Landmark Legislation 1774–2012: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties

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Stephen W. Stathis

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    To my wife, Barbara; our four children—Jonathan, Melanie, Jennifer, and David; and their families, with love

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    Preface

    Since its inception, the U.S. Congress has served as a barometer of the mood of the country, and its members have given voice to the various interests of the nation. Despite a history of being innovative, responsive, and increasingly open to the people, Congress also has been seen by some as remote, irrelevant, and difficult to understand, and it has been an easy target for criticism. Especially in recent decades, many have doubted and sometimes made light of the role of Congress in the determination of national policy and the operation of the federal government.

    Landmark Legislation 1774–2012 seeks to improve understanding of the work of Congress by highlighting its most significant accomplishments. Congress is the crucible in which interests clash, ideas contend, and compromises are forged. Three recurring themes have dominated its work over the past two centuries: (1) Congress is an institution in which ideas can be initiated and allowed to incubate while its members try to reach consensus; (2) Congress responds to what the American people want from the federal government and what they think it should do; and (3) Congress stops legislation it sees as inappropriate, slows the legislative process to permit public support to build, and uses its oversight powers to ensure enforcement of its policies.

    Since 1789, more than 12,000 individuals have served as legislators in the halls of Congress. Their contributions are deeply etched in the legislative proposals that have been introduced, without interruption, since the first session of the First Congress. Although many of those ideas, on their face, were clearly impractical, the observations, suggestions, and propositions provide a meaningful barometer of prevailing perspectives and pressures, a stimulus for positive action, and the substance of what may become law.

    Nearly 46,000 public acts have been approved by Congress, submitted to the president for his approval, and signed into law since the First Congress convened. Many of these enactments represent momentary needs or fleeting passions, while others provide a glimpse of the continually changing texture of the national fabric. Only a relatively few, however, have withstood the test of history or so dramatically altered the perception of the role of government that they may be considered of enduring importance.

    Landmark Legislation documents Congress's most momentous accomplishments in determining the national policies to be carried out by the executive branch, in approving appropriations to support those policies, and in fulfilling its responsibility to ensure that such actions are being implemented as intended. Also included are landmark laws relating to the federal judiciary and notable treaties. Although some laws characterized as landmark have declined in importance or been forgotten over time, when passed they represented a recognition of needed action and guidance to administrative entities, a significant departure from previous policy, a creative response to an emergency, or a solution to a long-standing national concern.

    Evaluating the relative significance of an enactment with others in a given field and determining the precedents they set has proved an extraordinary exercise. The U.S. Congressional Serial Set, published by Congress, provides invaluable insight into the proceedings of the legislative branch. This largely forgotten collection of congressional documents, reports, legislative journals, executive journals of the Senate, and reports made to Congress by the executive branch is a treasure trove that serves as the starting point for serious research on the institution. Equally valuable are the Annals of Congress, Register of Debates, Congressional Globe, Congressional Record, committee hearing transcripts, committee prints, Congressional Directory, and Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. These diverse published sources are supplemented by the vast holdings of congressional papers in the National Archives.

    Complementing these primary sources are a broad range of biographies of congressional personalities and general and specialized works on American history and politics that proved to be extremely useful in drawing conclusions and making judgments. Also, I consulted specialists in each of the various areas of expertise within the Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress, as well as scholars throughout the academic community. Their insights were invaluable in preparing Landmark Legislation.

    Although some major laws and treaties no doubt have been inadvertently omitted, this volume seeks to illuminate the extremely important role Congress has assumed in shaping the political and historical character of the American republic. It shows how and why Congress enlarged the responsibilities of the federal establishment and portrays the institutional development of a national government, the changing pattern of federal-state relations, and the continuing redefinition of constitutional rights. In doing so, it sheds light on how the actions of Congress affect each citizen of the United States and on how Congress does its job.

    The accompanying bibliographic selections focus not only on the unique and important role of Congress in formulating major policy changes but also on the forces prompting consideration and adoption of laws. The range of available materials shows that many fields of congressional inquiry await efforts by the scholarly community to provide an intellectual framework for understanding the inner workings of the American legislative process. Much of America's congressional heritage remains unexamined and unexplored.

    The numerous possibilities for scholarly inquiry offer rich opportunities for future generations of scholars. Although much of the work will necessitate extensive primary research in the vast collections of published and unpublished records of Congress, future scholars will be able to portray far more accurately and fully, and with greater insight, the deliberations and the decisions that demonstrate the framers' wisdom in creating the U.S. legislative framework. The basis of that framework is patient deliberation, with adequate allowance for every member and every viewpoint to be heard and considered. The deliberate pace the framers ensured has allowed maximum opportunity for the people's voices to be heard through their representatives in Congress.

    This study was first proposed more than four decades ago by Frederick H. Pauls, then chief of the Government Division of the Congressional Research Service (CRS). Under his guidance, and with the assistance of Christopher Dell, I produced an abbreviated version of this work as a Congressional Research Service (CRS) report in 1982. The first edition of Landmark Legislation was originally suggested by Roger H. Davidson and benefitted from his continuing enthusiasm and insightful suggestions. I also wish to acknowledge with appreciation the steady encouragement, support, and sound advice of Daniel P. Mulhollan, former director of CRS; W. Ralph Eubanks, director of the Library of Congress publishing office; and David Tarr, executive editor of CQ Press, without whom the first edition would not have been brought to completion. I am equally indebted to Doug Goldenberg-Hart, former senior reference acquisitions editor of SAGE/CQ Press, for his encouragement and support of a second edition of Landmark Legislation. A special thanks to SAGE/CQ Press production editor David C. Felts for the time and talent he devoted to this book, and copy editor Kate Stern, whose impeccably high standards markedly improved the manuscript.

