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Syrian Arab Republical-Jumhuriyah al-Arabiyah al-Suriyah
Political Status: Republic proclaimed in 1941; became independent on April 17, 1946; under military regime since March 8, 1963.
Area: 71,586 sq. mi. (185,408 sq. km).
Population: 18,284,000 (2018E—World Bank); 19,464,263 (U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2018E—World Population Review): DAMASCUS (1,569,394), Aleppo (1,602,264), (3,641,000), Homs (775,404), Hamah (460,6702), Latakia (340,181), Deirez-Zor (242565), Ar Raqqah (177,636).
Official Language: Arabic.
Monetary Unit: Syrian Pound (official rate October 19, 2018: 214.55 pounds = $1US). The Syrian pound, formerly pegged to the U.S. dollar, has been pegged to a basket of currencies since 2007.
President: Lt. Gen. (Dr.) Bashar al-ASSAD (Ba’ath Party); sworn in July 17, 2000, May 27, 2007, and July 16, 2014.
Vice Presidents: Farouk al-SHARAA (Ba’ath Party); appointed by President Assad on February 11, 2006; and Najah al-ATTAR (ind.), ...