Making Diplomacy Work: Intelligent Innovation for the Modern World
Making Diplomacy Work: Intelligent Innovation for the Modern World is a critical and comprehensive survey of how diplomacy works. While most discussions of diplomatic reform stop short of proposing concrete ideas to make diplomacy work better, this text suggests doable initiatives that could make diplomacy more versatile, more attuned to modern realities, and more capable of confronting the shared problems that no state can solve on its own. It takes a fresh look at the practice of diplomacy, sets its achievements and failures in a contemporary context, and analyzes the major factors that have changed the way it is conducted. The book is built on the premise that diplomacy must adapt some of its ritualistic and stale procedures to become more effective in the modern ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Diplomacy in History
- Chapter 2: Who Are the Diplomats and How Do They Operate?
- Chapter 3: The Institutions of Bilateral Diplomacy: Precedence, Protocol, Ministries, Embassies
- Chapter 4: The Institutions of Multilateral Diplomacy
- Chapter 5: Regional Diplomacy, Summits, and the Gs
- Chapter 6: Negotiations
- Chapter 7: Public Diplomacy
- Chapter 8: Public Goods: Treaties and International Law
- Chapter 9: The New Diplomatic Agenda: The Challenges for Diplomatic Reform
- Chapter 10: The Nonstate Actors: Global Citizens and Global Diplomacy
- Chapter 11: The Continuing Information and Communication Revolution: Awaiting the Response of Diplomacy
- Chapter 12: Diplomacy in 2025
- Chapter 13: Diplomacy for the Ages: Intelligent Innovation for the Modern World
An Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © 2016 by CQ Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record of this book is available at the Library of Congress.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Sarah Calabi
Associate Editor: Nancy Loh
Editorial Assistant: Raquel Christie
Production Editors: Natalie Cannon and Veronica Stapleton Hooper
Copy Editor: Cathy Kottwitz
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Dennis W. Webb
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Karine Hovsepian
Marketing Manager: Amy Whitaker
To my wife, Lynda—my inspiration in diplomacy and everything else
There are fewer than one million career diplomats in the world in a population of over seven billion. Diplomacy is something most people read about rather than do. I practiced it for thirty years but seldom read about it—its origins, development, flaws, and achievements. I worked for what is generally regarded as one of the best-resourced and influential diplomatic services but never thought too much about diplomacy as a global activity. My brief was different—to represent the United Kingdom and its interests.
Why then write a book?
When I started teaching American and international students at Boston University, I found that most of the available literature, though not misleading, did not convey the practical aspects of what diplomats do. It generally was written from a Western perspective while the practicing diplomat soon recognizes that the objectives and methods of diplomacy are far from universal. And the literature was overly deferential. It did not question how far diplomacy needed to catch up with the world. There was little analysis of the reasons for the successes diplomacy achieved, only rare acknowledgment of its regular failures, and scant questioning of its ritualistic elements, which occupy much diplomatic time. I have tried to fill this gap and provide a comprehensive survey of modern diplomacy, its institutions and challenges. I hope that students in universities and in diplomatic academies will find the book stimulating enough to pursue their interests and practice diplomacy in some part of the world.
The second reason for the book was selfish. I became fascinated in what I was teaching. The global breadth of diplomacy is astounding, and the extent to which it lives every day beyond the desk of the bureaucratic toilers was rarely noted. But this fascination was soon tinged with frustration. Could it be that global—not national—diplomacy was a human endeavor that had no lobby, no advocates, and no resourcing? Who genuinely wanted to build on the ancient cornerstones—the Vienna Convention, the UN Charter—that were framed to improve it? Would academic specialists produce a new blueprint, or would ambitious undersecretaries in foreign ministries strive to perfect the system? [Page xi]And what of the retired ambassadors like me? Generally, they have devoted themselves to producing memoires and tales of hidden triumphs and secrets betrayed. Beyond these, where were the innovators?
Building on this, the third motivation was to encourage work on diplomatic innovation. It is alarming to think that this is currently solely an issue for seminars and doctoral theses. If methods and framework determine outputs, then the inadequacies of the diplomatic process might in some way account for diplomacy’s high failure rate. To both the specialist and the casual observer, the future of diplomacy looks bleak. And the future is what most of diplomacy is about. Only rarely does world governance acknowledge its responsibility to future generations—Articles 225 of the Brazilian Constitution and 20a of the German Basic Law do so in relation to natural resources. I did, however, find some encouragement in the past capacity of diplomacy to renew itself. And I saw urgency in the new waves that are crashing on diplomacy’s shore—the exponential growth in the number of countries participating in the diplomatic system since 1945, the rise and capacity of globalized nonstate actors, and the myriad opportunities and vulnerabilities for diplomacy in the accelerating information and communications revolution.
The fourth objective of my discussion of diplomatic innovation was to provide diplomacy with a means to look at practical reform. There is a need to identify some instruments to limit the nonpeaceful, nondiplomatic means that now have greater capacity to hurt and weaken diplomacy. But no book is needed to state the obvious—that not all leaders in the world are anxious to explore the benefits of better diplomacy. Many would prefer to use military or economic muscle to get their way. The problem is that the world can no longer rely on such instruments to settle disputes or create a new world order. In short, diplomacy matters more because states individually are becoming weaker. Yet they share a collective interest in improvements because, as in all team games, the results demand combined efforts.
As for diplomatic reform, most current discussions center on which countries should have permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council or which might attend the next summit on whatever issue. Leaders acquiesce in the undemanding round of private conversations and photo opportunities because they have little time or inclination to probe deeper into international relations. So a major obstacle that all reformers have to overcome is to present some ideas that are not only workable and beneficial for diplomacy but that would also fit with the domestic agenda of those who must agree to them. No leader will commit diplomatic suicide, and any proposals made in this book for changes in and additions to current diplomatic practice try to recognize this.
The diplomatic examples given in the text reflect events that at the time of reading may seem in the distant past. But obviously, diplomacy throws up innumerable examples from which to quote every day. Major events are often assumed to be game changers for diplomacy. But in reality they seldom are. As I write this, Ukraine, Gaza, and the Islamic State (IS) are the focus of intense [Page xii]activity at United Nations, in capitals, and in the media. I hope that this book will prove its applicability to formulate diplomacy, no matter what the issue. Diplomacy is poor at predicting problems or outcomes, and I am no psychic. So in every class I teach, I try to review what new issues are arriving in diplomatic inboxes and their relevance for what diplomats do.
The book’s title reflects my view that diplomacy can work better in the modern world but must also be made to work harder to justify itself. It is also important to differentiate one country’s diplomatic expertise from the overall activity. The core of diplomacy is that it should not be a zero-sum activity. If it doesn’t prove its worth, then its influence will gradually erode. The book looks at diplomatic practice through an unsentimental prism, offers some reflections from my own life as a diplomat, and attempts to point to paths that might make it more productive for all involved and for all affected by it. It is also intended to nourish the thinking of those interested in the way the world is run, how it functions internationally, and how diplomacy can seize new opportunities and guard against new threats.
If it fails in these tasks the fault is mine, not because such a book cannot be written.
A diplomat’s family members have to accept much in their own lives to support a career they did not choose. Yes, of course, there is enjoyment and adventure, but the price of movement, change, fear, and insecurity is often high. It is character building but also regularly gives the diplomat pause for thought. Is it really worth the disruption to the lives of others?
So my love and thanks go to my family for allowing me to have a career that gave enormous variety and interest and ultimately led to this book. Without my wife, Lynda, my life would never have taken the diplomatic path. She had a diplomatic career before mine, often working at the highest levels of the British government. So she knew all about it before I did and encouraged me to try it. Becoming a diplomatic spouse, she put warmth and love into our homes in numerous houses and countries. At the same time, she tried to help the underprivileged in the countries where we were posted. She did a lot of good and made the most of whatever assets diplomats have. She also bit her tongue many times and is relieved it’s over. Our children, Antonia, Victoria, Andrew, Matthew, Alexander, and Marina all cheerfully (mostly) endured the changes and partings that diplomacy brings. Our family has continued to grow since we left the service. And I would like to thank the spouses of our children and our five grandchildren, none of whom complain about the regular re-airing of tedious diplomatic anecdotes.
