909

      William Howard Taft, 1909–1913
      Secretary of State

      Robert Bacon

          Jan. 27–March 5, 1909

      Philander Chase Knox

          March 6, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of the Treasury

      George Bruce Cortelyou

          March 4, 1907–March 7, 1909

      Franklin MacVeagh

          March 8, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of War

      Luke Edward Wright

          July 1, 1908–March 11, 1909

      Jacob McGavock Dickinson

          March 12, 1909–May 21, 1911

      Henry Lewis Stimson

          May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913,

          July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Attorney General

      Charles Joseph Bonaparte

          Dec. 17, 1906–March 4, 1909

      George Woodward Wickersham

          March 5, 1909–March 5, 1913

      Postmaster General

      George von Lengerke Meyer

          March 4, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Frank Harris Hitchcock

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Secretary of the Navy

      Truman Handy Newberry

          Dec. 1, 1908–March 5, 1909

      George von Lengerke Meyer

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Secretary of the Interior

      James Rudolph Garfield

          March 5, 1907–March 5, 1909

      Richard Achilles Ballinger

          March 6, 1909–March 12, 1911

      Walter Lowrie Fisher

          March 13, 1911–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Agriculture

      James Wilson

          March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      Secretary of Commerce and Labor

      Oscar Solomon Straus

          Dec. 17, 1906–March 5, 1909

      Charles Nagel

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Woodrow Wilson, 1913–1921
      Secretary of State

      Philander Chase Knox

          March 6, 1909–March 5, 1913

      William Jennings Bryan

          March 5, 1913–June 9, 1915

      Robert Lansing

          June 24, 1915–Feb. 13, 1920

      Bainbridge Colby

          March 23, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Franklin MacVeagh

          March 8, 1909–March 5, 1913

      William Gibbs McAdoo

          March 6, 1913–Dec. 15, 1918

      Carter Glass

          Dec. 16, 1918–Feb. 1, 1920

      David Franklin Houston

          Feb. 2, 1920–March 3, 1921

      Secretary of War

      Henry Lewis Stimson

          May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913,

          July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Lindley Miller Garrison

          March 5, 1913–Feb. 10, 1916

      Newton Diehl Baker

          March 9, 1916–March 4, 1921

      Attorney General

      George W. Wickersham

          March 5, 1909–March 5, 1913

      James Clark McReynolds

          March 5, 1913–Aug. 29, 1914

      Thomas Watt Gregory

          Sept. 3, 1914–March 4, 1919

      Alexander Mitchell Palmer

          March 5, 1919–March 5, 1921

      Postmaster General

      Frank Harris Hitchcock

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Albert Sidney Burleson

          March 5, 1913–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of the Navy

      George von Lengerke Meyer

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      Josephus Daniels

          March 5, 1913–March 5, 1921

      Secretary of the Interior

      Walter Lowrie Fisher

          March 13, 1911–March 5, 1913

      Franklin Knight Lane

          March 6, 1913–Feb. 29, 1920

      John Barton Payne

          March 15, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Agriculture

      James Wilson

          March 6, 1897–March 5, 1913

      David Franklin Houston

          March 6, 1913–Feb. 2, 1920

      Edwin Thomas Meredith

          Feb. 2, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Commerce

      Charles Nagel

          March 6, 1909–March 4, 1913

      William Cox Redfield

          March 5, 1913–Oct. 31, 1919

      Joshua Willis Alexander

          Dec. 16, 1919–March 4, 1921

      Secretary of Labor

      William Bauchop Wilson

          March 4, 1913–March 4, 1921

      Warren G. Harding, 1921–1923
      Secretary of State

      Bainbridge Colby

          March 23, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Charles Evans Hughes

