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Commonwealth of Australia

Note: On February 23, 2012, Prime Minister Julia Gillard called for a non-binding leadership vote against former foreign minister and current member of Parliament Kevin Rudd. Gillard replaced Rudd as prime minister in 2010, and since then both politicians have become political rivals. The leadership vote was held by ruling lawmakers on February 27, and Gillard was proven to be more popular; she won the vote 71–31.

Political Status: Established as a federal state under democratic parliamentary regime in 1901.

Area: 2,966,136 sq. mi. (7,682,300 sq. km.).

Population: 23,797,773 (2012E—UN); 22,015,576 (2012E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (including suburbs, 2006 census): CANBERRA (323,056), Sydney (4,119,190), Melbourne (3,592,591), Brisbane (1,763,131), Adelaide (1,105,839), Perth (1,445,078), Hobart (200,525), Darwin (105,991).

Official Language: English.

Monetary Unit: Australian Dollar (market rate October 3, 2011: 1.04 ...

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