Political Encyclopedia of U.S. States and Regions

Political Encyclopedia of U.S. States and Regions


Edited by: Donald P. Haider-Markel


This innovative and useful reference fills the need for practical information and conceptual analysis of the roles and functions of state government by providing accessible state-by-state and regional overviews of government and politics. Features include substantive essays; in-depth profiles of each of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and all U.S. territories; an encyclopedic A to Z section with entries covering the overarching concepts, structures, and processes that are important to state and local government, and politics in general; and a detailed section on data and statistics emphasizing historical and demographic trends that have helped shape regional and state government and politics.

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  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z

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      A to Z Thematic Outline

        Government Functions and Procedures
        Government Positions
        Government Structure and Bodies
        Political Theory
        Political Behavior

      List of Contributors

      • Abdelrazek, Reem
      • Tennessee Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations
      • Allen, Mahalley D.
      • California State University, Chico
      • Anderson, William D.
      • University of South Dakota
      • Atchison, Amy L.
      • University of Tennessee, Knoxville
      • Baldino, Thomas J.
      • Wilkes University
      • Barth, Jay
      • Hendrix College
      • Battista, James Coleman
      • University at Buffalo, State University of New York
      • Bauroth, Nicholas
      • North Dakota State University
      • Bearfield, Dominic
      • Texas A&M University
      • Beatty, Bob
      • Washburn University
      • Bejarano, Christina E.
      • University of Kansas, Lawrence
      • Bell, Lauren
      • Randolph-Macon College
      • Belle, Michael S.
      • University of Florida
      • Benoit, William L.
      • University of Missouri
      • Benton, J. Edwin
      • University of South Florida
      • Beverlin, R. Matthew
      • University of Kansas
      • Blair, Robert
      • University of Nebraska, Omaha
      • Bonneau, Chris W.
      • University of Pittsburgh
      • Booth, Eric
      • Texas Tech University
      • Boscarino, Jessica E.
      • Syracuse University
      • Bowen, Daniel C.
      • University of Iowa
      • Brace, Paul
      • Rice University
      • Branton, Regina
      • Rice University
      • Brooker, Wess T.
      • University of Florida
      • Buchanan, Scott E.
      • Columbus State University
      • Cann, Steve
      • Washburn University
      • Card, Michael A.
      • University of South Dakota
      • Carr, Patrick
      • Georgetown University
      • Casey, Terrence
      • Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
      • Cicenia, Daniel A.
      • University of Florida
      • Cihak, Herb
      • Pepperdine University
      • Clucas, Richard A.
      • Portland State University
      • Coffey, Daniel
      • University of Akron
      • Collingwood, Loren
      • University of Washington
      • Cooper, Christopher A.
      • Western Carolina University
      • Cosgrove, Kenneth
      • Suffolk University
      • Curry, James M.
      • University of Maryland
      • Daley, Dorothy M.
      • University of Kansas
      • Dietrich, Bryce J.
      • University of Kansas
      • Disarro, Brian
      • California State University, Sacramento
      • Doan, Alesha E.
      • University of Kansas
      • Dometrius, Nelson C.
      • Texas Tech University
      • Donovan, Todd
      • West Washington University
      • Downs, Andrew
      • Indiana University-Purdue, University at Fort Wayne
      • Egbert, Bob
      • Plymouth State University
      • Ellis, Curtis
      • University of Oklahoma
      • Erickson, Jon R.
      • 3rd Circuit, Unified, Judicial System, State of South Dakota
      • Ferguson, Margaret R.
      • Indiana University-Purdue, University at Indianapolis
      • Fistek, Michelle Anne
      • Plymouth State University
      • Folz, David H.
      • University of Tennessee
      • Freeman, David
      • Washburn University
      • Gaddie, Ronald Keith
      • University of Oklahoma
      • Gaffney, Michael J.
      • Washington State University
      • Gaines, Brian J.
      • University of Illinois
      • Gast, Florian
      • University of Tennessee
      • Gershtenson, Joseph
      • Eastern Kentucky University
      • Glennon, Colin R.
      • University of Tennessee
      • Goodman, David
      • Rice University
      • Gossett, Charles W.
      • California State, Polytechnic University
      • Graham, Cole Blease, Jr.
      • University of South Carolina
      • Greene, Jeffrey D.
      • University of Montana
      • Gross, Donald A.
      • University of Kentucky, Lexington
      • Grubbs, Joshua J.
      • University of Tennessee
      • Haider-Markel, Donald P.
      • University of Kansas
      • Haag, Stefan D.
      • Austin Community College
      • Haeg, Claire
      • St. John's University
      • Hamilton, Chris
      • Washburn University
      • Hammons, Christopher W.
      • Houston Baptist University
      • Hansen, Susan B.
      • University of Pittsburgh
      • Harrison, Russell S.
      • Rutgers University, Camden
      • Harsell, Dana Michael
      • University of North Dakota
      • Haworth, Peter Daniel
      • Georgetown University
      • Heaney, Michael T.