Our children all proudly spent parts of their lives at remarkable international schools that often make diplomacy bearable for children. In their cases, these were the Escuela Campo Alegre in Caracas and The International School of Havana. Students from over fifty countries were their classmates. Throughout the world, the work of thousands of international school teachers means children of diplomats are no longer automatically shipped off to boarding school. The teachers also have lives of adventure, but they often endure tough conditions without the apparatus that gives diplomats support. My thanks go to them.
Beyond family and teachers, I owe a debt of gratitude to the many diplomats I have met, liked, and admired. They were mostly interesting and cordial colleagues. Some were lazy, some super energetic, some gave terrible advice, [Page xiv]but all usually enjoyed what they did and saw the value of building friendships and common interests in an edgy world. Without such a cadre, no book like this would be worth writing.
If I had not had the opportunity to teach, none of this would have been written. I would like to thank my students and colleagues in my new cameo career at Boston University. Though a novice at teaching, I have been welcomed into the sanctuary of learning. My students have given me their attention and ideas, and it was because of them that I thought this book worth writing. At Boston University, I have been nurtured by numerous colleagues, especially Andrew Bacevich, Susan Eckstein, Erik Goldstein, William Keylor, Adil Najam, Scott Palmer, and Vivien Schmidt. In 2004, the United Kingdom’s Foreign Office sent me for a year to Harvard University’s Weatherhead Center and I saw the positive impact of academic study on diplomacy. The directors of the center, Jorge Dominguez and Kathleen Moloney, showed me how effective the best universities are in reaching out to the world.
There is no shortage of good ideas for intelligent innovation in diplomacy and I am grateful to all those who have contributed to the final chapter of this book.
Finally, of immense importance to what I hope you will read, has been the support and encouragement of the team at CQ Press. In particular I would like to thank Sarah Calabi, Raquel Christie, Cathy Kottwitz, and Veronica Stapleton Hooper. They were immensely patient and helpful.Publisher’s Acknowledgments
CQ Press gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
- Marcus Holmes, Fordham University–Rose Hill
- Aaron Zack, CUNY–Baruch College
Diplomacy is an unusual activity.
It is often undertaken with no perceivable results and engaged in by individuals sometimes with little or no common interest and with no common approach to the process. There are no international auditing standards, no internationally recognized training qualifications, and few final successes. Diplomats are widely perceived as privileged (due to their immunities and tax-free status) and prone to talk rather than act. Yet hundreds of thousands of people are paid to work as diplomats. The activity happens continuously throughout the world. In every minute of every day, someone somewhere will be engaged in diplomacy. Contemporary diplomats serve sovereign states but also increasingly look for allies in nonstate sectors. Many of the governments that employ them are weak, seen as increasingly responsible for the world’s problems but significantly handicapped in their capacity and in their resources to respond. There is no global lobby for better diplomacy. Many ponder the direction of the world and the forces that appear to govern it. Few if any solutions receive high-level consideration. Meanwhile, in a world more interconnected and more interdependent than ever, diplomacy struggles to find the shared solutions that match the shared interests states have. The diplomatic bottom line is that we live on the same planet. And all recognize that diplomacy is still the most effective way of setting an agenda to deal with the world’s issues.
Diplomacy is not easy to define. Communication between groups and societies is a constant theme and is seen as a common good. But this is done in so many different ways it is often not clear what is happening and when. Nor is it clear that all that purports to be diplomacy and uses resources assigned to diplomatic activity has any point at all. Ernest Satow, in his classic Guide to Diplomatic Practice, wrote that diplomacy is “the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between the governments of independent states and between governments and international institutions.”1 In practice, diplomacy is defined by its functions more than by its institutions. Diplomacy is an activity performed by distinct groups that has evolved into a permanent activity with content, partners, and measurable results. Much of its evolution to what we see today has been haphazard, with states agreeing to the [Page xvi]codification of immunities and privileges and what functions of diplomacy are permitted but little else since. Yet governments do not frame the tasks of their diplomats in identical terms, nor do the roles of professional diplomats fit into government systems in the same way. Their status and influence over political and economic power differ greatly.
The roles of diplomats in the modern world appear clear. They have evolved through history, and states show a strong capacity to mimic each other. Diplomats gather information, report on international events using overt and covert sources, compete for commercial opportunities for their national companies, and offer consular services to their nationals. Diplomats need to be versatile, confident, and competitive. They vie for attention, and little attention is paid to whether the methods they use are productive for the contemporary world. Collective reforms seem less and less likely, even though in the century since Satow produced his guide diplomacy has been radically transformed through technology, revolutions, and wars. As Sir Ivor Roberts explained in the preface to his new edition of Satow in 2009, older editions needed “radical surgery” to make modern sense: “Diplomacy has changed too much in its practice if not its essentials. Satow would find much to amaze him in the conduct of diplomacy but not its underlying purpose.”2
Satow’s formula has been used with variants over many years. The most important operative words in it are intelligent and tact, both of which suggest the need for a strong aptitude to adapt to the needs of the time. These aspects are generally unchanging, but experts writing later have highlighted other elements. Sir Harold Nicolson, whose book Diplomacy first appeared in 1939, focused on the universality of the activity to every system of governance known to man: “Diplomacy is neither the invention nor the pastime of some particular political system, but is an essential element in any reasonable relation between man and man and between nation and nation.”3 Henry Kissinger stressed the element of striving for agreement through peaceful means, describing diplomacy as “the art of relating states to each other by agreement rather than by the exercise of force.”4Why Diplomacy? The Key Elements
Rather than strive for a perfect definition, it is perhaps more helpful to examine some of the key elements that influence the activity of diplomacy. Six features distinguish what we are seeking to identify. The first is the parties involved in diplomacy do not represent themselves. They are engaged in their work as representatives of sovereign states. Second, diplomacy requires two or more parties, and these parties do not represent the same entity or government. Third, there needs to be a willingness and means to communicate between the parties. This creates a relationship that will be built up through trust and will be seen as valuable. Fourth, the nature of the relationship is normally continuous, not spasmodic, and requires round-the-clock access. There is no end point, no final victory, no diplomatic World Series. Whatever [Page xvii]happens, however much blood has been spilled, you can safely bet that diplomatic methods will sooner or later be resurrected. Fifth, the content of the relationship is not limited by any universal definition of what is permitted. Each party defines what it sees as its interests in engaging in diplomacy. Sixth, all parties may seek to involve other actors in their diplomacy who may or may not be state entities.
If these are the features that define diplomacy, it is also instructive to differentiate diplomacy from related activities. Diplomacy is applied to international relations and foreign policy. It is not identical to either but is a process that has a strong input into both. Theories of international relations are not given much attention among professional diplomats, and this book is not intended to discuss such theories. Yet the academic study of international relations can assist our understanding of diplomatic practice. The theorists try to dissect and rationalize why diplomats act in certain ways on behalf of sovereign states and believe that some universal conclusions can be drawn.
The first group of theorists, known as the realists, sees states as the center of diplomatic activity and the purpose of diplomats they employ to promote the national interest. National interest and power are nearly always synonymous. The state is unitary, rational, and gives priority to security issues. The nonstate actor is a minor player who does not influence outcomes. Writers who have favored this approach include Niccolo Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, and Hans Morgenthau. Kenneth Waltz stressed the importance of institutions and practice in influencing realism and has been called a structural realist. Waltz attempted to use theories to analyze the causes of war and whether individuals, states, or international institutions were their prime cause. The second tradition, known as the liberal tradition, sees many more influences in play and suggests that diplomacy is a major contributor toward the positive development of international understanding. Nonstate actors and international organizations share with sovereign states the central roles in diplomacy. All, to some extent, are mutually dependent. This suggests a forward movement dependent on the relative influence of different actors in this pluralistic system. Writers who favored this approach, which places universal humanitarian values at the center of international relations, include the Dutch legal scholar Hugo Grotius and the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. The third group is sometimes called the economic structuralists and sees all international actors as defined by the contemporary world economic order. In particular, they see the capitalist system as promoting divisions between states and regions creating dominant and dependent relations. Karl Marx argued that the international nature of capitalism was a major determinant of relations between states. Fourth, the English School of theorists draws on a mixture of approaches and sees the world of international relations and diplomacy as influenced by many competing forces. They also recognize an international society as a rational concept where individuals, not just states, matter and where international institutions, rules, and norms can become accepted as in the self-interest of states. In their view, states are multifaceted, not unitary [Page xviii]actors. Writers who have developed this hybrid approach include Martin Wight and E. H. Carr.
