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Classical Foundations: The Historical Context of a New Field of Study
Classical foundations: The historical context of a new field of study

Although various forms of organization existed for thousands of years prior to the emergence of classical management and organization theories, it was not until the end of the nineteenth century that the study of organizations became a more formalized discipline. In large part this emerging awareness and study can be understood as being tied to the second Industrial Revolution—that is, the shift away from dependence on water power that characterized early industrialization, to steam power, and the advent of mass produced and cheap steel. Simultaneously, there was a shift in economic power and productivity from Great Britain to the United States and Germany. ...

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