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Political Status: Independence established 1878; People’s Republic proclaimed December 30, 1947; designated a Socialist Republic by constitution adopted August 21, 1965; redesignated as Romania in December 1989; presidential multiparty constitution approved in referendum of December 8, 1991.
Area: 91,699 sq. mi. (237,500 sq. km).
Population: 19,469,000 (2018E—World Bank); 21,457,116 (2018E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2018E—World Population Review): BUCHAREST (Bucureşti, 1,877,155), Cluj-Napoca (316,748), Timişoara (315,053), Iaşi (318,012), Constanţa (303,399), Craiova (304,142), Galaţi (294,087), Braşov (276,088).
Official Language: Romanian.
Monetary Unit: New Leu (market rate October 19, 2018: 4.06 new lei = $1US). The new leu was introduced on July 1, 2005, at the rate of 1 new leu = 10,000 old lei.
President: Klaus IOHANNIS (formerly National Liberal Party, currently independent as constitutionally required); elected in second-round balloting on November 16, 2014, ...