The Evolution of Political Parties, Campaigns, and Elections: Landmark Documents, 1787–2007
Publication Year: 2008
Primary source materials are a great way for students to experience firsthand a historic event, to more fully understand a pivotal actor or figure, or to explore legislation or a judicial decision. Students leave these readings better prepared to grapple with secondary sources. In fact, they can often support a different interpretation or more critically engage with analysis. This new volume—with 50 documents that include speeches, court cases, letters, diary entries, excerpts from autobiographies, treaties, legislation, regulations and reports, documentary photographs, ad stills, public opinion polls, transcripts, and press releases—is a great starting point for any parties and elections course. Careful editing, pithy headnotes, and discussion questions all enhance this useful reader.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: Constitution: Provisions concerning Elections
- Chapter 2: The Federalist Papers, No. 10
- Chapter 3: Alexander Hamilton's Letter to Edward Carrington
- Chapter 4: George Washington's Letter to Thomas Jefferson and Jefferson's Response to Washington
- Chapter 5: Thomas Jefferson's Letter to Philip Mazzei and George Washington's Letter to Jefferson
- Chapter 6: John Beckley's Letters to William Irvine
- Chapter 7: George Washington's Farewell Address
- Chapter 8: Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address
- Chapter 9: The Tennessee General Assembly's Protest against the Caucus System
- Chapter 10: Martin Van Buren's Letter to Thomas Ritchie
- Chapter 11: Henry Clay's Speech concerning the Whig Party and Henry Clay's Letter to the Whig Party Convention
- Chapter 12: Alexis de Tocqueville's “Parties in the United States”
- Chapter 13: The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions from the Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention
- Chapter 14: Abraham Lincoln's “A House Divided” Speech
- Chapter 15: The Wade-Davis Manifesto
- Chapter 16: Thomas Nast's Cartoons of William “Boss” Tweed
- Chapter 17: Abram Hewitt's “Secret History of the Disputed Election, 1876–77”
- Chapter 18: John McPherson's Speech Opposing the Pendleton Act
- Chapter 19: Woodrow Wilson's “Wanted—A Party”
- Chapter 20: The Massachusetts Australian Ballot Law
- Chapter 21: The Omaha Platform
- Chapter 22: William Jennings Bryan's “Cross of Gold” Speech
- Chapter 23: Robert LaFollette's “Peril in the Machine” Speech
- Chapter 24: William Riordan's “The Strenuous Life of the Tammany District Leader”
- Chapter 25: The Tillman Act
- Chapter 26: George Norris's Resolution to Change the Membership of the House Rules Committee
- Chapter 27: The Publicity Act of 1910
- Chapter 28: Theodore Roosevelt's “Confession of Faith” Speech
- Chapter 29: Franklin Roosevelt's “Commonwealth Club” Speech
- Chapter 30: George Norris's “The Model Legislature” Address
- Chapter 31: Huey Long's “Every Man a King” Radio Address
- Chapter 32: The Literary Digest Poll
- Chapter 33: Franklin Roosevelt's Message to Congress on the Hatch Act
- Chapter 34: The Taft-Hartley Act
- Chapter 35: James Rowe's Memorandum to Harry Truman
- Chapter 36: The First Kennedy-Nixon Debate
- Chapter 37: Baker v. Carr (1962)
- Chapter 38: The “Peace, Little Girl” Television Advertisement
- Chapter 39: Lyndon Johnson's Message to Congress on the Voting Rights Act
- Chapter 40: The McGovern-Fraser Commission Report
- Chapter 41: Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
- Chapter 42: Birch Bayh's Resolution to Amend the Constitution to Provide for Direct Popular Election of the President
- Chapter 43: Bill Clintons Remarks on Signing the National Voter Registration Act
- Chapter 44: The Contract with America
- Chapter 45: Bush v. Gore (2000)
- Chapter 46: Report of the National Commission on Federal Election Reform
- Chapter 47: Russ Feingold's Speech Supporting the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act and Mitch McConnell's Speech Opposing the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
- Chapter 48: Colorado Amendment 36, Allocating Presidential Electors Proportionally
- Chapter 49: Memo of Understanding regarding the Presidential Debates between George W. Bush and John Kerry
- Chapter 50: The Price-Herman Commission Report
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Copyright © 2008 by CQ Press, a division of Congressional Quarterly Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Cover design: Jeffrey M. Hall/ION Graphic Design Works
Civil Rights Movement Veterans Web site (http://www.crmvet.org): 262–265
Courtesy of the Library of Congress: 68, 160
Courtesy of the University of Nebraska at Omaha: 127–128
Federal Election Commission Web site: 288–290
Susan Stocker/South Florida Sun-Sentinel: 313
The Granger Collection: 102 (top and bottom)
Used with permission. Democratic National Committee: 250 (left and right)
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The evolution of political parties, campaigns, and elections: landmark documents, 1787–2007 / Randall E. Adkins, editor.