    The first edition benefitted enormously from the exceptional editorial skills and gift for the English language, as well as the sophisticated historical perspective, of longtime colleague and friend Thomas H. Neale. The time and attention he generously gave to the text, both editorially and as a contributor, were especially appreciated, as were his continuous expressions of encouragement. Christopher Davis, also a CRS colleague and friend, was equally generous with his time and editorial skills during the preparation of this second edition. A significant number of other colleagues at CRS, as well as hundreds of scholars who have painstakingly chronicled the various enactments and treaties covered in this volume, likewise are just as deserving of special appreciation. Many details and nuances would certainly have been overlooked without their penetrating perceptivity.

    This book is dedicated with loving appreciation to my wife, Barbara; our four children—Jonathan, Melanie, Jennifer, and David; and their families. Barbara, as usual, has endured all the frustrations inevitably accompanying such a project, read and proofed the text in its entirety, and offered numerous beneficial editorial suggestions. Her love, support, and patience cannot adequately be expressed in words. For more than four decades she has steadfastly supported my career as an historian and expanded my horizons far beyond what I had ever dreamed possible.

    Stephen W.Stathis, Annandale, Virginia

    About the Author

    Stephen W. Stathis was, for nearly four decades, a specialist in American National Government for the Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress. Stathis, who specializes in the history of Congress, held both research and managerial positions at CRS. He is the author of the first edition of Landmark Legislation (2003) and Landmark Debates in Congress: From the Declaration of Independence to the War in Iraq (2009).

    Introduction

    During the eleven years between the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the convening of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Continental Congress and its successor under the Articles of Confederation tried to hold together the loose association of the thirteen states that had broken from Great Britain. Ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the first effort by Americans to provide a written constitution for the “United States of America,” was completed early in 1781, more than three years after their adoption by the Continental Congress.

    Under the articles, the states retained control over the most essential governmental functions, and Congress—in which each state had an equal vote—was the sole instrument of national government. In their attempt to avoid anything like the system under which Great Britain had ruled her colonies, the colonists arguably left their own government too weak to perform its functions and duties. Almost from the outset, the confederation was beset with serious problems. These, for the most part, resulted from basic defects in the articles themselves, which failed to give Congress control over taxation and trade, made no provision for a federal executive or judiciary, and failed to provide the confederation any sanctions through which it might enforce its decisions.

    Even as the inadequacies of the Articles became apparent, the unanimous consent required for amendments proved impossible to obtain. As a consequence, the states had to take responsibility for settling many of their common problems. In March 1785, delegates from Virginia and Maryland met first in Alexandria, Virginia, and then at Mount Vernon, hoping to settle disputes relating to the navigation of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River. The success of the latter meeting led Virginia to issue an invitation to all the states to meet in Annapolis, Maryland, the following year to consider commercial reforms.

    The achievement of the twelve delegates from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia who met in Annapolis on September 11–14, 1786, was not readily apparent. The only resolution adopted called for a general meeting of delegates from all thirteen states in Philadelphia the following May to consider what steps were “necessary to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.” James Madison and Alexander Hamilton persuaded their fellow delegates to adopt a report that described the state of the Union as “delicate and critical.”1 In February 1787, Congress endorsed the need for a convention in Philadelphia that could revise the Articles of Confederation and “render the federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of Government and preservation of the Union.”2 By early May 1787, only Rhode Island had failed to respond to the calls from Annapolis and Philadelphia, and most of the fifty-five men who would become the framers of the U.S. Constitution were on their way to Philadelphia to establish a new form of government.

    The framers' historic effort was designed to “form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.”3 It represented a second, and more successful, attempt of Americans to develop a constitution that would be flexible, yet strong enough to meet the long-term legislative, administrative, and judicial needs of the new nation.

    Intent of the Framers and the Powers of Congress

    The Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were to become fundamental testaments of free government in the United States. Throughout American history, the interplay of the system crafted in Philadelphia has often prompted the question, “What was the intent of the framers?” Ironically, even the framers frequently did not agree and often had different conceptions about the new government they were creating. A reading of the proceedings in Philadelphia, however, shows a clear intent on the part of the framers to make Congress the major source of policy initiatives and proposals.

    In designing Congress, the framers were influenced by both the successes and the failures of the Continental and Confederation Congresses. In particular, the Constitutional Convention of 1787 favored the principle of separation of powers, which reflected the concern of the founders with the relative powerlessness of Congress under the Articles of Confederation. Although the articles had not separated the legislative, executive, and judicial functions, most state governments at the time consisted of three branches. Most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention had experience as members of the ineffective Continental Congress or their state legislatures, which were generally more powerful. The legislative branch, with which most delegates most closely identified, was the first branch discussed in depth during the constitutional debates and the first to be established by the Constitution. The framers devoted more than twice as much attention to the responsibilities of Congress than to the other two branches combined. Much is left unstated in the Constitution regarding the executive and judicial branches, but few details are spared when Congress is discussed.

    The framers intended Congress to be a representative body, responsive to the demands of voters and constituents, reflecting local interests, yet responsible for making laws for the American people collectively. James Madison and the other statesmen who framed the Constitution acknowledged that in a “republican government” such as the one they had created, the “legislative authority necessarily predominates.”4 Congress, in Madison's mind, had the obligation “to refine and enlarge the public views” and needed “wisdom” to “discern the true interest of their country.” The members' “patriotism and love of justice” should be such that they will be “least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.”5 “Nearly all legislation,” Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis observed in 1921, “involves a weighing of public needs as against private desires; and likewise a weighing of relative social values.”6 In creating a representative assembly as the structure within which the government considered its decisions, formulated policy, and enacted laws, the framers ensured that institutional restraints would operate not only to promote the primacy of the deliberative processes but also to allow the constraints of political reality to flourish.