          March 5, 1921–March 4, 1925

      Secretary of the Treasury

      David Houston

          Feb. 2, 1920–March 3, 1921

      Andrew William Mellon

          March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932

      Secretary of War

      Newton Diehl Baker

          March 9, 1916–March 4, 1921

      John Wingate Weeks

          March 5, 1921–Oct. 13, 1925

      Attorney General

      Alexander Mitchell Palmer

          March 5, 1919–March 5, 1921

      Harry Micajah Daugherty

          March 5, 1921–March 28, 1924

      Postmaster General

      Albert Sidney Burleson

          March 5, 1913–March 4, 1921

      William Harrison Hays

          March 5, 1921–March 3, 1922

      Hubert Work

          March 4, 1922–March 4, 1923

      Harry Stewart New

          March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929

      Secretary of the Navy

      Josephus Daniels

          March 5, 1913–March 5, 1921

      Edwin Denby

          March 6, 1921–March 10, 1924

      Secretary of the Interior

      John Barton Payne

          March 15, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Albert Bacon Fall

          March 5, 1921–March 4, 1923

      Hubert Work

          March 5, 1923–July 24, 1928

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Edwin Thomas Meredith

          Feb. 2, 1920–March 4, 1921

      Henry Wallace

          March 5, 1921–Oct. 25, 1924

      Secretary of Commerce

      Joshua Willis Alexander

          Dec. 16, 1919–March 4, 1921

      Herbert Clark Hoover

          March 5, 1921–Aug. 21, 1928

      Secretary of Labor

      William Bauchop Wilson

          March 4, 1913–March 4, 1921

      James John Davis

          March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930

      Calvin Coolidge, 1923–1929
      Secretary of State

      Charles Evans Hughes

          March 5, 1921–March 4, 1925

      Frank Billings Kellogg

          March 5, 1925–March 28, 1929

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Andrew William Mellon

          March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932

      Secretary of War

      John Wingate Weeks

          March 5, 1921–Oct. 13, 1925

      Dwight Filley Davis

          Oct. 14, 1925–March 5, 1929

      Attorney General

      Harry Micajah Daugherty

          March 5, 1921–March 28, 1924

      Harlan Fiske Stone

          April 7, 1924–March 2, 1925

      John Garibaldi Sargent

          March 17, 1925–March 5, 1929

      Postmaster General

      Harry Stewart New

          March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929

      Secretary of the Navy

      Edwin Denby

          March 6, 1921–March 10, 1924

      Curtis Dwight Wilbur

          March 19, 1924–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of the Interior

      Hubert Work

          March 5, 1923–July 24, 1928

      Roy Owen West

          July 25, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Henry Wallace

          March 5, 1921–Oct. 25, 1924

      Howard Mason Gore

          Nov. 22, 1924–March 4, 1925

      William Marion Jardine

          March 5, 1925–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Commerce

      Herbert C. Hoover

          March 5, 1921–Aug. 21, 1928

      William Fairfield Whiting

          Aug. 22, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Secretary of Labor

      James John Davis

          March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930

      Herbert C. Hoover, 1929–1933
      Secretary of State

      Frank Billings Kellogg

          March 5, 1925–March 28, 1929

      Henry Lewis Stimson

          March 28, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Andrew William Mellon

          March 4, 1921–Feb. 12, 1932

      Ogden Livingston Mills

          Feb. 13, 1932–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of War

      Dwight Filley Davis

          Oct. 14, 1925–March 5, 1929

      James William Good

          March 6–Nov. 18, 1929

      Patrick Jay Hurley

          Dec. 9, 1929–March 3, 1933

      Attorney General

      John Garibaldi Sargent

          March 17, 1925–March 5, 1929

      William DeWitt Mitchell

          March 5, 1929–March 3, 1933

      Postmaster General

      Harry Stewart New

          March 4, 1923–March 5, 1929

      Walter Folger Brown

          March 5, 1929–March 5, 1933

      Secretary of the Navy

      Curtis Dwight Wilbur

          March 19, 1924–March 4, 1929

      Charles Francis Adams

          March 5, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of the Interior

      Roy Owen West

          July 25, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Ray Lyman Wilbur

          March 5, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of Agriculture

      William Marion Jardine

          March 5, 1925–March 4, 1929

      Arthur Mastick Hyde

          March 6, 1929–March 4, 1933

      Secretary of Commerce

      William Fairfield Whiting

          Aug. 22, 1928–March 4, 1929

      Robert Patterson Lamont

          March 5, 1929–Aug. 7, 1932

      Roy Dikeman Chapin

          Aug. 8, 1932–March 3, 1933

      Secretary of Labor

      James John Davis

          March 5, 1921–Nov. 30, 1930

      William Nuckles Doak

          Dec. 9, 1930–March 4, 1933

      Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933–1945
      Secretary of State

      Cordell Hull

          March 4, 1933–Nov. 30, 1944

      Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr.

          Dec. 1, 1944–June 27, 1945

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Hartman Woodin

          March 5–Dec. 31, 1933

      Henry Morgenthau Jr.

          Jan. 1, 1934–July 22, 1945

      Secretary of War

      George Henry Dern

          March 4, 1933–Aug. 27, 1936

      Harry Hines Woodring

          Sept. 25, 1936–June 20, 1940

      Henry Lewis Stimson

          May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913,

          July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Attorney General

      Homer Stille Cummings

          March 4, 1933–Jan. 2, 1939

      Francis William Murphy

          Jan. 17, 1939–Jan. 18, 1940

      Robert Houghwout Jackson

          Jan. 18, 1940–July 10, 1941

      Francis Beverley Biddle

          Sept. 15, 1941–June 30, 1945

      Postmaster General

      James Aloysius Farley

          March 6, 1933–Aug. 31, 1940

      Frank Comerford Walker

          Sept. 11, 1940–June 30, 1945

      Secretary of the Navy

      Claude Augustus Swanson

          March 4, 1933–July 7, 1939

      Charles Edison

          Jan. 2–June 24, 1940

      William Franklin “Frank” Knox

          July 11, 1940–April 28, 1944

      James V. Forrestal

          May 19, 1944–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of the Interior

      Harold LeClair Ickes

          March 4, 1933–Feb. 15, 1946

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Henry A. Wallace

          March 4, 1933–Sept. 4, 1940

      Claude Raymond Wickard

          Sept. 5, 1940–June 29, 1945

      Secretary of Commerce

      Daniel Calhoun Roper

          March 4, 1933–Dec. 23, 1938

      Harry Hopkins

          Dec. 24, 1938–Sept. 18, 1940

      Jesse Holman Jones

          Sept. 19, 1940–March 1, 1945

      Henry A. Wallace

          March 2, 1945–Sept. 20, 1946

      Secretary of Labor

      Frances Perkins

          March 4, 1933–June 30, 1945

      Harry S. Truman, 1945–1953
      Secretary of State

      Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr.

