Managing Today’s News Media: Audience First
The business of journalism is in the midst of massive change. Managing Today’s News Media: Audience First offers practical solutions on how to cope with and adapt to the evolving media landscape. News media experts Samir Husni, Debora Halpern Wenger, and Hank Price introduce a forward-looking framework for understanding why change is occurring and what it means to the business of journalism. Central to this new paradigm is a focus on the audience. The authors introduce “The 4Cs Strategy” to describe how customers, control, choice, and change are all part of a strategy for successful media organizations. Every chapter in the book relates to one or more of these four key principles: • Customer - Each platform must offer a unique experience to the customer. ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
An Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © 2016 by CQ Press, an imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Managing today’s news media: audience first / Samir Husni, University of Mississippi; Debora Halpern Wenger, University of Mississippi; Hank Price, Northwestern University Media Management Center.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-9257-1 (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Broadcast journalism. 2. Television viewers. I. Wenger, Debora Halpern. II. Price, Hank. III. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Matt Byrnie
Editorial Assistant: Janae Masnovi
Production Editor: Bennie Clark Allen
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Annie Lubinsky
Indexer: Karen Wiley
Cover Designer: Scott Van Atta
Marketing Manager: Ashlee Blunk
Change is the only constant. And while change in the media in general and the news media in particular has been occurring at a record speed, this book offers practical solutions on how to cope with and adapt to the evolving media landscape.
The philosophy and theories behind “Managing Today’s News Media: Audience First” have a foundation in the works of two great Greek philosophers, Parmenides and Heraclitus.
Parmenides is the pre-Platonic Greek philosopher who theorized about permanence as reality; what is permanent, what lasts and what is stable is real. In other words, what you cannot destroy is what is real and true.
Heraclitus, on the other hand, was the theorist of change. He’s the one famous for saying, “You cannot step in the same river twice,” because the water keeps on flowing and changing. For him, constant change was the one reality. The only permanent thing in the universe, according to Heraclitus, is change.
So, how can we then create a systematic way of managing news organizations in a world of ever-changing audiences and news and information platforms? This book proposes a strategy; the “4 C’s Strategy” is based on the premise that the focus of media managers today should be on the audience and not the platforms themselves. In Chapter 1 and throughout the text, we describe in great detail how customers, control, choice and change are all part of a strategy for successful media organizations.Where We Are Going
Between the three of us, we have been teaching and training media managers for decades. We’ve also worked as consultants or media managers ourselves for some of the top news organizations in the country.
This textbook will help prepare managers for jobs in today’s media organizations, but we also cover the essential topics for any journalist who needs to understand the business of media. It is our belief that one of the great failures of journalism and mass communication education is that programs have neglected to expose students to the basic business principles that drive the success or failure of the organizations for which they work.
Throughout the book, we discuss how the audience-first approach to managing a news company changes the thinking about and execution of newsgathering and the news distribution process. We deal with subjects such as fostering innovation within an organization and the impact of the more interactive relationship news organizations now have with their audiences. Business models and new sources of revenue are discussed, along with an exploration of [Page xii]where multimedia journalism may be headed and how those who want to lead news media companies can prepare themselves for jobs and careers, now and in the future.How We Get There
We’ve structured the book in such a way that you can read individual chapters in whatever order seems most useful to you. Our goal is to provide a straightforward guide to what you need to know to work as a news manager today. All major forms of media are presented in their own individual chapters with an introductory chapter fully explaining the basis of our 4 C’s Strategy.
In addition, in each chapter you will find real-world examples of business successes and failures, in-depth interviews and advice from industry leaders, and unique elements you won’t find in other media management textbooks. We take on the topics of branding, business models and audience power as well.
Each chapter includes two innovative features: “Leadership Reports” and “Think and Do” exercises. The “Leadership Reports” involve interviews with CEOs, publishers, editors, producers, owners and media agency professionals in order to present a “reality check” on how the 4 C’s Strategy can be put into practice.
And while it’s one thing to read about how to do something, it’s another to actually do it. The “Think and Do” sections provide exercises that will test what you’ve learned and your ability to execute the techniques discussed in each chapter.
For those in the classroom, this book is intended to be a tool of preparation for the world of news media. For the news manager, this book is intended to be a tool to enhance and enrich the work environment as many professionals seek solutions to the challenges facing the industry, rather than just updates on the latest technological changes.
