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Note: Sultan Abdul Halim al-Muadzam Shah, sovereign of Kedah and former deputy paramount ruler, was elected for a five-year term as paramount ruler on October 30, 2011, becoming the first person to hold the post twice. He took office on December 13.

Political Status: Independent Federation of Malaya within the Commonwealth established August 31, 1957; Malaysia established September 16, 1963, with the addition of Sarawak, Sabah, and Singapore (which withdrew in August 1965).

Area: 127,316 sq. mi. (329,749 sq. km.), encompassing Peninsular Malaysia, 50,806 sq. mi. (131,588 sq. km.); Sarawak, 48,050 sq. mi. (124,450 sq. km.); Sabah, 28,460 sq. mi. (73,711 sq. km.).

Population: 29,494,074 (2012E—UN); 29,179,952 (2012E—U.S. Census).

Major Urban Centers (2007E): KUALA LUMPUR (1,390,000), Kelang (Klang, 735,000), Ipoh (630,000). The new administrative capital, Putrajaya, is 25 miles ...

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