    Seeking to correct the deficiencies of the Articles of Confederation, as well as to enlarge the authority of Congress in dealing with both foreign and domestic matters, the framers invested Congress with tremendous power. The Constitution mandated that Congress make all laws, specifically those “necessary and proper” for exercising the powers granted to it, and execute the powers granted to the other branches. Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution enumerates eighteen powers entrusted to Congress.7 Congress also was given almost unlimited power to control the expenditures of the executive branch through the appropriations process. In addition, Congress was given the responsibility of supervising the administration of the executive and judicial branches and the implicit responsibility of representing and informing the people. The legislative primacy of Congress also appears in the provisions for amending the Constitution (Article V), which call for approval by two-thirds of each house of Congress and ratification by three-fourths of the states.8 The role of the president and the Supreme Court in this latter process was limited to whatever informal influence they might exert.

    Constraining the Powers of Congress

    The framers were fearful that Congress might abuse its power, as had many of the state legislatures during the Confederation period, and, as a consequence, attempted by several means to constrain that power. One remedy was “to divide the legislature into different branches; and to render them, by different modes of election and different principles of action, as little connected with each other as the nature of their common functions and their common dependence on society will admit.”9 A bicameral legislature provided a vital check, each house being able to counteract the other.

    Each chamber was granted certain exclusive powers. The House of Representatives was delegated the responsibility of choosing a president when no clear electoral winner emerged. The Constitution also provided that tax legislation must originate in the House, as must impeachment proceedings against a president or other federal officials. The Senate was given authority to ratify treaties; approve presidential nominations to the Supreme Court, cabinet positions, and ambassadorships; and conduct impeachment trials.

    The House of Representatives was intended to be the most immediately responsive element of the government. By virtue of their biannual election, representatives would be mindful of public opinion. The House, as James Madison explained in Federalist No. 52, was to have “an immediate dependence on, and an intimate sympathy with, the people.”10 Conversely, senators, who were selected by the state legislatures until 1913, when the Seventeenth Amendment provided for popular election, historically enjoyed greater independence because of their six-year terms. The Senate was envisioned by Madison as a safeguard against impulsive action, “until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind.”11

    The chief constraint the framers placed on congressional power was the tripartite governmental system, each element having the means to check and balance the other. Under this system of separated powers, Congress was not to have absolute control over the legislative process. Article I, Section 7 stipulated that the president must sign legislation, thus approving it, for it to become law, and that a presidential veto could be overridden only by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. If, however, the president took no action on a bill that had been presented, it could become law without his signature after ten days, provided Congress has not adjourned during the period. The failure of the president to sign a bill under these circumstances, with the intention that it not become law, is known as the “pocket veto.” Other legislative responsibilities imposed on the president by Article II, Section 3 required him to provide Congress “information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;” to convene either or both houses of Congress into session “on extraordinary occasions;” and to adjourn them to a time of his choosing if they could not reach agreement on adjournment.

    Performance of Congress in Expectation and Practice

    Many observers, especially during the past century, asserted, or even presumed, the president's primacy in the policy-making process in general and in the legislative process in particular. An examination of legislative accomplishments throughout the decades, however, clearly indicates that Congress has maintained a much more persistent and crucial role in achieving these accomplishments than conventional wisdom often allows. A more careful consideration of the activity involved in national lawmaking reveals a much more complex process, one in which Congress has always played, and continues to play, a part not only central, but also vital, in the initiation, development, and establishment of policy.

    One reason that the continuing centrality of Congress to the legislative policy-making process has been overlooked or minimized is the deliberative and representative nature of America's constitutional system. Legislation involves Congress as well as a wide variety of other actors, especially the president. The saliency of presidential involvement in the constitutional system is reinforced by the tendency of Congress, observable throughout U.S. history, to find occasion and means to delegate its functions. In assessing the operation of the system, however, these circumstances have arguably been overemphasized.

    Delegation of Power and Its Control

    Nearly two centuries ago, Chief Justice John Marshall wrote that “the legislature makes, the executive executes, and the judiciary construes the law.” Congress, Marshall declared, must keep to itself “powers which are strictly and exclusively legislative.”12 Congress cannot relinquish its responsibility for creating executive departments and agencies, authorizing and regulating their activities, overseeing their work, reviewing their performance, and holding them accountable. Despite Marshall's admonition, Congress has, over time, delegated a significant portion of its legislative power to the president, executive agencies, and independent regulatory commissions.

    Congress, however, also exercises a variety of means to check these delegations of authority. Operational guidelines are often established during the development of laws, and customs and traditions have evolved to confine executive discretion. Also, Congress, through the appropriations process and its oversight function, is continually able to review the operations and policies of the various agencies and influence their future direction. Through its oversight activities, Congress seeks to ensure that legislation is faithfully, effectively, and economically administered; internal management controls are adequate and effective; abuses of administrative discretion or improper conduct are discovered and corrected; and executive branch officials are held accountable for the use of public funds and for administrative shortcomings.