This book is about the profession we love and how we manage the integration of media and technology in order to serve our customers better. It is not a theory book, although it is based on a theory. Our goal for “Managing Today’s News Media: Audience First” is to present a practical handbook for every person interested in acquiring a better set of skills when it comes to managing media organizations.
There are many good books out there dealing with media, management of media, news media and other topics relevant to the subject. This one, however, simply put, is different. It is a hybrid if you will. “Managing Today’s News Media: Audience First” is not an academic book and not a professional book; it is both.
That could not have happened, however, without the generous contributions from media organization leaders who took the time to talk with us, to teach us, and to share what they know about the ever-changing media landscape and how to manage and survive in such a world. Our goal is that you use this foundation to grow and prosper in your media world regardless of the platform.
We also want to thank family, friends, colleagues, students, reviewers, and editors who believed in the project and worked with us to make this a better book.
It’s also important to thank you – our audience. We need your feedback on our first edition of this book so we can enhance and enrich subsequent editions of the text. Feel free to reach out and offer advice. Thank you.
We wish to gratefully thank the following reviewers:
Dan Caterinicchia, Ohio State University School of Communication
Steven Chappell, Northwest Missouri State University
Sumana Chattopadhyay, Marquette University
Cornelius “Neil” Foote Jr., University of North Texas
Derina Holtzhausen, Oklahoma State University
Mary Catherine Kennedy, Mount St. Mary’s University
Samir “Mr. Magazine™” Husni email@example.com
Deb Halpern Wenger firstname.lastname@example.org
Hank Price email@example.com
CQ Press, an imprint of SAGE, is the leading publisher of books, periodicals, and electronic products on American government and international affairs. CQ Press consistently ranks among the top commercial publishers in terms of quality, as evidenced by the numerous awards its products have won over the years. CQ Press owes its existence to Nelson Poynter, former publisher of the St. Petersburg Times, and his wife Henrietta, with whom he founded Congressional Quarterly in 1945. Poynter established CQ with the mission of promoting democracy through education and in 1975 founded the Modern Media Institute, renamed The Poynter Institute for Media Studies after his death. The Poynter Institute (www.poynter.org) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to training journalists and media leaders.
In 2008, CQ Press was acquired by SAGE, a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets. Since 1965, SAGE has helped inform and educate a global community of scholars, practitioners, researchers, and students spanning a wide range of subject areas, including business, humanities, social sciences, and science, technology, and medicine. A privately owned corporation, SAGE has offices in Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, and Singapore, in addition to the Washington DC office of CQ Press.
Appendix[Page 203]ReferencesChapter 1
1. Jeff Jarvis, “A Degree in Social Journalism,” BuzzMachine, April 26, 2014, retrieved from http://buzzmachine.com/2014/04/26/degree-social-journalism/ on Feb. 16, 2015.
2. Richard Perez-Pena, “Newspapers a Hot Commodity After Obama Win,” The New York Times, Nov. 5, 2008, retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/06/business/media/06paper.html?_r=0 on Nov. 13, 2014.
3. “The Shirky Principle,” The Technium, April 2, 2010, retrieved from http://kk.org/thetechnium/2010/04/the-shirky-prin/ on Feb. 16, 2015.
4. Thomas Baekdal, “What If Quality Journalism Isn’t?” Baekdal Plus, June 12, 2014, retrieved from http://www.baekdal.com/insights/what-if-quality-journalism-isnt/10C3F189EE6048BBB4D5CB448CE6F069DAC6C08B6F9E7F72EF24FC33EAC1F946 on Feb. 16, 2015.Chapter 2
1. “Newspapers Getting Started: The Development of the Modern Newspaper,” Center for History and New Media, George Mason University, 2005, retrieved from http://chnm.gmu.edu/worldhistorysources/unpacking/newsmod.html on Jan. 20, 2014.
2. “The Early History of Newspaper Publishing in New York State,” New York State Library, May 14, 2009, retrieved from http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/nysnp/history.htm on Jan. 20, 2014.
3. Mark R. Gould, “History of TV News – Part 1,” American Library Association, 2012, retrieved from http://www.atyourlibrary.org/culture/history-tv-news-part-1 on Jan. 18, 2014.
