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Note: On May 18, 1991, the president of the Somali National Movement (SNM), Abdurahman Ahmed Ali (“Taur”), announced that northwestern Somalia (British Somaliland prior to its incorporation into Somalia in July 1960) had seceded to form an independent Republic of Somaliland. Although the self-proclaimed entity had received no international recognition as of 2010, it is accorded a separate write-up following the present entry. An “autonomous region” was declared in the northeastern area of Puntland in 1998; information on that region is contained in this entry.
Political Status: Independent republic established July 1, 1960; revolutionary military regime installed October 21, 1969; one-party state proclaimed July 1, 1976; multiparty system authorized on December 25, 1990, but unimplemented prior to the assumption of power by rebel forces ...