Another field of study has focused on how diplomats operate in the context of society. Do diplomats add something to the evolution of international relations, or does their own behavior in practice set the parameters for what diplomacy can achieve? The theory developed by Paul Sharp in his book Diplomatic Theory of International Relations suggests that the content of diplomacy and the way its practitioners behave does in practice influence international relations. Diplomats, Sharp argues, generally have mixed motives for their actions. Like Machiavelli, they prioritize survival for themselves and their states. They also try to maximize the interests and rights of their countries, and then they try to increase the state’s power. In Sharp’s view, diplomats think diplomatically and try to build trust in diplomacy and smooth the edges of disputes. They put a premium on the maintenance of relations. Yet whatever their motives, Sharp believes that diplomats cannot depart from their essential separateness from each other and the groups they represent. There can never be a complete convergence or merging of interest. The fact that the groups of diplomats represent states does not mean that they will be any more successful in promoting convergence than groups based on other common allegiances, such as science or religion. The degree of separateness inherent in diplomacy also implies that groups are unlikely to have much interest in diplomatic interchange with countries that can do them little good and cause them little harm. Diplomats have to be selective in a world of over 190 national groups and many thousand more issue groups.5
John Dryzek believes that any deliberative governance depends on building consensuses. And diplomacy is an important part of international deliberation. If diplomacy is to work at all, as in all deliberative fora, there must exist one or more of the different types of consensus: first, the normative consensus, where values are agreed; second, the epistemic consensus, where there is agreement on what impact policies will have; and third, a preference consensus, where there is actual agreement on what should be done. Dryzek recognizes the difficulty of achieving any or all of these in discussion, but the key element for diplomacy is the acceptance of metaconsensus—acceptance of differences in discourse—which he sees as necessary for progress in all forms of deliberative discussion.6
Whichever theory one favors, the results of diplomacy are impressive. In the last century or so, diplomats have achieved great success through institution building, settlement of disputes, international rule making, agenda setting, and in preserving peace when war seemed a more likely outcome. Equally, failures are not hard to identify. Some countries, despite having extensive diplomatic relations and having employed skilled diplomats, do not succeed in surviving. Many countries in history have failed even though they had the benefits of modern diplomacy. Yugoslavia and Sudan provide recent examples of disintegration. And the veneer of peaceful coexistence on the planet does not reflect reality for many. Conflicts—interstate and intrastate—have caused [Page xix]over twenty million deaths since World War II, and since 1990 over 90 percent of the deaths have been of civilians. In 1992 alone, UNICEF estimated that 500,000 children under five years old died as a result of armed conflicts.
The report card of diplomacy is not easy to grade. Diplomacy is a complex system, and the variety of tasks assigned to diplomats, and not sought by anyone else, reflects its growing complexity. Governments pay the budget so their interests as they perceive them will govern the results they hope to achieve. Inevitably governments want to implement a diplomacy that will appeal to a domestic electorate or will achieve nationalist benefits. But the achievement of enduring results depends increasingly on rapid international choreography, with quick coordinated responses, tapping into expertise and resources from many sectors. As states with declining resources become conscious of the need to partner with other actors to ensure their survival and capacity to influence international events, diplomacy breaks out of its separateness in different directions. Nonstate actors and individuals such as Bill Gates or Mo Ibrahim operate in different ways from interstate diplomacy.
Few dispute that diplomacy matters. It is rooted in common existence on one planet and the collective benefits all countries derive. The world needs diplomats and their activities. They are just as necessary when governments are strong or weak. Diplomacy does not have an electoral cycle and diplomatic history may matter little in the context of current crises. Many of the existing diplomatic institutions were conceived in an era when governments and their diplomats were revered and commanded authority beyond the possibilities of most governments today. The world is now less deferential to every human activity, including diplomacy. Yet part of the rationale of international agreements on diplomacy like the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is that well-executed diplomatic relations are beneficial to every country’s international relations. Like other sociological movements, diplomacy’s influence has expanded and contracted through history. Some generations have bequeathed much; others little. Diplomacy’s core functions remain valid in any [Page xx]era. The world’s problems are diminished if diplomacy takes all its opportunities and the mechanisms work well. This does not mean that all countries will or need to relinquish their national interest. But it is central to the themes of this book that better diplomacy, more intelligent diplomacy, is not a zero-sum game. It is in everyone’s interests, whether they are states or nonstates, that global issues are treated with smart diplomacy. And it is in everyone’s interests that diplomatic failures are recognized and that sovereign states collectively try to improve diplomacy rather than acquiesce in old, stale habits.
About the Author
Notes and References[Page 338]Introduction Notes
1. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), xxv.
3. Sir Harold Nicolson, Diplomacy (Washington, DC: The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, 1988), 4.
4. Henry A. Kissinger, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812–1822 (Brattleboro, VT: Echo Point Books & Media, 2013), 326.
5. Paul Sharp, Diplomatic Theory of International Relations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
6. John S. Dryzek, Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).Chapter 1 Notes
1. Sir Harold Nicolson, The Evolution of Diplomacy: Being the Chichele—Lectures Delivered at the University of Oxford in November 1953 (New York: Collier Books, 1962), xxv.
2. Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, ed. Quentin Skinner and Russell Price (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
3. Armand Jean du Plessis Richelieu, duc de, The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu, trans. Henry Bertram Hill (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961).
4. Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations: Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, 6th ed., ed. Joseph Chitty (Philadelphia: T. & J. W. Johnson, 1844), chap. VI, para. 57.
5. Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations: Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1916), 362.
6. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 15.
7. Woodrow Wilson, “Analyzing German and Austrian Peace Utterances,” address to Congress, February 11, 1918, http://www.gwpda.org/1918/wilpeace.html.
8. United Nations, “Trade and Development Report, 2011,” United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, http://unctad.org/en/docs/tdr2011_en.pdf, I.
9. United Nations, “World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012,” United Nations, http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_archive/2012chap2.pdf.
10. William Hague, “The Foreign Office, One of the Great Offices of State,” speech on December 18, 2012, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-foreign-office-one-of-the-great-offices-of-state.
11. Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Remarks, the Big Picture: Beyond Hot Spots & Crises in Our Interconnected World,” Journal of Law & International Affairs 1, no. 2 (2012), http://elibrary.law.psu.edu/jlia/v011/iss2/5.[Page 339]
12. Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 27.
13. Woodrow Wilson, “Peace Without Victory,” January 22, 1917, Mount Holyoke College, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ww15.htm.Chapter 2 Notes
1. H. M. A. Keens-Soper & Karl W. Schweizer, eds., François de Callières: The Art of Diplomacy (Leicester, UK: Leicester University Press, 1983), 50–1.
4. From Documents Diplomatiques Français, 1871–1914, quoted in Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy: Its Evolution, Theory, and Administration (London, UK: Routledge, 2011), 191.
5. Christopher Meyer, “Getting Our Way: 500 Years of Adventure and Intrigue, the Inside Story of British Diplomacy” (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2009), 17.
6. Jeremy Greenstock, “The Rules of the Game: Does the Diplomat’s Guidebook Need an Update?” October 28, 2009, The Times Literary Supplement,http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/.[Page 340]
7. From Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Optimal Protocol, © 1961, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
9. Ibid, Article 8.
10. Ibid, Article 13.
15. Ibid, Article 9.
17. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office, “Written Ministerial Statement: Diplomatic Missions and International Organisations in the United Kingdom with unpaid London Congestion Charge and Fines: 2011,” http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmhansrd/cm120705/wmstext/120705m0001.htm.
18. Lynn Berry, “Russia Accuses USAID of Trying to Sway Elections,” September 19, 2012, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/russia-accuses-usaid-trying-sway-elections.
19. From Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, © United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
20. Lydia Polgreen, “Malawi Leader’s Death Is Reported Unofficially, and U.S. Worries about Succession,” New York Times, April 6, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/07/world/africa/questions-swirl-around-malawis-president-after-heart-attack.html?_r=1&.