4. Rick Edmonds, Emily Guskin, Amy Mitchell, and Mark Jurkowitz, “Newspapers: Stabilizing but Still Threatened,” The State of the News Media 2013, retrieved from http://stateofthemedia.org/2013/newspapers-stabilizing-but-still-threatened/ on Jan. 18, 2014.
5. Barbara Boland, “Study: Network News Viewers at All-Time Low; Half Under Age 30 Never Watch News,” CBS News, Jan. 10, 2014, retrieved from http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/barbara-boland/study-network-news-viewers-all-time-low-half-under-age-30-never-watch on Jan. 18, 2014.
6. Susan Gunelius, “What Is a Brand? Part 1 – 5 Factors That Define a Brand,” AYTM, 2015, retrieved from http://aytm.com/blog/research-junction/branding-factors/ on Jan. 18, 2014.
7. “A No Nonsense-Look at Newspaper Brand,” Readership Institute, Northwestern University, 2012, retrieved from http://www.readership.org/brand/brandlook.asp on Jan. 18, 2014.
9. “Fox News Channel Marks Decade as the Number One Cable News Network,” Press Release, January 2012, retrieved from http://press.foxnews.com/2012/01/fox-news-channel-marks-decade-as-the-number-one-cable-news-network/ on January 18, 2014.[Page 204]
10. Lisa de Moraes, “Rick Kaplan Out at No. 3 MSNBC,” The TV Column, The Washington Post, June 8, 2006, retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702355.html on Jan. 18, 2014.
11. “Rick Kaplan Exits: It’s Time to ‘Grow the Channel in a Way It Hasn’t to Date,’” MSNBC, June 8, 2006, retrieved from http://www.mediabistro.com/tvnewser/rick-kaplan-exits-its-time-to-grow-the-channel-in-a-way-it-hasnt-to-date_b9996 on Jan. 18, 2014.
12. “MSNBC to ‘Lean Forward’ in Two-Year Brand Campaign,” MSNBC News, Oct. 5, 2010, retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/39507182/ on Jan. 18, 2014.
13. Rick Kissell, “Fox News Remains Ratings Champ as 2013 Comes to Close: It and Rivals CNN, MSNBC Down From Last Year,” Variety, Dec. 16, 2013, retrieved from http://variety.com/2013/tv/news/fox-news-remains-ratings-dynamo-as-2013-comes-to-close-1200964903/# on Jan. 18, 2014.
14. Dylan Byers, “In Crisis, CNN Aims to Rethink the Brand,” Politico, June 26, 2012, retrieved from http://www.politico.com/blogs/media/2012/06/in-crisis-cnn-aims-to-rethink-itself-127385.html on Jan. 18, 2014.
15. Mike Allen and Alex Weprin, “Zucker Plans Massive Change at CNN,” Capital, Dec. 3, 2013, retrieved from http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/media/2013/12/8536789/zucker-plans-massive-change-cnn on Jan. 18, 2014.Chapter 3
1. Todd Spangler, “Media and Entertainment Sector Profitability Forecast to Rise Again in 2014,” Variety, Sept. 15, 2014, retrieved from http://variety.com/2014/biz/news/media-and-entertainment-sector-to-notch-highest-profitability-in-7-years-report-1201304744/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
2. Coursera, retrieved from https://class.coursera.org/contentstrategy-001/wiki/week on Feb. 20, 2015.
3. Steve Gray, “Part II – The End of the Mass Media Era,” MediaReset, Apr. 31, 2012, retrieved from http://mediareset.com/2012/04/30/part-ii-the-end-of-the-mass-media-era/ on May 19, 2014.
4. Deborah Potter, Katerina-Eva Matsa, and Amy Mitchell, “Local TV: Audience Declines as Revenue Bounces Back,” The State of the News Media 2013, retrieved from http://stateofthemedia.org/2013/local-tv-audience-declines-as-revenue-bounces-back/ on May 19, 2014.
5. Benji Cannon, “A Brief History of Disruptive Innovation, Part I,” DisCo, Aug. 7, 2013, retrieved from http://www.project-disco.org/competition/080713-a-brief-history-of-disruptive-innovation-part-i/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
6. “Theories of Technology,” Wikipedia, Jan. 22, 2015, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theories_of_technology on May 19, 2014.