          Dec. 1, 1944–June 27, 1945

      James Francis Byrnes

          July 3, 1945–Jan. 21, 1947

      George C. Marshall

          Jan. 21, 1947–Jan. 20, 1949

      Dean Acheson

          Jan. 21, 1949–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Henry Morgenthau Jr.

          Jan. 1, 1934–July 22, 1945

      Frederick Moore Vinson

          July 23, 1945–June 23, 1946

      John Wesley Snyder

          June 25, 1946–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of War

      Henry Lewis Stimson

          May 22, 1911–March 4, 1913,

          July 10, 1940–Sept. 21, 1945

      Robert Porter Patterson

          Sept. 27, 1945–July 18, 1947

      Kenneth Claiborne Royall

          July 19–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of Defense

      James Vincent Forrestal

          Sept. 17, 1947–March 27, 1949

      Louis Arthur Johnson

          March 28, 1949–Sept. 19, 1950

      George Catlett Marshall

          Sept. 21, 1950–Sept. 12, 1951

      Robert Abercrombie Lovett

          Sept. 17, 1951–Jan. 20, 1953

      Attorney General

      Francis Beverley Biddle

          Sept. 15, 1941–June 30, 1945

      Thomas Campbell Clark

          July 1, 1945–Aug. 24, 1949

      James Howard McGrath

          Aug. 24, 1949–April 7, 1952

      James Patrick McGranery

          May 27, 1952–Jan. 20, 1953

      Postmaster General

      Frank Comerford Walker

          Sept. 11, 1940–June 30, 1945

      Robert Emmet Hannegan

          July 1, 1945–Dec. 15, 1947

      Jesse Monroe Donaldson

          Dec. 16, 1947–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of the Navy

      James V. Forrestal

          May 19, 1944–Sept. 17, 1947

      Secretary of the Interior

      Harold LeClair Ickes

          March 4, 1933–Feb. 15, 1946

      Julius Albert Krug

          March 18, 1946–Dec. 1, 1949

      Oscar Littleton Chapman

          Dec. 1, 1949–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Claude Raymond Wickard

          Sept. 5, 1940–June 29, 1945

      Clinton Presba Anderson

          June 30, 1945–May 10, 1948

      Charles Franklin Brannan

          June 2, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Commerce

      Henry A. Wallace

          March 2, 1945–Sept. 20, 1946

      W. Averell Harriman

          Oct. 7, 1946–April 22, 1948

      Charles Sawyer

          May 6, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953

      Secretary of Labor

      Frances Perkins

          March 4, 1933–June 30, 1945

      Lewis Baxter Schwellenbach

          July 1, 1945–June 10, 1948

      Maurice Joseph Tobin

          Aug. 13, 1948–Jan. 20, 1953

      Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953–1961
      Secretary of State

      John Foster Dulles

          Jan. 21, 1953–April 22, 1959

      Christian Archibald Herter

          April 22, 1959–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of the Treasury

      George Magoffin Humphrey

          Jan. 21, 1953–July 29, 1957

      Robert Bernard Anderson

          July 29, 1957–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Defense

      Charles Erwin Wilson

          Jan. 28, 1953–Oct. 8, 1957

      Neil Hosler McElroy

          Oct. 9, 1957–Dec. 1, 1959

      Thomas Sovereign Gates Jr.

          Dec. 2, 1959–Jan. 20, 1961

      Attorney General

      Herbert Brownell Jr.

          Jan. 21, 1953–Nov. 8, 1957

      William Pierce Rogers

          Nov. 8, 1957–Jan. 20, 1961

      Postmaster General

      Arthur Summerfield

          Jan. 21, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of the Interior

      Douglas McKay

          Jan. 21, 1953–April 15, 1956

      Fred Andrew Seaton

          June 8, 1956–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Ezra Taft Benson

          Jan. 21, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Commerce

      Charles Sinclair Weeks

          Jan. 21, 1953–Nov. 10, 1958

      Frederick Henry Mueller

          Aug. 10, 1959–Jan. 19, 1961

      Secretary of Labor

      Martin Patrick Durkin

          Jan. 21–Sept. 10, 1953

      James Paul Mitchell

          Oct. 9, 1953–Jan. 20, 1961

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Oveta Culp Hobby

          April 11, 1953–July 31, 1955

      Marion Bayard Folsom

          Aug. 1, 1955–July 31, 1958

      Arthur Sherwood Flemming

          Aug. 1, 1958–Jan. 19, 1961

      John F. Kennedy, 1961–1963
      Secretary of State

      David Dean Rusk

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Treasury

      C. Douglas Dillon

          Jan. 21, 1961–April 1, 1965

      Secretary of Defense

      Robert S. McNamara

          Jan. 21, 1961–Feb. 29, 1968

      Attorney General

      Robert F. Kennedy

          Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 3, 1964

      Postmaster General

      James Edward Day

          Jan. 21, 1961–Aug. 9, 1963

      John A. Gronouski Jr.

