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Republic of Iraq
al-Jumhuriyah al-Iraqiyah

Note: On December 19, 2011, an arrest warrant was issued for First Vice President Tariq al-Hashimi (Renewal List), charging the Sunni leader with orchestrating terrorist attacks. Al-Hashimi subsequently fled into the Kurdish region of Iraq. The incident created a crisis within the Iraqi government, as Sunni groups threatened to withdraw support for the coalition government. On December 31, the last remaining U.S. troops withdrew from Iraq.

Political Status: Independent state since 1932; declared a republic following military coup that overthrew the monarchy in 1958; provisional constitution issued September 22, 1968, and substantially amended thereafter; de facto one-party regime ousted following invasion by U.S./UK-led forces in March 2003; interim constitution (Transitional Administrative Law) adopted by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Governing Council on May 8, 2004, ...

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