    Also, when the courts have found that Congress has gone too far in delegating power, they have voided such actions. For example, the Line Item Veto Act, a majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1998, was unconstitutional because it allowed the president effectively to rewrite bills he had already signed into law.13 Although the power of the courts to review the constitutionality of federal and state legislative enactments is nowhere expressly conveyed, the concept was utilized in colonial times and assumed by the framers in the Constitutional Convention and by the members of the state ratifying conventions. The Supreme Court, however, did not until 1803, in Marbury v. Madison, expressly assert and exercise its power to strike down an act of Congress it considered inconsistent with the Constitution.14

    Presidential and Congressional Legislation

    Especially in the course of the past century, many scholars, as well as the press and electronic media, have viewed the president, not Congress, as the prime mover of the legislative process. The limitations of this presidential role have received less emphasis. The Constitution is silent on the extent of participation by the president and his subordinates in the legislative process once a measure is proposed. Although the president's recommendations carry great weight, he may not introduce legislation or compel Congress to act on his proposals. To win votes for a proposal, the president must make clear what the likely effects of the bill will be and provide a rationale that will secure support.

    As Lawrence H. Chamberlain observed in The President, Congress, and Legislation, the “concept of presidential domination in legislation comes in part from the tendency of the press to magnify his every action.” While the president's deeds are broadcast to the nation through a multitude of media sources, the accomplishments of Congress receive relatively little coverage. “It is easier,” Chamberlain reasoned, “to follow the moves of one man than it is to trace the day-to-day developments of multitudinous committees, not to mention individual congressmen.”15

    Even when Congress has worked on a bill for months, and an administration has had only a limited role in its development, the president may receive much of the credit for its enactment. If a president decides to support a piece of legislation through a special message to Congress, a public statement, a White House conference, a radio or television appeal, or the efforts of his representatives, the proposal quickly becomes identified with the president regardless of its origin. Even if the president waits to comment on the merits of a bill until after it is signed into law, his limited association with the legislation often captures the spotlight. The same is the case when Congress overrides a presidential veto. This tendency to magnify the importance of the president, while frequently overlooking the role of Congress, distorts the history of the American legislative process.

    In the final analysis, it is often difficult to weigh the relative influence of Congress and the president in the legislative process and accurately gauge the continual and influential activities of outside interests. The assumption, however, should not be made that during those periods when a president becomes “unusually active” in the process, Congress has relinquished its constitutional responsibility. “Despite the well-organized rise of the president as chief legislator, empirical research” by scholars has “consistently found that Congress is responsible for most proposed legislation, and a large share of enacted programs, either on its own or working in conjunction with the president.”16

    Although presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt have established much of the legislative agenda for Congress, the issues and ideas endorsed by the White House often have been germinating in Congress for a considerable period of time. Changing conditions within the nation or abroad may thrust to the forefront a legislative idea that has lain dormant for years or decades, or a presidential administration may breathe new life into a proposal whose time had supposedly passed. Also, Congress is one of the most fertile springs for presidential initiatives. “Difficult as it may be to determine the origin of a policy initiative, to identify the parent of an idea,” presidential scholar Mark A. Peterson writes, “it is evident that a large bulk of what becomes ‘presidential’ first met the legislative light of day as ‘congressional.’”17 Often, by the time a proposal appears in a presidential message or speech, the president's position has been significantly modified to take into consideration difficulties particular provisions face on Capitol Hill. As a consequence, proposals sent to the Congress frequently represent modifications of the president's preferences. Furthermore, much of the legislation considered by Congress is of little concern to the president or his administration.

    Genesis of Legislation

    Often, neither Congress nor the president would push a particular piece of legislation if it were not for the external influences of society at large. The ideas and pressure for much of the legislation approved by Congress and signed into law by the president originate at neither end of Pennsylvania Avenue. Individuals from virtually every walk of life have originated, and assisted in, the formulation of legislative initiatives that have dramatically begun, altered, or displaced a governmental policy. Ideas for legislative initiatives are brought to the attention of members of Congress by

    • the president in his annual State of the Union message, where he sets out his agenda for the coming year, as well as in other speeches, messages, interviews, and press conferences, and through the White House congressional liaison office;
    • members of the president's cabinet and other executive branch officials and personnel responsible for the administration of governmental policies;
    • state and local officials;
    • lobbyists for interest groups such as the business community, trade organizations, labor unions, and professional associations;
    • academics, independent policy specialists, and members of think tanks and consulting groups;
    • technical advisers representing universities and other private and government research organizations;
    • the media;
    • congressional staff; and
    • private citizens.

    Much of the credit for legislation must be given to the individuals or groups most directly interested in the specific results of the proposal. Nevertheless, only Congress can transform an idea into a bill that may become law.

    Congress continues, as it has since 1789, to be an incubator for legislative proposals. A continuous exposure to legislative ideas has allowed Congress to remain a vigorous institution and an integral partner in the constitutional system. On Capitol Hill, proposals are procedurally introduced, subjected to committee hearings, debated on the House and Senate floor, and approved, before being sent to the White House for the president's signature. During the process of developing original or amendatory legislation, which often spans a number of years and several Congresses, the merits of a proposal may become the topic of national debate, and the proposal may be modified or significantly altered.

    Accomplishment of Legislation

    While the framers devoted great detail to Congress's legislative responsibilities, they said little about how Congress should organize itself, except that the Speaker, the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, should be elected and that the vice president, or the president pro tempore in his absence, should preside over the Senate. The Constitution's brevity in this regard has allowed Congress the freedom to “change over time” and transform itself “from an informal, non-specialised representative and legislative assembly, attempting to fulfill the republican aspirations of post-revolutionary Americans, into a complex, highly specialised, rather bureaucratic institution which acts … like a complete government intervening in all policy areas and at every stage of the policy-making process.” Congress's ability to change its internal structure and procedures has enabled it to respond for more than two centuries to “political, economic, and social changes which transformed the nature of problems facing constituents, and thus the public policies they were willing to support.”18 This transformation is most dramatically demonstrated in Congress's legislative accomplishments.