          Sept. 30, 1963–Nov. 2, 1965

      Secretary of the Interior

      Stewart Lee Udall

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Orville Lothrop Freeman

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Commerce

      Luther Hartwell Hodges

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 15, 1965

      Secretary of Labor

      Arthur Joseph Goldberg

          Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 20, 1962

      William Willard Wirtz

          Sept. 25, 1962–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Abraham Alexander Ribicoff

          Jan. 21, 1961–July 13, 1962

      Anthony Joseph Celebrezze

          July 31, 1962–Aug. 17, 1965

      Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–1969
      Secretary of State

      David Dean Rusk

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Treasury

      C. Douglas Dillon

          Jan. 21, 1961–April 1, 1965

      Henry Hamill Fowler

          April 1, 1965–Dec. 20, 1968

      Joseph Walker Barr

          Dec. 21, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Defense

      Robert S. McNamara

          Jan. 21, 1961–Feb. 29, 1968

      Clark McAdams Clifford

          March 1, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Attorney General

      Robert F. Kennedy

          Jan. 21, 1961–Sept. 3, 1964

      Nicholas de Belleville Katzenbach

          Feb. 11, 1965–Oct. 2, 1966

      William Ramsey Clark

          March 2, 1967–Jan. 20, 1969

      Postmaster General

      John A. Gronouski Jr.

          Sept. 30, 1963–Nov. 2, 1965

      Lawrence Francis O’Brien

          Nov. 3, 1965–April 26, 1968

      William Marvin Watson

          April 26, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of the Interior

      Stewart Lee Udall

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Orville Lothrop Freeman

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Commerce

      Luther Hartwell Hodges

          Jan. 21, 1961–Jan. 15, 1965

      John Thomas Connor

          Jan. 18, 1965–Jan. 31, 1967

      Alexander Buel Trowbridge

          June 14, 1967–March 1, 1968

      Cyrus Rowlett Smith

          March 6, 1968–Jan. 19, 1969

      Secretary of Labor

      William Willard Wirtz

          Sept. 25, 1962–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Anthony Joseph Celebrezze