ISBN 978-0-87289-578-2 (alk. paper)
I. United States—Politics and government—Sources. I. Adkins, Randall E. II. Title.
[Page v]To my parents
who have traveled together to the polling place for more than 45 years to cancel out each other's vote.[Page vi]
Preface: A User's Guide to The Evolution of Political Parties, Campaigns, and Elections[Page xiii]
Primary source materials are well-established tools for engaging student learning that can be easily integrated into most instructional styles. These materials are valuable to instruction because they bring a subject to life for students, they expose students to the perspectives of actual participants, and they develop stronger analytical skills in students. First, primary sources create a direct link between the student and the issue. Documentary materials on political parties, campaigns, and elections are very appealing, ranging from eighteenth-century campaign circulars written by party officials to televised campaign advertisements from the twentieth century. Second, working with primary sources allows students to participate in important events that were observed and then documented in many different formats, including cartoons, transcribed debates, legislative actions, letters, photographs, regulations, reports, and published speeches. Third, working directly with primary sources should lead students to ask better questions, develop more intelligent interpretations, and draw more reasoned conclusions.
Primary sources can be difficult to research without knowledge of the historical, political, and social contexts of a time period. Many students have discovered that although the Internet offers a wealth of information, it is often overwhelming and unreliable. The purpose of this book is to make primary sources accessible to students of political parties, campaigns, and elections by weaving the contextual conditions of a period together with the documents. This book includes fifty documents that span more than two centuries—from the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to the Price-Herman Commission Report of 2005. Each document starts with an introduction that presents students with the circumstances surrounding the event in question. For example, the introduction to the letters of John Beckley to William Irvine explains Beckley's relationship to Thomas Jefferson and why he assumed the role of Jefferson's campaign manager in the 1796 and 1800 presidential [Page xiv]campaigns. Some documents are printed in their entirety, but most have been edited to highlight the importance of the document to political parties, campaigns, and elections. Whenever possible, an Internet link to the unedited document has been included. Students should be aware, however, that the Internet is dynamic. Documents may not always continue to be available at the sites listed.
Instructors of classes on political parties, campaigns, and elections will find two features of this book especially helpful. First, discussion questions are included at the beginning of each document to help guide students through the reading. Instructors should feel free to use these questions or develop their own. Second, documents are listed chronologically, but a topical guide is included on pages 361–365 to offer suggestions to instructors for how documents might be grouped together in a course on political parties, campaigns, and elections. For example, when teaching a unit on campaign finance reform one might want to use the following documents:
- 25, The Tillman Act
- 27, The Publicity Act
- 34, The Taft-Hartley Act
- 41, Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
- 47, Russ Feingold's Speech Supporting the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act and Mitch McConnell's Speech Opposing the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
Further, some documents obviously apply to multiple units, such as Alexander Hamilton's letter to Edward Carrington, which could be read in relation to units on the origin and history of political parties, the party in government, and the parties and the press. Each document is marked in the topical guide to indicate the units to which it applies.
Finally, librarians and researchers will find this book to be an excellent collection of the most historically important documents concerning political parties, campaigns, and elections. Included here are documents from various sources, including the Constitutional Convention, the office of the president, Congress, the Supreme Court, the Democratic Party, the Republican Party, other major parties such as the Federalists and the Whigs, third parties, the press, and the states. The documents vary in format and style and consist of amendments to the Constitution, [Page xv]campaign advertisements or circulars, court cases, transcribed debates, governmental reports, legislative actions, letters, magazine and newspaper articles and editorials, memoranda, party platforms, party reports, presidential addresses and messages to Congress, radio addresses, and speeches.
Overall, this book provides students, faculty, librarians, and researchers with a solid understanding of both the broader evolution of political parties, campaigns, and elections and how each document fits within the historical, political, and social contexts of a period.[Page xvi]
I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to the many people who encouraged me to tackle this project.
First, I want to thank my colleagues and students at the University of Nebraska at Omaha, all of whom were very accommodating. Loree Bykerk and Shelton Hendricks supported my request for a Faculty Development Fellowship, which provided the time necessary to complete the manuscript in the fall of 2007. Jody Neathery-Castro made sure that I concentrated on this project by taking over as the interim chair of our graduate program while I was on leave. Mary Dunn and James Shaw were instrumental in assisting me with the procurement and reproduction of many of the documents contained in this book. And Steve Bullock and Carson Holloway were always willing to listen to my ideas and provide thoughtful feedback.
Second, I deeply appreciate the dedication of the staff of CQ Press. Charisse Kiino, the chief acquisitions editor for the College Division, recognized the potential of this project and provided valuable advice during every stage of the publication process. Allison McKay, the editorial assistant, and Lorna Notsch, the project editor, proved to be very devoted professionals. Their brilliance rescued me from many errors that I would have otherwise made. I also wish to extend thanks to Steve Pazdan, managing editor; Paul Pressau, production manager; and Margot Ziperman, manager, print and art production, for helping to ensure that this book became a reality. Additionally, thanks to BMWW for their careful composition of the text and attention to its various elements.
Credit is due to the public figures who documented the evolution of political parties, campaigns, and elections, and to those who so graciously provided permission to reprint the primary sources included in this book. I also wish to thank those who reviewed the prospectus of the book: William Binning, Youngstown State University; Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha, University of North Texas; Robin Kolodny, Temple University; Scott Paine, University of Texas; Arnold Shober, Lawrence [Page xviii]University; and Rick Valelly, Swarthmore College. Their comments proved very constructive and encouraged me to make a number of revisions that improved the book considerably.
My wife, Natalie, and my sons, Ross and Ryan, deserve special thanks. Their love is unconditional, their joy endless, and their patience without limit. They are my fortress and my refuge.
Finally, I hope that you, the reader, will get as much pleasure from reading this book as I did researching and writing it.Omaha, Nebraska, December 2007
Topical Guide to the Documents[Page 361][Page 362][Page 363][Page 364][Page 365]