    Congress, Lawrence H. Chamberlain argued, is better suited to deal with the “long germinative period detectable in the genesis of most laws” than is any other agency in America's democracy. Its composition, organization, and accessibility, “coupled with its ever-changing personnel, tends to guarantee a maximum responsiveness to varied but always moving currents of thought.” A close examination of the official records of Congress reveals that individual senators and representatives frequently make a “substantial contribution” in “locating the weaknesses and gaps in our legislative fabric and initiating action to fill the breach.” Were it not for “their persistent efforts and their unwillingness to give up in the face of administration indifference or hostility it is probable” that the enactment of many important laws would have been delayed much longer and “their content would have been much less definite.”19

    Although the legislative initiative has “shifted many times between the legislative and executive branches, the U.S. Congress remains virtually the only national assembly in the world that drafts in detail the laws it passes instead of simply debating and ratifying measures prepared by the government in power.”20 “In the United States,” Chamberlain observed, “legislation is characteristically a collegial process in which the role of the Congress is no less important than that of the President.”21 Chamberlain's observations, penned nearly seventy years ago, remain applicable today. In examining the origin of federal legislation over more than two centuries, landmark enactments have been approved during periods of comparative calm as well as during the stress of a national emergency. They have also gained acceptance when nonactivist presidents have occupied the Oval Office as well as strong ones.

    A 2000 study of the most important laws enacted in the last half of the twentieth century credits Congress with “calling upon the federal government to tackle a bold agenda worthy of the world's greatest democracy, and providing the statutory authority to act.” Survey responses from 450 history and political science professors, who were asked to select the government's greatest achievements of the past half century, “reflect a stunning level of bipartisan commitment.” “Great endeavors appear to require equally great consensus.”22 The lessons of achievement, the study concluded, are:

    No one party, Congress, or president can be credited with any single achievement. Even Medicare, which was a signature accomplishment of the Great Society, and the Marshall Plan, which centered in a burst of legislation during the Truman administration, had antecedents in earlier Congresses and administrations. Rather, achievement appears to be the direct product of endurance, consensus, and patience.23

    The report “suggests that the federal government did more than aim high,” it “often succeeded in changing the nation and the world.” Three important themes underlie the government's greatest achievements: (1) a “coherent policy strategy,” (2) a conscious effort to take the “moral high ground despite significant resistance,” and (3) a “readiness to intervene where the private and nonprofit sectors simply would not.”24

    Notes

    1. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford and Roscoe R. Hill (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904–1937), 31:680.

    2. Journals of the Continental Congress 32 (1787): 74.

    3. U.S. Constitution, preamble.

    4. Benjamin Fletcher Wright, ed., The Federalist (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966), No. 51, 356.

    5. Wright, The Federalist, No. 10, 134.

    6. Truax v. Corrigan, 257 U.S. 312, 357 (1921).

    7. These include the authority to tax, spend, and borrow; to regulate foreign and interstate commerce; to admit new states; to establish uniform naturalization and bankruptcy standards; to coin money, regulate its value, and fix the standard of weights and measures; to establish post offices and post roads; to develop copyright protections; to create federal courts of lesser authority than the U.S. Supreme Court, which was specifically provided for; to maintain a defense establishment; and to declare war.

    8. Article V of the Constitution also provides that “the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States” may “call a convention for proposing amendments.”

    9. Wright, The Federalist, No. 51, 357.

    10. Wright, The Federalist, No. 52, 361.

    11. Wright, The Federalist, No. 63, 415.

    12. Wayman v. Southard, 23 U.S. (10 Wheaton), 41, 44 (1825).

    13. Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998).

    14. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).

    15. Lawrence H. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1946), 15.

    16. Mark A. Peterson, “Legislative Initiative,” in The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress, ed. Donald C. Bacon, Roger H. Davidson, and Morton Keller (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 3:1275.

    17. Mark A. Peterson, Legislating Together: The White House and Capitol Hill from Eisenhower to Reagan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), 33, 35.

    18. Michael Foley and John E. Owens, Congress and the Presidency: Institutional Politics in a Separated System (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1996), 13.

    19. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation, 463.

    20. Roger H. Davidson, Walter J. Oleszek, and Frances E. Lee. Congress and Its Members, 13th ed. (Los Angeles: SAGE/CQ Press, 2012), 8.

    21. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation, 15.

    22. Paul C. Light, “Government's Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century,” Reform Watch, No. 2 (November 2000): 1, 4. See also Paul C. Light. Government's Greatest Achievements: From Civil Rights to Homeland Defense. (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002), 2, 46, 63–64.

    23 Light, “Government's Greatest Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century,” 11.

    24. Light, “Government's Greatest Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century,” 1, 12.

    Finder's Guide

    The Finder's Guide will help readers track legislation and treaties by major policy areas and national issues. Beginning with the First Congress, CQ Press editors assigned each summary entry in the book to at least one of forty-one categories and in many cases to several where the law or treaty had multiple purposes. Within each category, the entries are arranged chronologically by Congress. The Finder's Guide is intended to supplement the more detailed subject index found at the back of the volume by helping a reader track, for example, national security or continental development laws and treaties over the one hundred twelve Congresses surveyed. Because legislation often overlaps many areas, the categories are not neatly compartmentalized but will provide a road map in major areas on which Congress has legislated. An alphabetical list of categories follows. In the Guide pages, categories are grouped together in related areas such as law and justice issues or federal state relationships.