          July 31, 1962–Aug. 17, 1965

      John William Gardner

          Aug. 18, 1965–March 1, 1968

      Wilbur Joseph Cohen

          May 16, 1968–Jan. 20, 1969

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Robert Clifton Weaver

          Jan. 18, 1966–Dec. 3, 1968

      Secretary of Transportation

      Alan Stephenson Boyd

          Jan. 23, 1967–Jan. 20, 1969

      Richard Nixon, 1969–1974
      Secretary of State

      William Pierce Rogers

          Jan. 22, 1969–Sept. 3, 1973

      Henry Alfred Kissinger

          Sept. 22, 1973–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Treasury

      David Matthew Kennedy

          Jan. 22, 1969–Feb. 10, 1971

      John Bowden Connally

          Feb. 11, 1971–June 12, 1972

      George Pratt Shultz

          June 12, 1972–May 8, 1974

      William Edward Simon

          May 8, 1974–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Defense

      Melvin Robert Laird

          Jan. 22, 1969–Jan. 29, 1973

      Elliot Lee Richardson

          Jan. 30–May 24, 1973

      James Rodney Schlesinger

          July 2, 1973–Nov. 19, 1975

      Attorney General

      John Newton Mitchell

          Jan. 21, 1969–March 1, 1972

      Richard Gordon Kleindienst

          June 12, 1972–May 24, 1973

      Elliot Lee Richardson

          May 25–Oct. 20, 1973

      William Bart Saxbe

          Jan. 4, 1974–Feb. 3, 1975

      Postmaster General

      Winton Malcolm Blount

          Jan. 22, 1969–Jan. 12, 1971

      Secretary of the Interior

      Walter Joseph Hickel

          Jan. 24, 1969–Nov. 25, 1970

      Rogers Clark Ballard Morton

          Jan. 29, 1971–April 30, 1975

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Clifford Morris Hardin

          Jan. 21, 1969–Nov. 17, 1971

      Earl Lauer Butz

          Dec. 2, 1971–Oct. 4, 1976

      Secretary of Commerce

      Maurice Hubert Stans

          Jan. 21, 1969–Feb. 15, 1972

      Peter George Peterson

          Feb. 29, 1972–Feb. 1, 1973

      Frederick Baily Dent

          Feb. 2, 1973–March 26, 1975

      Secretary of Labor

      George Pratt Shultz

          Jan. 22, 1969–July 1, 1970

      James Day Hodgson

          July 2, 1970–Feb. 1, 1973

      Peter Joseph Brennan

          Feb. 2, 1973–March 15, 1975

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Robert Hutchinson Finch

          Jan. 21, 1969–June 23, 1970

      Elliot Lee Richardson

          June 24, 1970–Jan. 29, 1973

      Caspar Willard Weinberger

          Feb. 12, 1973–Aug. 8, 1975

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      George Wilcken Romney

          Jan. 20, 1969–Feb. 2, 1973

      James Thomas Lynn

          Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 10, 1975

      Secretary of Transportation

      John Anthony Volpe

          Jan. 22, 1969–Feb. 1, 1973

      Claude Stout Brinegar

          Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 1, 1975

      Gerald R. Ford, 1974–1977
      Secretary of State

      Henry Alfred Kissinger

          Sept. 22, 1973–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Treasury

      William Edward Simon

          May 8, 1974–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Defense

      James Rodney Schlesinger

          July 2, 1973–Nov. 19, 1975

      Donald Henry Rumsfeld

          Nov. 20, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Attorney General

      William Bart Saxbe

          Jan. 4, 1974–Feb. 3, 1975

      Edward Hirsh Levi

          Feb. 6, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of the Interior

      Rogers Clark Ballard Morton

          Jan. 29, 1971–April 30, 1975

      Stanley Knapp Hathaway

          June 12–Oct. 9, 1975

      Thomas Savig Kleppe

          Oct. 17, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Earl Lauer Butz

          Dec. 2, 1971–Oct. 4, 1976

      John Albert Knebel

          Nov. 4, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Commerce

      Frederick Baily Dent

          Feb. 2, 1973–March 26, 1975

      Rogers Clark Ballard Morton

          May 1, 1975–Feb. 2, 1976

      Elliot Lee Richardson

          Feb. 2, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Labor

      Peter Joseph Brennan

          Feb. 2, 1973–March 15, 1975

      John Thomas Dunlop

          March 18, 1975–Jan. 31, 1976

      William Julian Usery Jr.

          Feb. 10, 1976–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Caspar Willard Weinberger

          Feb. 12, 1973–Aug. 8, 1975

      Forrest David Mathews

          Aug. 8, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      James Thomas Lynn

          Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 10, 1975

      Carla Anderson Hills

          March 10, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Secretary of Transportation

      Claude Stout Brinegar

          Feb. 2, 1973–Feb. 1, 1975

      William Thaddeus Coleman Jr.

          March 7, 1975–Jan. 20, 1977

      Jimmy Carter 1977–1981
      Secretary of State

      Cyrus Roberts Vance

          Jan. 23, 1977–April 28, 1980

      Edmund Sixtus Muskie

          May 8, 1980–Jan. 18, 1981

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Werner Michael Blumenthal

          Jan. 23, 1977–Aug. 4, 1979

      George William Miller

          Aug. 7, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Defense

      Harold Brown

          Jan. 21, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Attorney General

      Griffin Boyette Bell

          Jan. 26, 1977–Aug. 16, 1979

      Benjamin Richard Civiletti

          Aug. 16, 1979–Jan. 19, 1981

      Secretary of the Interior

      Cecil Dale Andrus

          Jan. 23, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Robert Selmer Bergland

          Jan. 23, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Commerce

      Juanita Morris Kreps

          Jan. 23, 1977–Oct. 31, 1979

      Philip M. Klutznick

          Jan. 9, 1980–Jan. 19, 1981

      Secretary of Labor

      Fred Ray Marshall

          Jan. 27, 1977–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare

      Joseph Anthony Califano Jr.

          Jan. 25, 1977–Aug. 3, 1979

      Patricia Roberts Harris

          Aug. 3, 1979–May 4, 1980

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      Patricia Roberts Harris

          May 4, 1980–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Patricia Roberts Harris

          Jan. 23, 1977–Aug. 3, 1979

      Maurice Edwin “Moon” Landrieu

          Sept. 24, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Transportation

      Brockman “Brock” Adams

          Jan. 23, 1977–July 22, 1979

      Neil Goldschmidt

          July 27, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Energy

      James Rodney Schlesinger

          Aug. 6, 1977–Aug. 23, 1979

      Charles William Duncan Jr.

          Aug. 24, 1979–Jan. 20, 1981

      Secretary of Education

      Shirley Mount Hufstedler

          Dec. 6, 1979–Jan. 19, 1981

      Ronald Reagan, 1981–1989
      Secretary of State

      Alexander Meigs Haig Jr.

