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Republic of Iraqal-Jumhuriyah al-Iraqiyah
Political Status: Independent state since 1932; declared a republic following military coup that overthrew the monarchy in 1958; provisional constitution issued September 22, 1968, and substantially amended thereafter; de facto one-party regime ousted following invasion by U.S.–UK-led forces in March 2003; interim constitution (Transitional Administrative Law) adopted by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Governing Council on May 8, 2004, providing for popular election of a Transitional National Assembly; new constitution adopted by referendum on October 15, 2005, providing for popular election of a permanent National Assembly and a mixed presidential/parliamentary system.
Area: 167,924 sq. mi. (434,923 sq. km).
Population: 39,340,000 (2018E—World Bank); 40,194,216 (2018E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2018E—World Population Review): BAGHDAD (7,216,000), Basra (2,600,000), al-Mawsil al Jadidah [Page 745](2,065,597), al-Mawsil al Quadimah (2,015,483), al-Mawsil (Mosul, 1,739,800), ...