    AgricultureFG-2
    Civil LibertiesFG-2
    Communication, Information TechnologyFG-3
    CongressFG-3
    Continental Development, Union ExpansionFG-3
    Criminal Justice, Law EnforcementFG-5
    District of ColumbiaFG-6
    Economic Competition and Controls; AntitrustFG-6
    Economic DevelopmentFG-6
    EducationFG-6
    Elections, Campaign FinanceFG-7
    Energy, Power, Nuclear DevelopmentFG-7
    Environment and ConservationFG-8
    Federal EmployeesFG-8
    FederalismFG-9
    Financial Regulation and BankingFG-9
    Foreign AffairsFG-10
    General Commerce, BankruptcyFG-12
    Government Finance and Institutions, Coinage and Currency, Taxes and ExpendituresFG-13
    Government Finance and Institutions, Coinage and Currency, Taxes and ExpendituresFG-13
    Government Organization, OperationsFG-14
    Health, Consumer SafetyFG-15
    HousingFG-16
    Human Services, WelfareFG-17
    Immigration, Naturalization, CitizenshipFG-17
    Indian AffairsFG-18
    JudiciaryFG-18
    LaborFG-19
    National SecurityFG-20
    Natural Resources and Public WorksFG-22
    Parks and RecreationFG-22
    Pension, Social Security, Disability, Health Care InsuranceFG-23
    Postal SystemFG-23
    PresidencyFG-23
    Revenue: Taxes and TariffsFG-24
    Science and SpaceFG-25
    Slavery, Civil Rights, Voting RightsFG-25
    TerritoriesFG-26
    TradeFG-26
    TransportationFG-27
    Urban AssistanceFG-28
    Veterans AffairsFG-29
    Agriculture
    Sessions of CongressPage
    251837–1839First Appropriation for the Promotion of Agriculture71
    371861–1863Department of Agriculture105
    371861–1863Morrill Land Grant College Act106
    481883–1885Bureau of Animal Industry144
    491885–1887Hatch Agricultural Experiment 1885–1887 Station Act149
    501887–1889Department of Agriculture Act151
    511889–1891Second Morrill Land Grant College Act156
    511889–1891Meat Inspection Act of 1891156
    581903–1905Transfer Act of 1905 (forest control)179
    581903–1905Insect Pest Act179
    591905–1907Meat Inspection Act183
    591905–1907Pure Food and Drug Act183
    611909–1911Insecticide Act of 1910190
    621911–1913Plant Quarantine Act of 1912194
    631913–1915Smith-Lever Act199
    631913–1915Cotton Futures Act199
    641915–1917Federal Farm Loan Act203
    641915–1917United States Grain Standards Act204
    641915–1917Warehouse Act of 1916204
    671921–1923Packers and Stockyards Act220
    671921–1923Cooperative Marketing Act (Capper-Volstead Act)220
    671921–1923Grain Futures Act221
    671921–1923Agricultural Credits Act221
    681923–1925Purnell Act226
    691925–1927Cooperative Marketing Act229
    711929–1931Agricultural Marketing Act234
    731933–1935Agricultural Adjustment Act243
    731933–1935Farm Credit Act of 1933244
    731933–1935Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation Act244
    741935–1937Soil Conservation Act248
    741935–1937Frazier-Lemke Farm Mortgage Moratorium Act249
    741935–1937Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act250
    741935–1937Commodity Exchange Act250
    751937–1939Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937254
    751937–1939Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act254
    751937–1939Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938255
    781943–1945Farm Labor Supply Act268
    791945–1947National School Lunch Act of 1946275
    791945–1947Farmers Home Administration Act of 1946276
    801947–1949Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948280
    811949–1951Agricultural Act of 1949285
    821951–1953India Emergency Food Aid Act289
    831953–1955Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954294
    841955–1957Soil Bank Act299
    881963–1965Food Stamp Act of 1964319
    901967–1969Wholesome Meat Act331
    901967–1969Wholesome Poultry Products Act332
    911969–1971Food Stamp Act of 1970339
    921971–1973Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972346
    931973–1975Agriculture and Consumer
    Protection Act of 1973350
    991985–1987Food Security Act of 1985387
    1011989–1991Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990401
    1041995–1997Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Freedom to Farm Act)418
    1041995–1997Food Quality Protection Act of 1996419
    1072001–2003Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002441
    1082003–2005Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform Act of 2004447
    1082003–2005Water Supply, Reliability, and Environmental Improvement Act447
    1082003–2005Arizona Water Settlements Act447
    Civil Liberties
    11789–1791Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments)12
    271841–1843Granting of Habeas Corpus Authorized76
    371861–1863Habeas Corpus Act107
    401867–1869Repeal of the Habeas Corpus Act of 1867118
    491885–1887Edmunds-Tucker Antipolygamy Act140
    761939–1941Alien Registration Act (Smith Act)260
    811949–1951McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950287
    831953–1955Communist Control Act of 1954294
    951977–1979Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978364
    961979–1981Privacy Protection Act of 1980 (news media protection)371
    1001987–1989Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (Japanese American Reparations Act)393
    1001987–1989Video Privacy Act331394
    1031993–1995Religious Freedom Restoration Act412
    1061999–2001Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act433
    1072001–2003USA PATRIOT Act453
    1082003–2005Justice for All Act of 2004447
    1092005–2007USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005453
    1092005–2007Military Commissions Act of 2006454
    1102007–2009Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007458
    1112009–2011Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010466
    Communication, Information Technology
    Sessions of CongressPage
    341855–1857Atlantic Cable Act of 185796
    361859–1861Pacific Telegraph Act100
    361859–1861Origin of the U.S. Army Signal Corps101
    361859–1861Printing Act of 1860101
    531893–1895Printing Act of 1895163
    611909–1911Mann-Elkins Act (commerce regulation)199
    691925–1927Radio Control Act of 1927229
    731933–1935Communications Act of 1934245