          Jan. 22, 1981–July 5, 1982

      George Pratt Shultz

          July 16, 1982–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Donald Thomas Regan

          Jan. 22, 1981–Feb. 1, 1985

      James Addison Baker III

          Feb. 4, 1985–Aug. 17, 1988

      Nicholas Frederick Brady

          Sept. 16, 1988–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of Defense

      Caspar Willard Weinberger

          Jan. 21, 1981–Nov. 21, 1987

      Frank Charles Carlucci

          Nov. 23, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Attorney General

      William French Smith

          Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 24, 1985

      Edwin Meese III

          Feb. 25, 1985–Aug. 12, 1988

      Richard Lewis Thornburgh

          Aug. 12, 1988–Aug. 9, 1991

      Secretary of the Interior

      James Gaius Watt

          Jan. 23, 1981–Nov. 8, 1983

      William Patrick Clark

          Nov. 18, 1983–Feb. 7, 1985

      Donald Paul Hodel

          Feb. 8, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Agriculture

      John Rusling Block

          Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 14, 1986

      Richard Edmund Lyng

          March 7, 1986–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Commerce

      Malcolm Baldrige

          Jan. 20, 1981–July 25, 1987

      Calvin William Verity Jr.

          Oct. 19, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Labor

      Raymond James Donovan

          Feb. 4, 1981–March 15, 1985

      William Emerson Brock III

          April 29, 1985–Oct. 31, 1987

      Ann Dore McLaughlin

          Dec. 17, 1987–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      Richard Schultz Schweiker

          Jan. 22, 1981–Feb. 3, 1983

      Margaret Mary O’Shaughnessy Heckler

          March 9, 1983–Dec. 13, 1985

      Otis Ray Bowen

          Dec. 13, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Samuel Riley Pierce Jr.

          Jan. 23, 1981–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Transportation

      Andrew Lindsay “Drew” Lewis Jr.

          Jan. 23, 1981–Feb. 1, 1983

      Elizabeth Hanford Dole

          Feb. 7, 1983–Sept. 30, 1987

      James Horace Burnley IV

          Dec. 3, 1987–Jan. 30, 1989

      Secretary of Energy

      James Burrows Edwards

          Jan. 23, 1981–Nov. 5, 1982

      Donald Paul Hodel

          Nov. 5, 1982–Feb. 7, 1985

      John Stewart Herrington

          Feb. 11, 1985–Jan. 20, 1989

      Secretary of Education

      Terrel Howard Bell

          Jan. 23, 1981–Dec. 31, 1984

      William John Bennett

          Feb. 6, 1985–Sept. 20, 1988

      Lauro Fred Cavazos

          Sept. 20, 1988–Dec. 12, 1990

      George Bush, 1989–1993
      Secretary of State

      James Addison Baker III

          Jan. 27, 1989–Aug. 23, 1992

      Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger

          Dec. 8, 1992–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Nicholas Frederick Brady

          Sept. 16, 1988–Jan. 19, 1993

      Secretary of Defense

      Richard Bruce Cheney

          March 21, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Attorney General

      Richard Lewis Thornburgh

          Aug. 12, 1988–Aug. 9, 1991

      William Pelham Barr

          Nov. 26, 1991–Jan. 15, 1993

      Secretary of the Interior

      Manuel Lujan Jr.

          Feb. 8, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Clayton Keith Yeutter

          Feb. 16, 1989–March 1, 1991

      Edward Rell Madigan

          March 12, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Commerce

      Robert Adam Mosbacher

          Feb. 3, 1989–Jan. 15, 1992

      Barbara Hackman Franklin

          Feb. 27, 1992–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Labor

      Elizabeth Hanford Dole

          Jan. 30, 1989–Nov. 23, 1990

      Lynn Morley Martin

          Feb. 22, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      Louis Wade Sullivan

          March 10, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Jack French Kemp

          Feb. 13, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Transportation

      Samuel Knox Skinner

          Feb. 6, 1989–Dec. 16, 1991

      Andrew Hill Card Jr.

          Feb. 24, 1992–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Energy

      James David Watkins

          March 9, 1989–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Education

      Lauro Fred Cavazos

          Sept. 20, 1988–Dec. 12, 1990

      Lamar Alexander

          March 22, 1991–Jan. 20, 1993

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      Edward Joseph Derwinski

          March 15, 1989–Sept. 26, 1992

      Bill Clinton, 1993–2001
      Secretary of State

      Warren Christopher

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 1997

      Madeleine K. Albright

          Jan. 23, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Lloyd Bentsen

          Jan. 22, 1993–Dec. 22, 1994

      Robert E. Rubin

          Jan. 19, 1995–July 2, 1999

      Lawrence H. Summers

          July 2, 1999–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Defense

      Les Aspin

          Jan. 22, 1993–Feb. 2, 1994

      William J. Perry

          Feb. 3, 1994–Jan. 22, 1997

      William S. Cohen

          Jan. 24, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Attorney General

      Janet Reno

          March 12, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of the Interior

      Bruce Edward Babbit

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 2, 2001

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Mike Espy

          Jan. 22, 1993–Dec. 31, 1994

      Dan Glickman

          March 30, 1995–Jan. 19, 2001

      Secretary of Commerce

      Ronald H. Brown

          Jan. 22, 1993–April 3, 1996

      William M. Daley

          Jan. 30, 1997–July 19, 2000

      Norman Y. Mineta

          July 21, 2000–Jan. 19, 2001

      Secretary of Labor

      Robert B. Reich

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 10, 1997

      Alexis Herman

          May 1, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      Donna E. Shalala