21. From Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, © 1963, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
25. Atle Grahl-Madsen, Territorial Asylum (Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wicksel International, 1980), 57.
26. From Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Preamble, © United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
27. UN General Assembly, Declaration on Territorial Asylum, 14 December 1967, A/RES/2312(XXII), Article 1.
28. From Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Preamble, © United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
31. Organization of American States, Department of International Law, “Convention on Diplomatic Asylum,” 1954, http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-46.html.
32. Kevin Rawlinson, “Exclusive: ‘Incredible strain’ in Relations between Ecuador and Wikileaks Founder Julian Assange over His Involvement in Edward Snowden NSA Whistleblower Affair,” The Independent, July 1, 2013, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/exclusive-incredible-strain-in-relations-between-ecuador-and-wikileaks-founder-julian-assange-over-his-involvement-in-edward-snowden-nsa-whistleblower-affair-8681776.html.Chapter 3 Notes
1. G. R. Berridge, Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 3rd ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 5.
2. Sir Harold Nicolson, Diplomacy (London: Oxford University Press, 1945), 33.
3. François de Callières, The Practice of Diplomacy, trans. A. F. Whyte (London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1919), 31.
4. From Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Optimal Protocol, © 1961, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/17843.pdf, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
5. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka, “Foreign Service Academy: About Academy,” http://www.mofa.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=114&Itemid=106.
6. Anna Codrea-Rado, “Foreign Office Beefs up Diplomats’ Language Training,” Guardian, September 30, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/sep/30/foreign-office-opens-language-centre.
7. “The Effect of the Spending Review on the Performance of the FCO,” February 11, 2011, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmselect/cmfaff/572/57206.htm.
8. “Examination of Witnesses (Questions 1–47),” January 20, 2011, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmselect/cmfaff/438/10090802.htm.
9. Jonathan Fenby, “Does China Have a Foreign Policy? Domestic Pressures and China’s Strategy,” LSE Ideas, China’s Geoeconomic Strategy: Special report, June 2012, http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/pdf/SR012/fenby.pdf, 1.
10. William Hague, “Speech: The Foreign Office, One of the Great Offices of State,” December 18, 2012, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-foreign-office-one-of-the-great-offices-of-state.
11. Kathyrn Blaze Carlson, “Opposition Outrage Aside, Joint Embassies with U.K. Are ‘a No-Brainer,’ Experts Say,” National Post, September 24, 2012, http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/09/24/opposition-outrage-aside-joint-embassies-with-u-k-are-a-no-brainer-experts-say.[Page 341]
12. Parliament of Canada, “41st Parliament, 1st Session, Edited Hansard, Number 151,” September 24, 2012, http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=5716754&Language=E&Mode=1.
13. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Active Diplomacy for a Changing World: The UK’s International Priorities, March 2006, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/272260/6762.pdf, 20.
14. Dan Roberts, “Obama Tries to Ease NSA Tensions and Insists: Europe Spies on US Too,” The Guardian, July 1, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/01/obama-europe-monitoring-data-surveillance.
15. Kayte Rath, “French Diplomatic Service is the World’s Best, U.K. Says,” BBC News, November 8, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-20218377.
18. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office, “Foreign Secretary Launches New FCO Crisis Centre,” October 16, 2012, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/foreign-secretary-launches-new-fco-crisis-centre.
19. Sherard Cowper-Coles, Cables from Kabul: The Inside Story of the West’s Afghanistan Campaign (London: HarperCollins, 2011), 94.
20. Ibid, 93.Chapter 4 Notes
1. Charles Seignobos, 1815–1915, From the Congress of Vienna to the War of 1914, trans. P. E. Matheson (Paris: A. Colin, 1915). Accessed via https://archive.org/details/cong18151915from00seigrich.
2. Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man under Socialism (Boston: J. W. Luce, 1910), 27.[Page 342]
3. From Charter of the United Nations, Chapter I: Purposes and Principles, © 2014, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
4. From The United Nations: An Introduction for Students, © 2000, http://www.un.org/pubs/cyberschoolbus/unintro/unintr03.htm, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
5. From Charter of the United Nations, Chapter V: The Security Council, © 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter5.shtml, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
6. From General Assembly—Fifth Session, © 1950, http://www.un.org/en/sc/reper toire/otherdocs/GAres377A(v), p. 1, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
7. From United Nations General Assembly, Sixty-Sixth Session Third Committee Agenda Item 69, © November 17, 2011, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/C.3/66/L.57/Rev.1, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
8. From Charter of the United Nations, Chapter XVIII: Amendments, © 2014, www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter18.shtml United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
9. From Charter of the United Nations, Chapter VII: Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression, © 2014, www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml, United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
12. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter10.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
13. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Chapter IX: International Economic and Social Co-Operation,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter9.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
14. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Chapter X: The Economic and Social Council,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter10.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
16. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
17. United Nations, “The Role of the Secretary-General,” 2014, http://www.un.org/sg/sg_role.shtml?fb_action_ids=639360066126169&fb_action_types=og.recommends&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=288381481237582. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
18. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Chapter XV: The Secretariat,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter15.shtml.
19. Associated Press, “Samantha Power: United Nations ‘has lost its way,’” Politico, August 11, 2013, http://www.politico.com/story/2013/08/samantha-power-united-nations-lost-its-way-95422.html.
20. Samantha Power, “Force Full,” New Republic, March 3, 2003, http://www.newrepublic.com/article/srebenica-liberalism-balkan-united%20nations.
21. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Preamble,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
22. “UN Security Council Resolution 1973 (2011) on Libya—Full Text,” The Guardian, March 17, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/mar/17/un-security-council-resolution.
23. Aljazeera, “UN’s Pillay slams Security Council ‘failure,’” August 22, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/08/un-pillay-slams-security-council-failure-2014821223555682253.html.
24. United Nations, An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-keeping, June 17, 1992. http://www.unrol.org/files/A_47_277.pdf.
25. United Nations, “Global Issues: Health,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/health. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
26. United Nations, Mandating and Delivering: Analysis and Recommendations to Facilitate the Review of Mandates, March 30, 2006. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27–4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/A60733.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
30. Associated Press, “U.S. Statement on UNESCO,” New York Times, December 30, 1983, http://www.nytimes.com/1983/12/30/world/us-statement-on-unesco.html.
31. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, “About Refugees,” 2014, http://unhcr.org.au/unhcr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=179&Itemid=54. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.[Page 343]
32. International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect, 2001, http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf, vii.
33.The Contitutive Act of the African Union,http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/ConstitutiveAct_EN.pdf.
34. United Nations, Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome, October 24, 2005, http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ods/A-RES-60–1-E.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
35. Statement by H. E. Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, February 21, 2012, http://www.un.int/brazil/speech/12d-agp-RESPONSIBILITY-WHILE-PROTECTING.html. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
36. United Nations. Annex to the Letter Dated 9 November 2011 from the Permanent Representative of Brazil to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General, November 11, 2011, http://www.un.int/brazil/speech/Concept-Paper-%20RwP.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
37. World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), 43.
38. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Article 2: Objective,” 1997, http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1353.php.
39. United Nations, “About the Ethics Office,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/ethics/what.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
40. United Nations, “The Millennium Goals: Eight Goals for 2015,” 2014, http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
41. Matthew Saltmarsh, “A Bloated U.N. Bureaucracy Causes Bewilderment,” New York Times, January 5 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/06/world/europe/06iht-nations06.html?pagewanted=all.
42. George W. Bush, “Summary of National Security Strategy 2002,” http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/nsc/nss/2006/sectionV.html.
44. Hans Blix, “All Eyes on the Inspector: An Interview with the U.N. Diplomat,” Time, March 3, 2003, 2.
45. United Nations, “Iraq Cooperating with Disarmament Procedures, but Many Banned Weapons Remain Unaccounted for, Inspectors Tell Security Council,” February 14, 2003, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2003/sc7664.doc.htm.
46. Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, “Update on Chemical Demilitarization,” April 21, 2009, http://www.opcw.org/news/article/status-of-chemical-demilitarisation-as-at-21-april-2009.Chapter 5 Notes
1. The Churchill Society, “Mr. Winston Churchill Speaking in Zurich,
19th September 1946,” http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/astonish.html.