    801949–1951United States Information and Educational Exchange Act (Smith-Mundt Act)280
    871961–1963Depository Library Act of 1962313
    871961–1963Communications Satellite Act of 1962313
    901967–1969Public Broadcasting Act of 1967331
    981983–1985Cable Communications Policy Act383
    991985–1987Electronic Communications Privacy Act388
    1021991–1993Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act407
    1031993–1995Communication Licensing and Spectrum Allocation Improvement Act (auctioning of radio spectrum licenses)411
    1041995–1997Telecommunications Act of 1996418
    1051997–1999Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998427
    1051997–1999Child Online Protection Act427
    1051997–1999Digital Millennium Copyright Act427
    1061999–2001Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act433
    Congress
    11789–1791First Federal Census12
    21791–1793First Apportionment Act15
    61799–1801Making Provision for Removal of Government to Washington26
    61799–1801Establishment of the Library of Congress26
    131813–1815Legislation to Ensure Distribution of Congressional Documents43
    131813–1815Purchase of the Library of Thomas Jefferson44
    141815–1817Compensation Act of 181646
    271841–18431842 Apportionment Act75
    341855–1857Increase in Member Compensation96
    361859–1861Printing Act of 1860101
    421871–1873Election Day Fixed127
    421871–1873Salary Grab Act127
    461879–1881Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act139
    471881–1883House Membership Increased141
    491885–1887New Library of Congress Building148
    531893–1895Printing Act of 1895163
    591905–1907Pay Increase for Vice President, Cabinet, and Members of Congress183
    611909–1911Publicity Act (candidate campaign reports)191
    Sessions of CongressPage
    621911–1913Seventeenth Amendment (direct election of senators)194
    681923–1925Federal Corrupt Practices Act of 1925226
    711929–1931Permanent Apportionment Act of 1929234
    721931–1933Twentieth Amendment (lame duck amendment)238
    791945–1947Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946276
    791945–1947Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act276
    811949–1951Compensation of President, Vice President, and Speaker of the House284
    911969–1971Nonvoting D.C. Delegate to the House of Representatives338
    911969–1971Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970338
    921971–1973Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971344
    921971–1973Delegates to the House of Representatives from Guam and U.S. Virgin Islands345
    931973–1975Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974352
    931973–1975Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974353
    941975–1977National Emergencies Act358
    951977–1979Proposed Constitutional Amendment Giving the District of Columbia Full Voting Participation in Congress363
    951977–1979Ethics in Government Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Intelligence Authorization, 1981371
    991985–1987Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act)386
    1011989–1991Ethics Reform Act of 1989399
    1011989–1991Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990399
    1021991–1993Twenty-seventh Amendment (Madison congressional pay amendment)406
    1041995–1997Congressional Accountability Act417
    1041995–1997Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995417
    1041995–1997Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995418
    1041995–1997Line Item Veto Act418
    1102007–2009Honest Leadership and Open Government Act458
    1122011–2013Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012 (STOCK Act)471
    Continental Development, Union Expansion
    11789–1791Kentucky, Vermont Admitted to the Union13
    41795–1797Jay Treaty (Anglo-American Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation)20
    41795–1797Pinckney's Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)20
    41795–1797Land Act of 179620
    41795–1797Tennessee Admitted to the Union21
    51797–1799Mississippi Territory23
    61799–1801Indiana Territory Created. Northwest Territory Divided26
    Sessions of CongressPage
    61799–1801Harrison Land Act of 180026
    71801–1803First Enabling Act (Northwest Territory convention)28
    71801–1803Ohio Admitted to the Union29
    71801–1803Loan to Purchase New Orleans29
    81803–1805Louisiana Purchase Treaty30
    81803–1805Authority of United States in Louisiana Established31
    81803–1805Stock Created to Pay for Louisiana Purchase31
    81803–1805Land Act of 180431
    81803–1805Territory of Orleans and District of Louisiana31
    81803–1805Michigan Territory31
    81803–1805District of Louisiana Made a Territory32
    91805–1807Cumberland Road (National Road) Act34
    91805–1807Survey of the Coasts of the United States Begun34
    101807–1809Illinois Territory36
    111809–1811No-Transfer Resolution of 181138
    111809–1811Extension of U.S. Rule over West Florida38
    111809–1811Louisiana Enabling Act38
    121811–1813Louisiana Admitted to the Union40
    121811–1813Bounty Lands for Military Service40
    121811–1813Mississippi Territory Enlarged40
    121811–1813Missouri Territory40
    141815–1817Indiana Enabling Act46
    141815–1817Indiana Admitted to the Union46
    141815–1817Mississippi Enabling Act46
    141815–1817Mississippi Territory Divided47
    151817–1819Mississippi Admitted to the Union49
    151817–1819Illinois Enabling Act49
    151817–1819Illinois Admitted to the Union49
    151817–1819Adams-Onis Treaty (acquire Florida, Louisiana Territory boundary)49
    151817–1819Alabama Enabling Act50
    151817–1819Arkansas Territory Established50
    151817–1819President Authorized to Take Possession of East and West Florida50
    161819–1821Alabama Admitted to the Union52
    161819–1821Maine Admitted to the Union52
    161819–1821Public Land Act of 182052
    161819–1821Land Act of 1821 (Relief Act)52
    171821–1823Establishment of Territorial Government for Florida53
    181823–1825General Survey Act56
    211829–1831Preemption Act of 1830 (public land settlers)61
    241835–1837Clayton Act (Established Northern Boundary of Ohio)68
    241835–1837Arkansas Admitted to the Union68