7. “Chicken or Egg: Consumer Driven or Technology Driven?” Innovation.net, Jan. 13, 2014, retrieved from http://venture2.typepad.com/innovationnet/2014/01/chicken-or-egg-consumer-driven-or-technology-driven.html on Feb. 23, 2015.
8. Vauhini Vara, “How BlackBerry Fell,” The New Yorker, Aug. 12, 2013, retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/elements/2013/08/blackberry-sale-announcement-iphone-smartphone-market.html on May 19, 2014.
9. Jesse Holcomb, “NBC Makes a Bet on Getting User-Generated Content From Citizen Videographers,” Pew Research Center, Aug. 20, 2013, retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/08/20/nbc-makes-a-bet-on-getting-user-generated-content-from-citizen-videographers/ on May 19, 2014.[Page 205]
10. Peter Marsh, “5 Things to Know About Content, Advertising and Trust,” NewsCycle Solutions, Feb. 27, 2004, retrieved from http://www.newscyclesolutions.com/5-things-to-know-about-content-advertising-and-trust/ on Feb. 20, 2015.
11. “Broadcast TV Advertising Revenue in the United States from 2004 to 2013 (in Billion U.S. Dollars),” Statista, 2015, retrieved from http://www.statista.com/statistics/183366/ad-revenue-in-us-broadcast-television-since-2004/ on Feb. 20, 2015.
12. “‘Magazine Media 360’ Explained, The Mr. MagazineTM Interview With Mary Berner,” Mr. Magazine, Oct. 13, 2014, retrieved from http://mrmagazine.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/magazine-media-360-explained-the-mr-magazine-interview-with-mary-berner-president-ceo-mpa-the-association-of-magazine-media/ on Feb. 20, 2015.
13. “Tribal Marketing,” Marketing Tools, Jan. 28, 2009, retrieved from http://themarketingtools.wordpress.com/tag/tribal-marketing-definition/ on Feb. 20, 2015.
14. Larry Percy, “What Is a Behavioral Sequence Model?” retrieved from http://www.larrypercy.com/bsm.html on Feb. 20, 2015.
15. Allen Stafford, “Behavioral Sequence Model (BSM),” Marketing Binder, retrieved from http://www.marketingbinder.com/glossary/behavioral-sequence-model-bsm-marketing-definition/ on Feb. 20, 2015.Chapter 4
1. Zacks.com, “Gannett to Expand Its Broadcasting Footprint – Analyst Blog,” NASDAQ, May 15, 2014, retrieved from http://www.nasdaq.com/article/gannet-to-expand-its-broadcasting-footprint-analyst-blog-cm353557#ixzz32AN75sTY on Feb. 24, 2015.
2. “Across Platforms, 7 in 10 Adults Access Content From Newspaper Media Each Week,” Newspaper Association of America, March 25, 2013, retrieved from http://www.naa.org/Trends-and-Numbers/Readership.aspx on Feb. 21, 2015.
3. Mark Jurkowitz and Amy Mitchell, “Newspapers Turning Ideas Into Dollars,” Pew Research Center, Feb. 11, 2013, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2013/02/11/newspapers-turning-ideas-dollars/ on Feb. 21, 2015.
5. “Survey: Community Newspapers Still Tops for Local News,” National Newspaper Association, Feb. 25, 2013, retrieved from http://nnaweb.org/article?articleTitle=survey-community-papers-still-tops-for-local-news--1361822263--502--1top-story on Nov. 16, 2014.
6. David Carr, “Times-Picayune Confirms Staff Cuts and 3-Day-a-Week Print Schedule,” Media Decoder, The New York Times, May 24, 2012, retrieved from http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/24/new-orleans-times-picayune-to-cut-staff-and-cease-daily-newspape/?_r=0 on Feb. 26, 2015.
7. Andrew Beaujon, “USA Today’s Circulation Up 67 Percent? Newspaper Industry Makes Comparisons Increasingly Difficult,” Poynter, Oct. 31, 2013, retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/mediawire/227958/usa-todays-circulation-up-67-percent-newspaper-industry-makes-comparisons-increasingly-difficult/ on Feb. 21, 2015.Chapter 5
1. Neal Lulofs, “Top 25 U.S. Consumer Magazines for June 2014,” Alliance for Audited Media, Aug. 7, 2014, retrieved from http://auditedmedia.com/news/blog/2014/august/top-25-us-consumer-magazines-for-june-2014.aspx on Feb. 26, 2015.[Page 206]
2. Emma Bazilian, “After Newsweek, Is Writing on Wall for Newsweeklies?” Adweek, Oct. 18, 2012, retrieved from http://www.adweek.com/news/press/after-newsweek-writing-wall-newsweeklies-144549 on Feb. 24, 2015.