2. Robert Schuman, “The Coming Century of Supranational Communities,” May 16, 1949, http://www.schuman.info/Strasbourg549.htm.
3. “The Schuman Declaration—9 May 1950,” European Union, http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration/index_en.htm.[Page 344]
4. Strobe Talbott, “What Would Jean Monnet Have Done?” New York Times, February 7, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/08/opinion/what-would-jean-monnet-have-done.html?_r=0.
5. BBC News, “UK Risks ‘Turning Inwards’ over EU Referendum—US Official,” January 9, 2013, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-20961651.
6. Maxine James and Matthew Purvis, “The European Union,” House of Lords Library Note, April 23, 2014; The European Citizens’ Initiative, “FAQ on the EU Competences and the European Commission Powers,” http://ec.europa.eu/citizens-initiative/public/competences/faq#q1.
7. Robert Schuman, “Speech at the United Nations General Assembly, 3rd Session, 28 September 1948,” http://www.schuman.info/UN4849.htm.
8. “European Union Is ‘Too Big and Too Bossy,’” Sky News, May 28, 2014, http://news.sky.com/story/1270238/european-union-is-too-big-and-too-bossy.
9. “EU election: France’s Hollande Calls for Reform of ‘Remote’ EU,” BBC News, May 27, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27579235.
10. The Lisbon Treaty, “Article 17,” 2007, http://www.lisbon-treaty.org/wcm/the-lisbon-treaty/treaty-on-european-union-and-comments/title-3-provisions-on-the-institutions/86-article-17.html.
11. Vivien A. Schmidt, “The European Union’s Eurozone Crisis and What (Not) to Do about It,” Brown Journal of World Affairs XVII, no. 1 (2010), http://fmwww.bc.edu/ec-j/SemF2011/Schmidt.pdf.
12. European Commission, “Economic and Financial Affairs,” http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/international/enlargement/criteria/index_en.htm.
13. Vivien A. Schmidt, “The European Union’s Eurozone Crisis.”
14. “The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy,” European Union External Action, http://eeas.europa.eu/ashton/index_en.htm.
15. Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, “European Unity on the Rocks: Greeks and Germans at Polar Opposites,” May 29, 2012, http://www.pewglobal.org/2012/05/29/european-unity-on-the-rocks.
16. Andrew Osborn, “Britain Asks Germany to Help Lead Reform of EU,” Reuters, May 31, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/31/us-britain-europe-germany-idUSBRE94U0MI20130531.
17. “38th Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the OAU, 8 July 2002: Address by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan,” African Union Summit, http://www.au2002.gov.za/docs/speeches/anna087a.htm5.
18. African Union, “Synthesis Paper on Boosting Intra-African Trade and Fast Tracking the Continental Free Trade Area,” http://pages.au.int/sites/default/files/Synthesis%20Paper%200n%20Boosting%20Intra-African%20Trade%20Jan%202012_0.pdf.
19. Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs, “The Founding of ASEAN,” http://www.jakartapm.dfa.gov.ph/index.php/asean-history.
20. Joshua Kurlantzik, “ASEAN’s Future and Asia Integration,” Council on Foreign Relations, November 2012, http://www.cfr.org/asia-and-pacific/aseans-future-asian-integration/p29247.
21. Ben Bland, “ASEAN Chief: South China Sea Risks Becoming ‘Asia’s Palestine,’” CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/28/business/south-china-sea-asia-palestine/index.html.
22. Organization of American States, Department of International Law, “Charter of the Organization of American States (A-41),” 1948, http://oas.org/dil/treaties_A-41_Charter_of_the_Organization_of_American_States.htm.[Page 345]
23. Yale Law School, The Avalon Project, “Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945,” http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/arableag.asp.
24. “The Empire Strikes Back: Some British Eurosceptics See the Commonwealth as an Alternative to Europe. It isn’t,” The Economist,http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21567071-some-british-eurosceptics-see-commonwealth-alternative-europe-it-isnt-empire.
25. David H. Dunn, ed., Diplomacy at the Highest Level: The Evolution of International Summitry (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1996), 17.
26. The White House Office of the Press Secretary, “Press Conference by the President: U.S. Press Filing Center, L’Aquila, Italy,” July 10, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/press-conference-president-laquila-italy-7–10–09.
27. Manfred Ertel, “Norway Takes Aim at G-20: ‘One of the Greatest Setbacks Since World War II,’” Der Spiegel, June 22, 2010, http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/norway-takes-aim-at-g-20-one-of-the-greatest-setbacks-since-world-war-ii-a-702104.html.Chapter 6 Notes
1. Aljazeera, “Syria envoy says UN Council ‘last appeal’” February 2, 2013, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/02/2013227334225520.html.
3. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Preamble,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.[Page 346]
4. G. R. Berridge, Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
5. Raymond Cohen, Negotiating across Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World, rev. ed. (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997).
6. Ibid, 201.
7. I. William Zartman, ed., The Negotiation Process: Theories and Applications, (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1978).
8. Todd Hall and Keren Yarhi-Milo, “The Personal Touch, Leaders’ Impressions, Costly Signaling, and Assessment of Sincerity in International Affairs.” International Studies Quarterly 56 (September 2012): 560–73.
9. Nicholas Cull, “Public Diplomacy: Taxonomies and Histories,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 616, no. 1 (2008): p. 31–34.Chapter 7 Notes
1. The Fletcher School, Tufts University, “What Is Public Diplomacy?” http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Murrow/Diplomacy.
2. Nicholas J. Cull, Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past, (Los Angeles: Figueroa Press, 2009), 6.
3. Kirk Johnson, “For the Vice President of China, Tea Time in Iowa,” New York Times, February 15, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/16/world/asia/xi-jinping-of-china-makes-a-return-trip-to-iowa.html?_r=0.
4. Howard Somerville, “Oliver Franks,” http://www.hsomerville.com/meccano/Articles/Franks.htm.
5. G. R. Berridge, Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 179.
6. Nicholas J. Cull, “Public Diplomacy: Seven Lessons for Its Future from Its Past,” Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 6 (2010): 11–17.
7.The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Memorial Edition, ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert Ellery Bergh, vol. 10 (Washington, DC: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association of the United States, 1903), 341.
8. Joseph S. Nye Jr., Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004).
9. Lord Carter of Coles, Public Diplomacy Review, December 2005, http://www.britishcouncil.org/home-carter-report.
10. Robin Brown, The Four Paradigms of Public Diplomacy: Building a Framework for Comparative Government External Communications Research, 2012, http://pdnetworks.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/isa-2012-v4.pdf.
11. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office, quoted in Harriet Straughen, “Image is everything: The Importance of Public Diplomacy in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” 2011, http://www.miftah.org/Doc/SpecialStudies/2011/Image_is_everything.pdf.
12. United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Business Plan 2012–2015: Foreign & Commonwealth Office, May 31, 2012, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32853/business-plan-12.pdf.
14. United States Information Agency, Office of Public Liaison, “USIA: An Overview,” August 1998, accessed October 19, 2012, http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/usia/usiahome/oldoview.htm#overview.
15. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, “9/11 Commission Report,” July 22, 2004, http://www.9–11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf.
16. Judith A. McHale, “Strengthening U.S. Engagement with the World: A Review of U.S. Public Diplomacy,” June 21, 2011, http://www.state.gov/r/remarks/2011/166596.htm.
17. Tara Sonenshine, “The State of American Public Diplomacy,” June 28, 2012, http://www.state.gov/r/remarks/2012/195947.htm.
18. Aamer Madhani, “Cleric al-Awlaki Dubbed ‘bin Laden of the Internet,’” USA Today, August 24, 2010, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010–08–25–1A_Awlaki25_CV_N.htm.
19. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: Mount Olympus Meets the Middle Kingdom,” Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/olympics/reflections/article-277303.
20. Robert Bound, “Art Attack,” Monocle, September 2009, 85–89, http://images.monocle.com/magazine/issues/26/art-attack.
21. Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, “Global Opinion of Obama Slips, International Policies Faulted,” June 13, 2012, http://www.pewglobal.org/2012/06/13/global-opinion-of-obama-slips-international-policies-faulted.
22. People’s Daily Online, “Shanghai Expo Gives Big Boost to UK University,” April 15, 2011, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90782/90873/7351449.html.