      • University of Florida
      • Henderson, Michael
      • Harvard University
      • Herrnson, Paul S.
      • University of Maryland
      • Hill, Kevin A.
      • Florida International University
      • Hodson, Timothy A.
      • Sacramento State
      • Hurwitz, Mark S.
      • Western Michigan University
      • Jepsen, Eric M.
      • University of South Dakota
      • Johnson, Janet B.
      • University of Delaware
      • Johnson, Nicholas
      • Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
      • Karch, Andrew
      • University of Texas at Austin
      • Kaufman, Matthew
      • UrbanTrans Consultants
      • Keller, Lawrence F.
      • Cleveland State University
      • Kincaid, John
      • Lafayette College
      • Kisida, Brian
      • University of Arkansas
      • Krebs, Timothy B.
      • University of New Mexico
      • Kuzenski, John C.
      • North Carolina Central University
      • Langer, Laura
      • University of Arizona
      • Larimer, Christopher W.
      • University of Northern Iowa
      • Leland, Suzanne
      • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      • Lewis, Daniel C.
      • University of New Orleans
      • Lindaman, Kara
      • Winona State University
      • Lopach, James
      • University of Montana
      • Lowry, Robert C.
      • The University of Texas at Dallas
      • Marlowe, Justin
      • University of Kansas
      • Martinek, Wendy L.
      • Binghamton University, State University of New York
      • Martorano, Nancy
      • University of Dayton
      • McDonald, Michael P.
      • George Mason University
      • McKee, Clyde
      • Trinity College
      • Miller, Edward J.
      • University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point
      • Mitchell, Nathan K.
      • Texas Tech University
      • Moakley, Maureen
      • University of Rhode Island
      • Moncrief, Gary
      • Boise State University
      • Morehouse, Sarah M.
      • University of Connecticut
      • Morin, Robert P.
      • Western Nevada College
      • Murray, Leah A.
      • Weber State University
      • Nakanishi, Don T.
      • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Nelson, Garrison
      • University of Vermont
      • Newmark, Adam J.
      • Appalachian State University
      • Norrander, Barbara
      • University of Arizona
      • Nowlan, James D.
      • University of Illinois
      • Nownes, Anthony J.
      • University of Tennessee
      • Ochs, Holona LeAnne
      • Howard University
      • Palmer, Kenneth T.
      • University of Maine
      • Parent, Wayne
      • Louisiana State University
      • Pecorella, Robert E.
      • St. John's University
      • Peddle, Michael T.
      • Northern Illinois University
      • Peterson, Mark
      • Washburn University
      • Picus, Lawrence O.
      • University of Southern California
      • Pierce, Patrick
      • St. Mary's College
      • Pika, Joseph A.
      • University of Delaware
      • Portz, John
      • Northeastern University
      • Potolicchio, Samuel Joseph
      • Georgetown University
      • Pratt, Richard C.
      • University of Hawai'i at Manoa
      • Purcell, Stephanie
      • Creighton University
      • Reeves, Andree
      • University of Alabama
      • Reich, Gary
      • University of Kansas
      • Rice, Heather Marie
      • University of Pittsburgh
      • Rodriguez, Gail
      • University of Kansas
      • Rom, Mark Carl
      • Georgetown University
      • Rose, Shanna
      • New York University
      • Schmeisser, Hans E.
      • University of Florida
      • Schneider, Saundra K.
      • Michigan State University
      • Schuhmann, Robert A.
      • University of Wyoming
      • Shaffer, Stephen D.
      • Mississippi State University
      • Sheffield, James F., Jr.
      • University of Oklahoma
      • Smith, Loran
      • Washburn University
      • Soherr-Hadwiger, David
      • New Mexico Highlands University
      • Sohl, Shannon N.
      • Northern Illinois University
      • Sokolow, Alvin D.
      • University of California, Davis
      • Stephan, Mark
      • Washington State University
      • Stonecash, Jeffrey M.
      • Syracuse University
      • Stoutenborough, James W.
      • University of Kansas
      • Straayer, John A.
      • Colorado State University
      • Swartz, Nicholas J.
      • James Madison University
      • Swearingen, Colin D.
      • University of Oklahoma
      • Taylor, G. Thomas
      • University of Maine
      • Thomas, Clive S.
      • University of Alaska, Juneau
      • Thompson, Joel A.
      • Appalachian State University
      • Thornburg, Matthew P.
      • George Mason University
      • Trounstine, Jessica L.
      • Princeton University
      • Tucker, Justin A.
      • California State University, Fullerton
      • Turner, Joel
      • Western Kentucky University
      • Valentine, David C.
      • University of Missouri
      • VerBurg, Kenneth
      • Michigan State University
      • Vieux, Andrea
      • University of Kansas
      • Wekkin, Gary D.
      • University of Central Arkansas
      • Whitford, Andrew B.
      • University of Georgia
      • Wilcox, Clyde
      • Georgetown University
      • Winkel, Richard J., Jr.
      • University of Illinois
      • Witmer, Richard C.
      • Creighton University
      • Woolf, Jaclyn E.
      • Texas Tech University
      • Wong, Kenneth K.
      • Brown University


      The Political Encyclopedia of U.S. States and Regions offers a comprehensive first-stop reference for information and analysis on politics and government in states and regions across the country.