3. “Key Indicators in Media and News,” Pew Research Center, March 26, 2014, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2014/03/26/state-of-the-news-media-2014-key-indicators-in-media-and-news/ on May 19, 2013.
4. “‘There’s Always Going to Be Time for a Newsweekly,’ Nancy Gibbs, TIME’s New Editor, Tells Samir Husni. The Mr. MagazineTM Interview.” Mr. Magazine, Sept. 25, 2013, retrieved from http://mrmagazine.wordpress.com/2013/09/ on Feb. 24, 2015.
5. “Newsstands and Retail: What’s on the Mind of Top Magazine Executives? A Panel at the MPA/PBAA Retail Marketplace Provides the Answers,” Mr. Magazine, June 13, 2013, retrieved from https://mrmagazine.wordpress.com/2013/06/13/newsstands-and-retail-whats-on-the-mind-of-top-magazine-executives-a-panel-at-the-mpapbaa-retail-marketplace-provides-the-answers/ on Feb. 24, 2015.
11. “‘There’s Always Going to Be Time for a Newsweekly,’ Nancy Gibbs, TIME’s New Editor, Tells Samir Husni. The Mr. MagazineTM Interview.” Mr. Magazine, Sept. 25, 2013, retrieved from http://mrmagazine.wordpress.com/2013/09/ on Feb. 24, 2015.Chapter 6
1. “In Changing News Landscape, Even Television Is Vulnerable,” Pew Research Center, Sept. 27, 2012, retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2012/09/27/in-changing-news-landscape-even-television-is-vulnerable/ on Feb. 25, 2015.
2. “What Is Social TV?” The Digital Marketing Glossary, Aug. 1, 2013, retrieved from http://www.digitalmarketing-glossary.com/What-is-Social-TV-definition on March 2, 2015.
3. Deb Halpern Wenger, “Social TV May Mean Money, Viewer Loyalty, for News,” RTNDA, Jan. 29, 2015, retrieved from http://www.rtdna.org/article/social_tv_may_mean_money_viewer_loyalty_for_news on Feb. 25, 2015.
4. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/WHSV.TV/timeline on Nov. 3, 2014.
5. Council for Research Excellence, “Following the Mobile Path of TV Content,” TV Untethered, July 24, 2013, retrieved from http://www.researchexcellence.com/files/pdf/2015-02/id102_tv_untethered_presentation_7_24_13.pdf on March 2, 2015.
6. Patrick Goldstein and James Rainey, “Survey: Love of Mobile News Does Not = Pay for Mobile News,” The Big Picture, Los Angeles Times, March 13, 2011, retrieved from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/the_big_picture/2011/03/survey-love-of-mobile-news-does-not-pay-for-mobile-news.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+PatrickGoldstein+%28L.A.+Times+-+Patrick+Goldstein%29 on Feb. 25, 2015.
7. Deb Halpern Wenger, “Will the ‘M’ in Mobile Stand for Money?” Quill, July/August 2012, retrieved from http://digitaleditions.walsworthprintgroup.com/article/will_the_%27m%27_in_mobile_stand_for_money%3F/1132105/120451/article.html on March 2, 2015.[Page 207]
8. WCPO Cincinnati, retrieved from http://www.wcpo.com/subscribe on Nov. 3, 2014.
9. “Dual View: Newscast, Google Glass,” WRAL.com, retrieved from http://www.wral.com/wral-tv/video/13379681/ on Nov. 4, 2014.
10. Patrick Kelly and Melvin Kranzburg, “Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge,” San Francisco: San Francisco Press, 1978.
11. Paul Trott, “Innovation Management and New Product Development,” Essex, U.K.: Prentice Hall, 2005.Chapter 7
1. “Statistics,” ITU, 2015, retrieved from http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx on Feb. 26, 2015.