24. Visit Britain, “Inbound Tourism,” http://www.visitbritain.org/insightsandstatistics/inboundtourismfacts.[Page 347]
25. “Anyone for Cocktails?” The Economist, June 26, 2008, http://www.economist.com/node/11632877.
26. Africa Files, “No Mo Ibrahim Prize for African Leadership,” http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=22089.
27. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).Chapter 8 Notes
1.Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969, http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf, Article 2. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
2.Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations, 1986, http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_2_1986.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
3.Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1968, http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bu11104/10403501117.pdf.
4. United Nations, “174 (II). Establishment of an International Law Commission,” November 21, 1947, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/174(II). Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
5. International Committee of the Red Cross, Increasing Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Non-international Armed Conflicts, 2008, https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0923.pdf.
6. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations: Chapter XVI: Miscellaneous Provisions,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter16.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
7. Historical Resources about the Second World War, “Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority by Allied Powers,” August 19, 2008, http://historicalresources.wordpress.com/2008/08/19/declaration-regarding-the-defeat-of-germany-and-the-assumption-of-supreme-authority-by-allied-powers.
8. Robert Jackson, “Opening Statement before the International Military Tribunal,” November 21, 1945, http://www.roberthjackson.org/the-man/speeches-articles/speeches/speeches-by-robert-h-jackson/opening-statement-before-the-international-military-tribunal.
9. United Nations, 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/260(iii). Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
10. United Nations General Assembly, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, December 9, 1948, Article VI.
11. Jack Cloherty and Pierre Thomas, “Attorney General’s Blunt Warning on Terror Attacks,” ABC News, December 21, 2010, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/attorney-general-eric-holders-blunt-warning-terror-attacks/story?id=12444727.
12. United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations, Preamble,” 2014, http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
13.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.[Page 348]
14. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Annual Message to Congress (Four Freedoms),” January 6, 1941, Records of the United States Senate, SEN 77A-H1, Record Group 46, National Archives. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=70.
15. Organization of Islamic Conference, Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 1990, http://www.bahaistudies.net/neurelitism/library/Cairo_Declaration_on_Human_Rights_in_Islam.pdf, Article 24.
16. Ibid, Article 1.
17. “Declaration on Atomic Bomb by President Truman and Prime Ministers Attlee and King,” November 15, 1945, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-energy/history/dec-truma-atlee-king_1945–11–15.htm.
18. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Nuclear Safeguards and the International Atomic Energy Agency, OTA-ISS-615 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1995), 25. Accessed via http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1995/9530/953004.pdf.
19. U.S. Department of State, A Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy, March 16, 1946, http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/50/Report_on_the_International_Control_of_Atomic_Energy_16_Mar_1946.pdf.
20. Dwight D. Eisenhower, “Atoms for Peace,” December 8, 1953, http://voicesofdemocracy.umd.edu/eisenhower-atoms-for-peace-speech-text.
22. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
23. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Book IV:2, Modern Library ed. (New York: Random House, 1994).
24. Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (New York: Macmillan, 1948), 81.
25. Cordell Hull Institute, “Who Was Cordell Hull?” http://www.cordellhullinstitute.org/role/who.html.
26. Jide Nzelibe, “Symposium: Public International Law and Economics: The Case against Reforming the WTO Enforcement Mechanism,” University of Illinois Law Review 319 (2008), https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=2008+U.+Ill.+L.+Rev.+319&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=4522d3c205e8b257c0b14ded201996dc.
27. International Monetary Fund, “About the International Monetary System: What is the International Monetary System, and Why Does It Need Reforming?” February 10, 2011, http://www.imsreform.org/about.html.
28. International Court of Justice, Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, July 22, 2010, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/141/15987.pdf.
29. United Nations, “Resolution 1214,” December 8, 1998, http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/1214.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
30. United Nations, “Report on the Question of International Criminal Jurisdiction by Emil Sandström, Special Rapporteur,” Yearbook of the International Law Commission II (1950), http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_20.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.[Page 349]
31. United Nations Security Council, “Resolution 242 (1967),” November 22, 1967, http://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/0/7D35E1F729DF491C85256EE700686136. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
33. United Nations Security Council, “Resolution 1737 (2006),” http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/iaeairan/unsc_res1737–2006.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.Chapter 9 Notes
1. Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2010), 271.
2. Paul Sharp, The Diplomatic Theory of International Relations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 310.
3. Government of China, “China’s Views on the Development of Multipolarization,” May 17, 2004, http://ee.china-embassy.org/eng/zggk/xzgwjjs/t110330.htm.
4. Xi Jinping, “Working Together toward a Better Future for Asia and the World,” April 7, 2013, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013–04/07/c_132290684.htm.
6. S. M. Krishna, “Address on ‘India Now’ at the Carrington Endowed Lecture Series Event, Hosted by the Southern Methodist University, Dallas,” October 3, 2012, http://mea.gov.in/in-focus-article.htm?20646/External+Affairs+Ministers+address+on+quotIndia+Nowquot+at+the+Carrington+Endowed+Lecture+Series+event+hosted+by+the+Southern+Methodist+University+Dallas.
7. Sergey Lavrov, “Statement at the 67th Session of the UN General Assembly,” September 28, 2012, http://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/67/RU_en.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
8. Republic of South Africa, International Relations & Cooperation, “Statement by H. E. Minister Maite Nkoana Mashabane, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of South Africa at the Debate of the United Nations Security Council on the Situation in the Middle East, 26 September 2012,” http://www.dirco.gov.za/docs/speeches/2012/mash0926.html.
9. South African Foreign Policy Institute, “White paper on South African Foreign Policy—Building a Better World: The Diplomacy of Ubuntu,” 2011, http://www.safpi.org/publications/white-paper-south-african-foreign-policy-building-better-world-diplomacy-ubuntu.
10. Dilma Roussef, “Statement at the 67th Session of the United Nations General Assembly,” September 25, 2012, http://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/67/BR_en.pdf. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
11. Dilma Roussef, “Statement at the 68th Session of the United Nations General Assembly,” September 24, 2013, http://www.un.int/brazil/speech/13d-PR-DR-68-AG-Abertura-Ing.html. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.
12. Personal correspondence with Dr. Gonzalo Canseco, Director General of Policy Planning at Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, March 10, 2014.
13. “Pope Warns of a ‘Third World War,’” Telegraph, September 13, 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/11094114/Pope-warns-of-a-Third-World-War.html.
14. “Opening General Assembly Debate, Ban Urges Leadership to Move from ‘Turbulence’ to Peace,” Irish Sun, September 25, 2014, http://www.irishsun.com/index.php/sid/226040005/scat/b8de8e630faf3631.
15. Iona Teixeira Stevens, “Brazil: Taking a Stand against Corruption,” Financial Times, September 8, 2011, http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/09/08/brazil-taking-a-stand-against-corruption.[Page 350]
16. Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48950/samuel-p-huntington/the-clash-of-civilizations.
17. Moisés Naím, The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be (New York: Basic Books, 2013).
18. U.S. Department of State, “Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice,” http://2001–2009.state.gov/secretary.
19. CBS News, “Clinton: Use ‘Smart Power’ in Diplomacy,” January 13, 2009, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/clinton-use-smart-power-in-diplomacy.
20. The Henry L. Stimson Center, American Foreign Service Association, and American Academy of Diplomacy, Forging a 21st-Century Diplomatic Service for the United States through Professional Education and Training, 2011, http://communicationleadership.usc.edu/forging_a_21st-century_diplomatic_service_for_the_united_states_through_professional_education_and_t.html.
21. U.S. Department of State, Leading through Civilian Power: The First Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, 2010, http://www.state.gov/s/dmr/qddr/ 2010.
22. Richard Stengal, “Q&A: Hillary Clinton on Libya, China, the Middle East and Barack Obama,” Time, Oct. 27, 2011, http://swampland.time.com/2011/10/27/qa-hillary-clinton-on-libya-china-the-middle-east-and-barack-obama.
24. U.S. Department of State, Leading Through Civilian Power.
25. Richard Stengal, “Q&A: Hillary Clinton.”
26. Yelena Biberman, “The First Post-Communist Generation of Russian Diplomats and Prospects for Change in Russian Foreign Policy,” 2008. In Political Science Quarterly 126, no. 4: 670.
