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Note: A shooting spree by an Islamist gunman in Toulouse on March 19, 2012, sent shock waves around France. Mohamed Merah killed three soldiers, a rabbi, and three children outside a Jewish school. The event led the candidates in the upcoming presidential election to briefly suspend their campaigns for a period of mourning.
Note: A meeting of European Union (EU) heads of government on December 8 −9,
2011, produced a declaration in favor of a more coordinated fiscal policy among EU members, with penalties for noncompliance. A revision to the basic EU treaties was not possible as the UK vetoed such a move. The meeting was seen as reinforcing the dominant position of France and Germany in the EU. On January 13, 2012, the corporate ...