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Henry G. Cisneros

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 17, 1997

      Andrew M. Cuomo

          Jan. 29, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Transportation

      Frederico F. Peña

          Jan. 22, 1993–Feb. 14, 1997

      Rodney Slater

          Feb. 14, 1997–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Energy

      Hazel R. O’Leary

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 1997

      Frederico F. Peña

          March 12, 1997–June 30, 1998

      Bill Richardson

          July 31, 1998–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Education

      Richard W. Riley

          Jan. 22, 1993–Jan. 20, 2001

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      Jesse Brown

          Jan. 22, 1993–July 1, 1997

      Togo D. West Jr.

          April 28, 1998–July 24, 2000

      George W. Bush, 2001–
      Secretary of State

      Colin Powell

          Jan. 20, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005

      Condoleezza Rice

          Jan. 26, 2005–

      Secretary of the Treasury

      Paul O’Neill

          Jan. 20, 2001–Dec. 6, 2002

      John Snow

          Jan. 13, 2003–June 30, 2006

      Henry M. Paulson

          July 10, 2006–

      Secretary of Defense

      Donald Rumsfeld

          Jan. 20, 2001–Dec. 18, 2006

      Robert M. Gates

          Dec. 18, 2006–

      Attorney General

      John Ashcroft

          Feb. 1, 2001–Feb. 3, 2005

      Alberto Gonzales

          Feb. 3, 2005–

      Secretary of the Interior

      Gale Norton

          Jan. 31, 2001–Mar. 31, 2006

      Dirk Kempthorne

          May 26, 2006–

      Secretary of Agriculture

      Ann M. Veneman

          Jan. 20, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005

      Mike Johanns

          Jan. 21, 2005–

      Secretary of Commerce

      Don Evans

          Jan. 20, 2001–Feb. 7, 2005

      Carlos M. Gutierrez

          Feb. 7, 2005–

      Secretary of Labor

      Elaine Chao

          Jan. 31, 2001–

      Secretary of Health and Human Services

      Tommy Thompson

          Feb. 2, 2001–Jan. 26, 2005

      Michael Leavitt

          Jan. 26, 2005–

      Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

      Mel Martinez

          Jan. 24, 2001–Dec. 12, 2003

      Alphonso Jackson

          Mar. 31, 2004–

      Secretary of Transportation

      Norman Mineta

          Jan. 25, 2001–July 7, 2006

      Mary Peters

          Sep. 30, 2006–

      Secretary of Energy

      Spencer Abraham

          Jan. 20, 2001–Feb. 1, 2005

      Samuel Bodman

          Feb. 1, 2005–

      Secretary of Education

      Roderick Paige

          Jan. 24, 2001–Jan. 20, 2005

      Margaret Spellings

          Jan. 20, 2005–

      Secretary of Veterans Affairs

      Anthony Principi

          Jan. 24, 2001–Jan. 26, 2005

      James Nicholson

          Jan. 26, 2005–

      Secretary of Homeland Security

      Tom Ridge

          Jan. 24, 2003–Feb. 1, 2005

      Michael Chertoff

          Feb. 15, 2005–

      Appendix

      The Government of the United States

      Appendix

      Federal Internet Gateways and Search Engines

      The federal government operates thousands of Internet sites that offer free access to transcripts of presidential speeches, the full texts of bills introduced in Congress, health information, consumer publications about everything from buying a house to helping your child learn to read, and more.

      It’s often easiest to find specific government information by starting at a federal gateway or search engine. These sites offer seamless entry to the vast resources the federal government offers online. The sites described below are some of the best federal gateways and search engines currently available.

      Federal Government Resources on the Web

      This site, which is operated by the University of Michigan Documents Center, offers a superb collection of annotated links to federal government sites. The links are divided into nearly twenty broad categories such as agency directories and Web sites, laws and Constitution, executive branch, executive orders, legislative branch, regulations, and historic documents.

      GPO Access

      GPO Access, which is operated by the Government Printing Office, offers the full texts of a huge range of documents from the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Some of the highlights include the texts of all bills introduced in Congress, the Congressional Record, the federal budget, the Federal Register, the U.S. Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, and electronic versions of the Statistical Abstract of the United States and the United States Government Manual.

      The White House

      The White House provides this page, which has links to sites operated by dozens of federal agencies and commissions. They include the Agency for International Development, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board, Commission on Civil Rights, Environmental Protection Agency, Immigration and Naturalization Service, International Labor Organization, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and National Endowment for the Humanities, among many others.