27. Ibid, 671.
28. “The Elephant in the Region,” The Economist, February 18, 2012, http://www.economist.com/node/21547795.
29. Krishnan Srinivaran, “India at the UN Security Council: A Retrospect,” The Telegraph Calcutta, January 23, 2013, http://www.telegraphindia.com/1130123/jsp/opinion/story_16467700.jsp#.U8Q605RdWPY.
30. FCO Minutes of Management Board, from fco.gov.uk, accessed October 26, 2012 (no longer available).
31. Nicholas Watt, “UK Will Not ‘Outsource’ Foreign Policy, Says William Hague,” The Guardian, September 8, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2011/sep/08/not-outsource-foreign-policy-william-hague.
32. Government of Germany Federal Foreign Office, “Training for International Diplomats,” http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/AusbildungKarriere/InternationDiplAusbildung/Uebersicht_node.html.
33. France in the United Kingdom, “Statement by Bernard Kouchner, Minister of Foreign and European Affairs, During His Joint Press Conference with Frédéric Mitterrand, Minister for Culture and Communication, and Xavier Darcos, Ambassador for External Cultural Action (Excerpts),” July 30, 2010, http://www.ambafrance-uk.org/Bernard-Kouchner-on-new-Institut.
34. John Pomfret, “U.S. Takes a Tougher Tone with China,” Washington Post, July 30, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/07/29/AR2010072906416.html.[Page 351]
35. “Deng Xiaoping’s ’24-Character Strategy,’” GlobalSecurity.org, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/24-character.htm.
36. Leslie Hook, “Zuma Warns on Africa’s Ties to China,” Financial Times, July 19, 2012, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/33686fc4-d171–11e1-bbbc-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3F69LddvA.
37. Christopher Hill, “Update on the Six-Party Talks,” February 22, 2007 http://2001–2009.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2007/81050.htm.
38. Personal correspondence with Dr. Gonzalo Canseco, March 10, 2014.
39. Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire (New York, Penguin Books, 2005).
40. Integrated Implementation Framework, “UN Target for ODA—Global,” http://iif.un.org/content/un-target-oda-global.
41. United Kingdom, Department for International Development, “What We Do,” https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-international-development.
42. U.S. Agency for International Development, “What We Do,” http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do.
43. The White House Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by the President at the National Defense University,” May 23, 2013, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/05/23/remarks-president-national-defense-university.
44. USAID, “Progress,” last updated March 17, 2014, http://www.usaid.gov/results-and-data/progress.
45. “Africa a Beneficiary of Chinese Cooperation,” Capital FM News, May 14, 2013, http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/eblog/2013/05/14/africa-a-beneficiary-of-chinese-cooperation.
46. Paul Collier, Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done about It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 96.
47. Ibid., 5.
48. Jeffrey Sachs, “Foreign Aid Works—It Saves Lives,” The Guardian, May 30, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/business/economics-blog/2012/may/30/foreign-aid-works-saves-lives.
50. William Easterly, “Planners vs. Searchers in African Agricultural Aid,” A Living from Livestock: Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative, April 12, 2008, http://www.fao.org/ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/pplpi/docarc/pplpi_planners.pdf.
51. “Stop UK Aid To Pakistan Unless Taxes Increase, Urge MPs,” Malaysan Digest, April 4, 2013, http://www.malaysiandigest.com/news/36-loca12/121512-mahathir-receives-2012-rafik-hariri-un-habitat-memorial-award-.html.
52. Robert Siegel, “Powell’s Cautious on Iraq,” NPR, April 20, 2004, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1844476.
53. Rory Stewart and Gerald Knaus, Can Intervention Work? (New York: W. W. Norton, 2012).
54. Zalmay Khalilzad, “The Three Futures for Afghanistan: Why the Country Needs a Long-Term Commitment from the United States,” Foreign Affairs, December 16, 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136870/zalmay-khalilzad/the-three-futures-for-afghanistan.
55. Sean Rayment, “Army Chief Warns of ‘Terrifying Prospect’ of Failure in Afghanistan,” The Telegraph, October 3, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/onthefrontline/6258028/Army-chief-warns-of-terrifying-prospect-of-failure-in-Afghanistan.html.[Page 352]
56. Rory Stewart, “What Can Afghanistan and Bosnia Teach Us about Libya?” The Guardian, October 7, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/oct/08/libya-intervention-rory-stewart.
57. “The Three Futures for Afghanistan—Zalmay Khalilzad,” JK Alternative Viewpoint, December 16, 2011, http://jkalternativeviewpoint.com/jkalternate/?p=1716.
58. “The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All,” Brookings Institution, September 1, 2008, http://www.brookings.edu/research/books/2008/responsibilitytoprotect.
59. Kofi Annan, “Intervention,” June 26, 1998, http://www.ditchley.co.uk/conferences/past-programme/1990–1999/1998/lecture-xxxv.
60. “UN Security Council Resolution 1973 (2011) on Libya—Full Text,” The Guardian, March 17, 2011, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/mar/17/un-security-council-resolution.
61. Anthony Lake, “Defining Missions, Setting Deadlines: Meeting New Security Challenges in the Post War World,” March 6, 1996, http://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/WH/EOP/NSC/html/speeches/tlgwu.html.
62. Linda J. Blimes, “The Financial Legacy of Iraq and Afghanistan: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future National Security Budgets,” Harvard Kennedy School, 2013, http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/mrcbg/publications/fwp/MRCBG_fwp_2013–01_Bilmes_financial_legacy.pdf.
63. Ibid.Chapter 10 Notes
1. Jessica Tuchman Mathews, “Saving America,” Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal Lecture In Citizen Leadership, April 13, 2012.
2. Richard N. Haass, “What International Community?” Project Syndicate, July 24, 2013, http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-broken-tools-of-global-cooperation-by-richard-n-haass.
3. Parag Khanna, How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance (New York: Random House, 2011), 209.
4. World Public Opinion: Global Public Opinion on International Affairs, “Poll Finds Most Publics around the World Want Their Governments to Be More Cooperative,” December 9, 2009, http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/views_on_countriesregions_bt/650.php?lb.
5. Ipsos Global @dvisor, “Methodology,” http://ipsosglobaladvisor.com/methodology.aspx.
6. Ipsos, “Global Citizens Express Broad Support for Involvement in World Affairs: Less So During Difficult Economic Times,” November 18, 2011, http://www.ipsos-na.com/news-polls/pressrelease.aspx?id=5417.
7. Global Citizens Network, accessed October 15, 2014, https://www.globalcitizens.org/missionvision.
8. John F. Kennedy, “Commencement Address at American University,” June 10, 1963, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/BWC7I4C9QUmLG9J6I80y8w.aspx.
9. U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports,” July 2012, http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf.[Page 353]
10. Joseph Nye, “Get Smart: Combining Hard and Soft Power,” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2009), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65163/joseph-s-nye-jr/get-smart.
11. Greenpeace, “What We Do,” http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns.
12. Avaaz.org, “About Us,” http://www.avaaz.org/en/about.php.
13. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, “Fighting AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria,” http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases.
14. ABC News, “Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif in an Exclusive Interview with ABC,” September 29, 2013, http://wn.com/iranian_foreign_minister_javad_zarif_in_an_exclusive_interview_with_abc.
15. Thomas Rid, “Cracks in the Jihad,” Wilson Quarterly (Winter 2010): 40–7.
16. Khan Academy, “Our Mission,” https://www.khanacademy.org/about.
17. Jeffrey Sachs, “Lecture 2: Survival in the Anthropocene,” BBC Reith Lecture at Peking University, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radi04/reith2007/lecture2.shtml.
18. Jeffrey Sachs, “Lecture 3: The Great Convergence,” BBC Reith Lecture at Columbia University, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radi04/reith2007/lecture3.shtml.
19. Parag Khanna, How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance (New York: Random House, 2011), 57.
20. Open Government Partnership, “About: Mission and Goals,” http://www.opengovpartnership.org/about/mission-and-goals.
21. Paul Farmer, Haiti: After the Earthquake (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011),145.
22. Ian Birrell, “Haiti and the Shaming of the Aid Zealots: How Donated Billions Have Increased Poverty and Corruption,” January 27, 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2092425/Haiti-earthquake-How-donated-billions-INCREASED-poverty-corruption.html.