2. “eMarketer: Consumers Spending More Time With Mobile as Growth Slows for Time Online,” Oct. 22, 2012, retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/newsroom/index.php/consumers-spending-time-mobile-growth-time-online-slows/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
3. Jane Sasseen, “Digital: As Mobile Grows Rapidly, the Pressures on News Intensify,” The State of the News Media 2013, retrieved from http://stateofthemedia.org/2013/digital-as-mobile-grows-rapidly-the-pressures-on-news-intensify/20-top-sites-2012-comscore/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
4. “Digital to Account for One in Five Ad Dollars,” eMarketer, Jan. 9, 2013, retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Digital-Account-One-Five-Ad-Dollars/1009592 on March 2, 2015.
5. “Total US Ad Spending to See Largest Increase Since 2004,” retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Total-US-Ad-Spending-See-Largest-Increase-Since-2004/1010982 on March 2, 2015.
6. “Google Takes Home Half of Worldwide Mobile Internet Ad Revenues,” eMarketer, June 13, 2013, retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Google-Takes-Home-Half-of-Worldwide-Mobile-Internet-Ad-Revenues/1009966 on Feb. 26, 2015.
7. Rick Edmonds, “The Case for Paywalls: Gannett Gains While Digital First Experiments,” Poynter, Feb. 5, 2013, updated Nov. 25, 2014, retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/business-news/the-biz-blog/202897/the-case-for-paywalls-gannett-gains-while-digital-first-experiments/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
9. Dena Levitz, “10 Secrets of Successful Meters, Paywalls and Reader Revenue Strategies,” American Press Institute, Sept. 24, 2013, retrieved from http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/en/Training/Transformation-Tour/10-Secrets-of-Successful.aspx on Feb. 26, 2015.
10. “Another Bloomberg First: Delivering Live Business News to Apple TV,” Bloomberg, Dec. 11, 2013, retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/now/2013-12-11/another-bloomberg-first-delivering-live-business-news-to-apple-tv/ on Nov. 13, 2014.
11. Kenneth Olmstead, Amy Mitchell, Jesse Holcomb and Nancy Vogt, “News Video on the Web,” Pew Research Center, March 26, 2014, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2014/03/26/news-video-on-the-web/ on Nov. 6, 2014.
12. Kelly Faircloth, “AOL’s Patch Editor-in-Chief Leaves, Does Not Go Scorched Earth,” Observer, April 12, 2012, retrieved from http://betabeat.com/2012/04/patch-editor-in-chief-leaves-does-not-go-scorched-earth/ on Feb. 26, 2015.[Page 208]
13. Nicholas Carlson, “Exclusive: Now We Know AOL’s Patch Revenue – and It’s Tiny,” Business Insider, Dec. 16, 2011, retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/weve-gotten-a-good-look-at-aols-local-ad-revenues-and-they-are-tiny-2011-12 on March 2, 2015.
14. Leslie Kaufman, “Patch Sites Turn Corner After Sale and Big Cuts,” The New York Times, May 18, 2014, retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/19/business/media/patch-sites-turn-corner-after-sale-and-big-cuts.html?_r=0 on Feb. 26, 2015.
15. “Internet – Summary,” How Much Information? 2000, retrieved from http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info/internet.html on Feb. 26, 2015.
16. “World Wide Web,” retrieved from http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html on Nov. 13, 2014.
17. “John Huey, Former Time Inc. Editor-in-Chief: Research Chat,” Journalist’s Resource, Shorenstein Center, May 16, 2013, retrieved from http://journalistsresource.org/skills/reporting/john-huey-former-time-inc-editor-in-chief-researchchat# on Feb. 26, 2015.
19. Excerpted from Dena Levitz, “6 Principles Clark Gilbert Used to Transform Deseret News,” American Press Institute, Sept. 24, 2013, retrieved from http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/Training/Transformation-Tour/Six-Principles-Clark-Gilbert-Has-Used-To-Transform-The-Deseret-News.aspx on Feb. 26, 2015.
20. Seth Fiegerman, “Betaworks Vision for the Future of Online News,” Mashable, May 7, 2013, retrieved from http://mashable.com/2013/05/07/betaworks-future/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
21. Google Analytics, retrieved from https://www.google.com/analytics/web/?hl=en#report/visitors-overview/a35535656w63365892p65008914/ on Nov. 13, 2014.
