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Islamic Republic of IranJomhori-e Islami-e Irân
Political Status: Former monarchy; Islamic Republic proclaimed April 1–2, 1979, on basis of referendum of March 30–31; present constitution adopted in a referendum of December 2–3, 1979.
Area: 636,293 sq. mi. (1,648,000 sq. km).
Population: 82,012,000 (2018E—World Bank); 83,024,745 (2018E—U.S. Census).
Major Urban Centers (2018E: World Population Review): TEHRAN (7,153,309), Mashhad (2,307,177), Esfahan (1,547,164), Karaj (1,448,075), Tabriz (1,424,641).
Official Language: Persian (Farsi).
Monetary Unit: Rial (official rate October 19, 2018: 42,000.00 rials = $1US).
Supreme Religious Leader: Ayatollah Seyed Ali KHAMENEI; elected President October 2, 1981, and sworn in October 13, following the assassination of Mohammad Ali RAJAI on August 30; reelected August 16, 1985, and sworn in for a second four-year term on October 10; named Supreme Religious Leader by the Assembly of Experts on ...