      Part One presents a set of four topical essays that introduce the reader to key concepts and trends critical to understanding state politics. These essays are meant to offer readers insight into the broad context in which state governments and political institutions operate.

      Part Two of the encyclopedia presents detailed profiles of each state, organized within four broad regional categories—the Northeast, South, West, and Midwest—along with another section on the U.S. Territories. Each region is introduced by an essay discussing the political character of the region and recent trends that currently define the politics of the region. All written by scholars specializing in the politics of each state, the state essays following each regional introduction are systematically structured to offer easy comparisons between states. After a brief historical introduction, the essays include the following sections:

      Political Environment

      Elections and Voting Behavior

      The Legislative Branch

      The Executive Branch

      The Judicial Branch

      Intergovernmental Relations

      State-Tribal Relations (where applicable)

      Long-term Issues and Policy Trends

      The state articles include a wealth of graphic and supplemental material. In addition to a bibliography and further reading section at the end of each article, a chart showing the partisan distribution of the presidential elections from 1988 to 2004 is included for each state article as well as data tables on:

      Political History

      Political Environment

      Elections and Voting Behavior

      The Legislative Branch

      The Executive Branch

      The Judicial Branch

      Part Three: State Politics A to Z offers articles on a range of topics critical to understanding how state politics and government operate and function. Over 180 articles examine the following areas:

      Government Functions and Procedures

      Government Positions

      Government Structure and Bodies

      Political Theory Political Behavior

      Scattered throughout the articles are tables and charts that help to illustrate some of the concepts and trends discussed in the section. For instance, the article on Mandates includes a chart outlining the costs to the states of implementing the Real ID Act of 2005.

      Part Four: Statistics offers additional data relating to state politics and government not available in the state and regional profiles and the A to Z section.

      A thematic outline of the State Politics A to Z section is presented in the front matter of each volume to help users understand the scope of material in that section and to browse for topics they may want or need to research. A detailed name, place, and concept index is included in the back of each volume.

      In compiling the various statistical material presented throughout the encyclopedia, we have attempted to use the most recent data available from reliable sources. In addition to the authors’ own research, the following sources were used in compiling the information in the data tables found in the state articles.

      Political History
      Initiative and Referendum Institute, University of Southern California Law School. Constitutional Amendments, Report 2006-3. Available from http://www.iandrinstitute.org.
      Political Environment
      Association of Religion Data Archives, Pennsylvania State University. U.S. Congregational Membership: State Reports. 2001. Available from http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/selectState.asp.
      Kosmin, Barry A., EgonMayer, and ArielaKeysar. American Religious Identification Survey, 2001. New York: The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 2001. Available from http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris.pdf.
      U.S. Census Bureau. 2000 Census of Population and Housing. “Urban and Rural Population by State: 1970 to 2000.” Available from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/index.html.
      U.S. Census Bureau. 2005 American Community Survey. “Native and Foreign-Born Population by Place of Birth and State: 2005.” Available from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/08s0040.pdf.
      U.S. Census Bureau. 2008 Statistical Abstract. “Resident Population, Percent Change, and Population Density by State: 1960 to 2006.” Available from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/08s0013.pdf.
      U.S. Census Bureau. 2008 Statistical Abstract. “Resident Population by Race, Hispanic or Latino Origin, and State: 2006.” Available from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/08s0018.xls.
      Elections and Voting Behavior
      Congressional Quarterly Inc. CQ Politics 2008 Primary Guide. Available from http://innovation.cq.com/primaries08.
      Cook, Rhodes, Alice V.McGillivray, and Richard M.Scammon. America Votes 2005 to 2006: Election Returns by State. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007.
      Office of the Federal Register, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2008 Presidential Election, Distribution of 2004 and 2008 Electoral Votes. Available from http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/2008/allocation.html.
      U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Report, November 2004. “Presidential Elections, Voter Turnout by State: 1980 to 2004.” Available from http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/voting/cps2004.html.
      The Legislative Branch
      Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. “Women in State Legislatures 2008.” Available from http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/stleg.pdf.
      The Executive Branch
      U.S. Census Bureau. State Government Employment and Payroll Data: March, 2006. Available from http://www.census.gov/govs/www/apesst06dl.html.
      The Judicial Branch
      U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. State Court Organization 2004. Available from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/sco04.htm.

      The sources for all other statistical material have been cited where appropriate in the text.

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