22. Excerpted from “The Journalists’ Guide to Analytics,” 10,000 Words, FishbowlNY, Aug. 3, 2010, retrieved from http://www.mediabistro.com/10000words/the-journalists-guide-to-analytics_b875 on Sept. 28, 2013.
23. Google Analytics, retrieved from https://www.google.com/analytics/web/?hl=en#report/trafficsources-referrals/a35535656w63365892p65008914/%3F_u.date00%3D20140101%26_u.date01%3D20141112/ on Nov. 13, 2014.Chapter 8
1. Roger Fidler, “News Consumption on Mobile Media Surpassing Desktop Computers and Newspapers,” Reynolds Journalism Institute, April 25, 2013, retrieved from http://www.rjionline.org/research/rji-dpa-mobile-media-project/2013-q1-research-report-1 on Feb. 26, 2015.
2. “News Consumption on Mobile Devices,” Pew Research Center, Dec. 11, 2012, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/analysis_report/news_consumption_mobile_devices on Feb. 26, 2015.
3. Jason Del Rey, “Mary Meeker’s Internet Trends Report Is Back, at D11,” All Things, May 29, 2013, retrieved from http://allthingsd.com/20130529/mary-meekers-internet-trends-report-is-back-at-d11-slides/?refcat=d11 on Feb. 26, 2015.
4. Fidler, 2013.
5. Alex Wilhelm, “Facebook’s Desktop Ad Revenue Grew Only $69M in Q2, Mobile Rev to Outpace Desktop by EOY 2013,” TechCrunch, July 25, 2013, retrieved from http://techcrunch.com/2013/07/25/facebooks-desktop-ad-revenue-grew-only-69m-in-q2-mobile-rev-to-outpace-desktop-by-eoy-2013/ on Feb. 26, 2015.[Page 209]
6. Dan Farber, “CNN’s Jeff Zucker Trades Analog Dollars for Digital Quarters,” CNET, July 23, 2013, retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57595067-93/cnns-jeff-zucker-trades-analog-dollars-for-digital-quarters/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
7. “Local Mobile Ad Spend to Double in ’13,” NetNewsCheck, June 11, 2013, retrieved from http://www.netnewscheck.com/article/26729/local-mobile-ad-spend-to-double-in-13 on Feb. 26, 2015.
8. Amy Mitchell, Tom Rosenstiel, Laura Houston Santhanam and Leah Christian, “Revenue,” Pew Research Center, Oct. 1, 2012, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/analysis_report/revenue on Feb. 26, 2015.
9. “Paying for Digital News,” Digital News Report 2013, Reuters Institute, retrieved from http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2013/paying-for-digital-news/ on Feb. 26, 2015.
10. Ibid.Chapter 9
1. Amy Mitchell, Jocelyn Kiley, Jeffrey Gottfried and Emily Guskin, “The Role of News on Facebook,” Pew Research Center, Oct. 24, 2013, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2013/10/24/the-role-of-news-on-facebook/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
2. “Profile of the Social Media News Consumer,” Pew Research Center, Nov. 13, 2013, retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2013/11/14/news-use-across-social-media-platforms/5_profile-of-the-social-media-news-consumer/ on Nov. 18, 2014.
3. “Real Estate, Fashion, Graphics, Gadgets and More From The Wall Street Journal,” Pinterest, retrieved from http://www.pinterest.com/wsj/ on Oct. 29, 2014.
4. Cory Janssen, “Digital Influence,” Techopedia, retrieved from http://www.techopedia.com/definition/28497/digital-influence on Feb. 27, 2015.
5. Brian Solis, “Report: The Rise of Digital Influence and How to Measure It,” March 21, 2012, retrieved from http://www.briansolis.com/2012/03/report-the-rise-of-digital-influence/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
7. “Assignment: On the Front Lines of Ebola,” CNN iReport, Nov. 30, 2014, retrieved from http://ireport.cnn.com/topics/1179496 on Oct. 28, 2014.
8. “How CNN iReport Works,” CNN iReport, July 2, 2012, retrieved from http://ireport.cnn.com/blogs/ireport-blog/2012/07/02/how-cnn-ireport-works on Feb.27, 2015.