      Google: Uncle Sam

      Uncle Sam is a subset of the popular Google search engine. It only searches Web sites operated by government agencies, although both federal and state sites are included.

      U.S. Government Documents Ready Reference Collection

      This site lists the federal government documents that are most frequently requested at the Columbia University Libraries. Most of the listings include links to electronic versions of the documents. The listings are divided by topics such as census and demographics, education, environment, foreign countries, health and social services, and military.

      LSU Libraries Federal Agencies Directory

      This directory is a partnership between Louisiana State University and the Federal Depository Library Program. It provides links to Web sites operated by federal agencies, departments, boards, commissions, and committees that are listed in the United States Government Manual. The links are not annotated.

      Doc-Law Web Agency Index

      The Washington University School of Law operates this handy site. Besides providing links to the home pages of federal agency Web sites, for many agencies it also provides direct links to pages with publications, organizational charts, forms, opinions, manuals, and directories. There also are direct links to libraries operated by many federal agencies.

      FirstGov

      FirstGov is the official gateway and search engine for federal and state government information. The main part of the site is separated into areas that provide links to information for citizens, businesses, and governments. It also has an index of federal and state government Web sites, e-mail addresses and telephone numbers for federal agencies and departments, a variety of federal forms, and the texts of laws and regulations.

      Appendix

      Constitution of the United States

      We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

      Article I

      Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

      Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

      No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

      [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.]1 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

      When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

      The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

      Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]1 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

      Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.]1

      No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

      The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

      The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

      The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

      Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

      Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

      The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall [be on the first Monday in December],1 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

      Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

      Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

      Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

      Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

      Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

      No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

      Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

      Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

      Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

      Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

      To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

      To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

      To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

      To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

      To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

      To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

      To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

      To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

      To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

      To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

      To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

      To provide and maintain a Navy;

      To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

      To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

      To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

      To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatso-ever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

      To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

      Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

      The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

      No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

      No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.1

      No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

      No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

      No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

      No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

      Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

      No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

      No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

      Article II

      Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

      Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

      [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]1

      The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

      No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

      In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,1 the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

      The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

      Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

      Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

      He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

      The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by grant-ing Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

      Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

      Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

      Article III

      Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

      Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; —to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; —to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; —to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; —to Controversies between two or more States; —between a State and Citizens of another State; —between Citizens of different States; —between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.1

      In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

      The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

      Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

      The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

      Article IV

      Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

      Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

      A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

      [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.]1

      Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

      The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

      Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

      Article V

      The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided [that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and]1 that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

      Article VI

      All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

      This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

      The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

      Article VII

      The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

      Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. IN WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

      George Washington,

      President and deputy from Virginia.

      [The language of the original Constitution, not including the Amendments, was adopted by a convention of the states on September 17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the states on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.

      Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.

      The Constitution subsequently was ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10, 1791.]

      Amendments
      Amendment I

      (First ten amendments ratified December 15, 1791.)

      Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

      Amendment II

      A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

      Amendment III

      No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

      Amendment IV

      The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

      Amendment V

      No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

      Amendment VI

      In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

      Amendment VII

      In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

      Amendment VIII

      Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

      Amendment IX

      The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

      Amendment X

      The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

      Amendment XI (Ratified February 7, 1795)

      The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

      Amendment XII (Ratified June 15, 1804)

      The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. —]1 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

      Amendment XIII (Ratified December 6, 1865)

      Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

      Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868)

      Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

      Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,1 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

      Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

      Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

      Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

      Amendment XV (Ratified February 3, 1870)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XVI (Ratified February 3, 1913)

      The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

      Amendment XVII (Ratified April 8, 1913)

      The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

      When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided,That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

      This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

      [Amendment XVIII (Ratified January 16, 1919)

      Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

      Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.]1

      Amendment XIX (Ratified August 18, 1920)

      The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

      Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XX (Ratified January 23, 1933)

      Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

      Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

      Section 3.1 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

      Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

      Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

      Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

      Amendment XXI (Ratified December 5, 1933)

      Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

      Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

      Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

      Amendment XXII (Ratified February 27, 1951)

      Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

      Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

      Amendment XXIII (Ratified March 29, 1961)

      Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

      A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXIV (Ratified January 23, 1964)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXV (Ratified February 10, 1967)

      Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

      Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

      Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

      Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

      Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

      Amendment XXVI (Ratified July 1, 1971)

      Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

      Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

      Amendment XXVII (Ratified May 7, 1992)

      No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect‚ until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

      source: U.S. Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary, The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended,100th Cong., 1st sess., 1987, H Doc 100–94.

      1. The part in brackets was changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

      2. The part in brackets was changed by the first paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

      3. The part in brackets was changed by the second paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

      4. The part in brackets was changed by section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment.

      5. The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to tax incomes.

      6. The material in brackets was superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

      7. This provision was affected by the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

      8. These clauses were affected by the Eleventh Amendment.

      9. This paragraph was superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment.

      10. Obsolete.

      11. The part in brackets was superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

      See the Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments.

      This amendment was repealed by section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment.

      14. See the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

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