23. “Haiti’s Slow Recovery,” New York Times, January 8, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/09/opinion/haitis-slow-recovery.html.
24. International Organization for Migration, “About IOM,” http://www.iom.int/cms/about-iom.
25. Ian Birrell, “Haiti and the Shaming of the Aid Zealots: How Donated Billions Have Increased Poverty and Corruption,” Daily Mail, January 27, 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2092425/Haiti-earthquake-How-donated-billions-INCREASED-poverty-corruption.html.
26. Kathie Klarreich and Linda Polman, “The NGO Republic of Haiti,” The Nation, November 19, 2012, http://www.thenation.com/article/170929/ngo-republic-haiti.
28. Tom Phillips and Claire Provost, “Haiti Earthquake: Two Years on, and Just Half of Promised Aid Has Been Delivered,” January 11, 2012, The Guardian,http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jan/11/haiti-earthquake-promised-aid-not-delivered.
29. Ibid.Chapter 11 Notes
1. Peter F. Cowhey and Jonathan D. Aronson, Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of Innovation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012), 7.
2. Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013), 49.[Page 354]
3. Jay Yarow, “Google CEO Larry Page Wants a Totally Separate World Where Tech Companies Can Conduct Experiments on People,” Business Insider, May 16, 2013,
4. Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen, “Web Censorship: The Net Is Closing In,” April 23, 2013, The Guardian,http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/apr/23/web-censorship-net-closing-in.
5. Ben Blanchard, “Head of Xinhua Says Western Media Pushing Revolution in China,” September 5, 2013, Reuters, http://whatsupic.com/news-politics-world/2551-head-of-xinhua-says-western-media-pushing-revolution-in-china.html.
6. Valerie Strauss, “Commencement Speaker Blasts Students,” Washington Post, June 8, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/commencement-speaker-blasts-students/2012/06/08/gJQATvF1MV_blog.html.
7. Fergus Hanson, “Revolution @State: The Spread of Ediplomacy,” Lowy Institute for International Policy, March 2012, http://lowyinstitute.richmedia-server.com/docs/Hanson_Revolution-at-State.pdf.
8. Jonathan McClory, “The New Persuaders II: A 2011 Global Ranking of Soft Power,” Institute for Government, http://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/The%20New%20PersuadersII_0.pdf.
9. The United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty Information Center, “The Law of the Sea Treaty: Background,” http://unlawoftheseatreaty.org.
10. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols., ed. R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner, textual ed. W. B. Todd (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1981; Oxford, UK: Clarendon, 1976), IV.vii.c.80: 626.
11. Stephanie Nebehay, “China, Russia Seek Greater Control of Internet: U.S.,” March 7, 2013, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/07/net-us-internet-usa-idUSBRE92617220130307.
12. IBM, “What Is Big Data?” http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/bigdata/what-is-big-data.html.
13. Jeffrey Sachs, “Lecture 5: Global Politics in a Complex Age,” BBC Reith Lecture Series, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radi04/reith2007/lecture5.shtml.
14. CBS News, “Leon Panetta Warns of ‘Cyber Pearl Harbor,’” October 13, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/posttv/leon-panetta-warns-of-cyber-pearl-harbor/2012/10/13/6cdcbd6e-14c9–11e2–9a39–1f5a7f6fe945_video.html.
15. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, “Panetta Warns of Dire Threat of Cyberattack on U.S.,” New York Times, October 11, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/12/world/panetta-warns-of-dire-threat-of-cyberattack.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
16. Asif Ahmed, “Cyber Warfare and Information Security for India,” February 16, 2014, http://www.eurasiareview.com/16022014-cyber-warfare-information-security-india.
17. Tina Rosenberg, Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2011.Chapter 12 Notes
1. Daniel Howden, “World Bank Chief Jim Yong Kim: ‘They Said Poverty Would Always Be with Us. Well, Maybe Not,’” July 7, 2013, The Independent,http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/world-bank-chief-jim-yong-kim-they-said-poverty-would-always-be-with-us-well-maybe-not-8693880.html.[Page 355]
2. Richard Haass, “What International Community?” Project Syndicate, July 24, 2013, http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-broken-tools-of-global-cooperation-by-richard-n-haass.
3. European Union Institute for Security Studies and United States National Intelligence Council, Global Governance 2025: At a Critical Juncture, 2010, http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/Global__Governance_2025.pdf
5. William Davison and Ahmed Feteha, “Ethiopia Rejects Egypt Proposal on Nile as Dam Talks Falter,” Bloomberg, January 8, 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014–01–08/ethiopia-rejects-egyptian-proposal-on-nile-as-dam-talks-falter.html.
6. Institute for Security Studies, Global Governance 2025.
8. Robert Kagan, “America Has Made the World Freer, Safer and Wealthier,” CNN, March 14, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/14/opinion/kagan-world-america-made.
9. Bruce Jones, “Managing a Changing World: How the United States Has Become the Largest Minority Shareholder in an Expanding Global Order,” Foreign Policy, March 14, 2011, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/03/14/building_the_new_world_order.
10. “Making Up: In the Bush Years America Seemed Overmighty. It Is Now Pulling Back,” The Economist, November 23, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21590109-bush-years-america-seemed-overmighty-it-now-pulling-back-making-up.
11. Henry Kissinger, World Order, (New York: Penguin Press, 2014), 372–3.[Page 356]
12. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
13. The White House Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by the President at the Acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize,” December 10, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-acceptance-nobel-peace-prize.
14. New York University, Center on Global Cooperation, The Use of Force, Crisis Diplomacy and the Responsibilities of States, May 2012, http://cic.es.its.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/abu_dhabi_conference_2012.pdf.
15. Ibid.Chapter 13 Notes
1. World Economic Forum, “World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2014: Executive Summary,” http://www3.weforum.org/docs/AM14/WEF_AM14_ExecutiveSummary.pdf.
2. Norman Angell, The Great Illusion, quoted in Robert Kagan, The World America Made (New York: Vintage Books, 2013).
3. Robert Kagan, “The Myth of American Decline,” New Republic, January 11, 2012, http://www.newrepublic.com/article/politics/magazine/99521/america-world-power-declinism.
4. David Miliband, “Responsible Sovreignty,” Speech at Peking University, Beijing, February 29, 2008, http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080205132101/www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front%3fpagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029391647&a=KArticle&aid=1203946851345.
5. Sir Ivor Roberts, ed., Satow’s Diplomatic Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
6. Moisés Naím, The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be (New York: Basic Books, 2013).
7. J. P. Morgan, “Eye on the Market: Outlook 2013,” http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013–01–02/96-charts-have-be-seen-believed-2013.
8. University of Groningen, “Thomas Jefferson letter to John Tyler, May 26, 1810,” http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/presidents/thomas-jefferson/letters-of-thomas-jefferson/jef1205.php.
9. Personal email correspondence with Sir Paul Collier, December 28, 2013.
10. Personal email correspondence with Parag Khanna, September 26, 2013.
11. Personal email correspondence with Paul Sharp, December 30, 2013.
12. Personal email correspondence with Carne Ross, January 2, 2014.
13. Personal email correspondence with Alan K. Henrikson, February 9, 2014.
14. Personal email correspondence with Dr. Peter Howarth, March 17, 2014.
15. Tariq Malik, “Astronaut Looks at Earth: ‘It’s Too Beautiful,’” Space.com, May 18, 2009, http://www.space.com/6715-astronaut-earth-beautiful.html.
16. “Media Brings Disaster Home,” Union-Tribune San Diego, February 3, 2003, http://legacy.utsandiego.com/news/science/columbia/20030203–9999_1c3tvspace.html
17. Donella Meadows, “Astronauts and Cosmonauts Tell Us about Home,” October 20, 1988, http://www.donellameadows.org/archives/astronauts-and-cosmonauts-tell-us-about-home.
18. 60 Minutes, “Tesla and SpaceX: Elon Musk’s Industrial Empire,” March 30, 2014, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/tesla-and-spacex-elon-musks-industrial-empire.
19. John F. Kennedy, “Establishment of the Peace Corps,” March 1, 1961, http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/speech-3366.