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Republic of MaliRépublique du Mali
Political Status: Independent republic proclaimed September 22, 1960; military regime established November 19, 1968; civilian rule reestablished under constitution approved in 1974 and promulgated June 19, 1979; 1974 constitution suspended on March 26, 1991, and replaced by interim Fundamental Act on March 31; multiparty constitution drafted by National Conference in July–August 1991, approved by popular referendum on January 12, 1992, and formally proclaimed on February 14, 1992; military regime briefly established by coup of March 21–22, 2012, followed by installation of a transitional government pending new presidential and legislative elections; permanent government inaugurated in September 2013 following presidential elections.
Area: 478,764 sq. mi. (1,240,000 sq. km).
Population: 19,108,000 (2018E—UN); 18,429,893 (2018E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Center (2016E—UN): BAMAKO (2,651,000).
Official Language: French. Bambara, Fulfuldé, Songhai, and ...