9. Michael Depp, “AP’s Carvin: News Battle Near for Twitter, FB,” NetNewsCheck, Jan. 13, 2014, retrieved from http://www.netnewscheck.com/article/31368/aps-carvin-news-battle-near-for-twitter-fb/page/1 on Feb. 27, 2015.
10. Ibid.Chapter 10
1. Miguel Helft, “CNN’s Jeff Zucker: Digital Is Our Future,” Fortune, July 23, 2013, retrieved from http://fortune.com/2013/07/23/cnns-jeff-zucker-digital-is-our-future/ on March 3, 2015.
2. Lee Rainie, “Internet, Broadband, and Cell Phone Statistics,” Pew Research Center, Jan. 5, 2010, retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2010/01/05/internet-broadband-and-cell-phone-statistics/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
3. The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism, “The State of the News Media 2012,” retrieved from http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2012/newspapers-building-digital-revenues-proves-painfully-slow/newspapers-by-the-numbers.[Page 210]
4. Mary Ellen Gordon, “The History of App Pricing and Why Most Apps Are Free,” Flurry, July 18, 2013, retrieved from http://www.flurry.com/bid/99013/The-History-of-App-Pricing-And-Why-Most-Apps-Are-Free#.U4DDPybD-tU on Feb. 27, 2015.
5. “Newspaper Media Revenue 2013: Dollars Grow in Several Categories,” Newspaper Association of America, retrieved from http://www.naa.org/Trends-and-Numbers/Newspaper-Revenue.aspx on Feb. 27, 2015.
6. Joe Pompeo, “New York Times Completes ‘Innovation Report’ Led by Sulzberger Scion,” Capital, May 8, 2014, retrieved from http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/media/2014/05/8545059/emnew-york-timesem-completes-innovation-report-led-sulzberger-scion on Feb. 27, 2015.
7. Roger Yu, “Gannett to Spin Off Publishing Business,” USA Today, Aug. 6, 2014, retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/08/05/gannett-carscom-deal/13611915/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
8. Jeffrey A. Eisenach, “The Economics of Retransmission Content,” Empiris LLC, March 2009, retrieved from http://www.nab.org/documents/resources/050809EconofRetransConsentEmpiris.pdf on Feb. 27, 2015.
9. Tony Hallett, “What Is Native Advertising Anyway?” The Guardian, retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/media-network-outbrain-partner-zone/native-advertising-quality-scalability on Feb. 27, 2015.
11. “Executive Conferences From The Wall Street Journal,” retrieved from http://wsj.com/conferences/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
12. “The New York Times Travel Show,” retrieved from http://nyttravelshow.com/ on Feb. 27, 2015.
13. Robert G. Cross, “Revenue Management: Hard-Core Tactics for Market Domination,” New York: Broadway Books, 1997.Chapter 11
1. Loulla-Mae Eleftheriou-Smith, “Brands Must ‘Relinquish Control’ and Let Consumers Feel in Charge,” Marketing, April 6, 2014, retrieved from http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/1297186/brands-relinquish-control-let-consumers-feel-charge on March 4, 2015.
2. Bill Grueskin, Ava Seave and Lucas Graves, “The Story So Far: What We Know About the Business of Digital Journalism,” CJR, May 10, 2011, retrieved from http://www.cjr.org/the_business_of_digital_journalism/the_story_so_far_what_we_know.php on March 4, 2015.
3. Meg Heckman, “Abernathy: Small Papers Must Seize Niche,” NetNewsCheck, June 9, 2014, retrieved from http://www.netnewscheck.com/article/34306/abernathy-small-papers-must-seize-niche on March 2, 2015.
4. Farhad Manjoo, “Why Everyone Will Totally Read This Column,” The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 1, 2013, retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304579404579231772007379090 on March 2, 2015.
5. “Does BuzzFeed Know the Secret?” retrieved from http://nymag.com/news/features/buzzfeed-2013-4/index2.html on March 2, 2015.
6. Tom Rosenstiel, “Why We Need a Better Conversation About the Future of Journalism Education,” Poynter, Apr. 15, 2013, updated Nov. 24, 2014, retrieved from http://www.poynters.org/latest-news/the-next-journalism/210196/why-we-need-a-better-conversation-about-the-future-of-journalism-education/ on March 2, 2015.
About the Authors