    241835–1837Michigan Admitted to the Union68
    251837–1839Iowa Territory Established71
    271841–1843Preemption Act of 1841 (public land settlers)75
    271841–1843Webster-Ashburton Treaty75
    281843–1845Texas Annexation Resolution78
    281843–1845Florida Admitted to the Union78
    291845–1847Texas Admitted to the Union81
    291845–1847Oregon Treaty81
    291845–1847Wisconsin Enabling Act82
    291845–1847Iowa Admitted to the Union82
    301847–1849Wisconsin Admitted to the Union84
    301847–1849Oregon Bill84
    301847–1849Minnesota Territory Organized84
    311849–1851Texas and New Mexico Act (boundaries established)86
    311849–1851California Admitted as a Free State86
    311849–1851Utah Act (boundary, slave status)86
    311849–1851Railroad Land Grant Act of 185086
    321851–1853Right-of-Way Granted to All Railroads89
    321851–1853Washington Territory Established90
    321851–1853Transcontinental Railroad Survey90
    331853–1855Gadsden Purchase Treaty (land from Mexico)92
    331853–1855Graduation Act (public land price)92
    341855–1857Guano Islands Act96
    341855–1857Minnesota Enabling Act96
    351857–1859English Bill (Kansas and slavery)98
    351857–1859Minnesota Admitted to the Union98
    351857–1859Oregon Admitted to the Union98
    361859–1861Kansas Admitted to the Union101
    361859–1861Colorado Territory Established101
    361859–1861Nevada Territory Established101
    361859–1861Dakota Territory Established101
    371861–1863Homestead Act (western land grants)106
    371861–1863West Virginia Admitted to the Union107
    371861–1863Arizona Territory Established107
    371861–1863Idaho Territory Established107
    381863–1865Nevada Admitted to the Union110
    381863–1865Nebraska Enabling Act110
    381863–1865Montana Territory Established110
    391865–1867Nebraska Admitted to the Union110
    401867–1869Alaska Purchase Treaty118
    401867–1869Wyoming Territory Established119
    401867–1869Arkansas Readmitted to the Union119
    421871–1873Timber Culture Act127
    431873–1875Colorado Enabling Act130
    441875–1877Colorado Admitted to the Union134
    441875–1877Desert Land Act134
    461879–1881Mississippi River Commission139
    471881–1883River and Harbor Appropriations142
    481883–1885Civil Government for Alaska144
    481883–1885Prevention of Unauthorized Fencing of Public Lands145
    491885–1887Special Laws Prohibited in the Territories148
    501887–1889North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington Enabling Act151
    511889–1891North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington Admitted to the Union155
    511889–1891Territory of Oklahoma155
    511889–1891Idaho Admitted to the Union155
    Sessions of CongressPage
    511889–1891Wyoming Admitted to the Union155
    511889–1891General Land Revision Act of 1891156
    531893–1895Utah Enabling Act162
    531893–1895Carey Desert Land Act163
    541895–1897Utah Admitted to the Union165
    551897–1899Hawaiian Annexation169
    561899–1901Hawaiian Organic Act172
    561899–1901Civil Government for Alaska172
    571901–1903Newlands Reclamation Act174
    591905–1907Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma Enabling Act182
    601907–1909Oklahoma Admitted to the Union186
    601907–1909Enlarged Homestead Act187
    611909–1911Arizona and New Mexico Enabling Act190
    621911–1913Arizona and New Mexico Admitted to the Union194
    621911–1913Alaska Organic Act194
    641915–1917Acquisition of the Danish West Indies205
    851957–1959Alaska Admitted to the Union303
    861959–1961Hawaii Admitted to the Union306
    961979–1981Alaska Lands Conservation Act371
    Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement
    411869–1871Establishment of the Justice Department123
    421871–1873Mail Fraud Act of 1872127
    451877–1879Posse Comitatus Act137
    471881–1883Edmunds Antipolygamy Act142
    491885–1887Special Laws Prohibited in the Territories148
    521891–1893Compulsory Testimony Act159
    551897–1899Jurisdiction of U.S. Courts Extended to Indian Territory167
    601907–1909Opium Exclusion Act of 1909187
    601907–1909Criminal Code Revision of 1909187
    611909–1911Mann Act (White Slave Traffic Act)191
    651917–1919Espionage Act210
    651917–1919Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1918211
    651917–1919Sabotage Act211
    651917–1919Sedition Act211
    661919–1921National Motor Vehicle Theft Act (Dyer Act)215
    681923–1925Federal Arbitration Act of 1925226
    701927–1929Hawes-Cooper Act232
    731933–1935Johnson Debt Default Act of 1934245
    731933–1935Crime Control Acts245
    731933–1935National Firearms Act of 1934246
    791945–1947Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act275
    791945–1947Federal Tort Claims Act276
    811949–1951Uniform Code of Military Justice285
    821951–1953Wire Fraud Act of 1952291
    841955–1957Narcotics Control Act299
    871961–1963Crimes in the Sky Act312
    871961–1963Bribery, Graft, and Conflicts of Interest Act of 1962314
    Sessions of CongressPage
    891965–1967Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965323
    891965–1967Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act of 1966326
    901967–1969Flag Protection Act of 1968332
    901967–1969Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968332
    901967–1969Gun Control Act of 1968333
    911969–1971District of Columbia Court Reform and Criminal Procedure Act of 1970337
    911969–1971Organized Crime Control Act of 1970338
    911969–1971Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970338
    931973–1975Legal Services Corporation Act of 1974352
    931973–1975Federal Rules of Evidence Act354
    931973–1975Speedy Trial Act354
    981983–1985Child Support Enforcement Amendments of 1984381
    981983–1985Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984382
    981983–1985Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984383
    991985–1987Firearms Owners' Protection Act387
    991985–1987Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986389
    1001987–1989Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988395
    1011989–1991Department of Defense Designated as Lead Agency for Detecting and Monitoring Shipment of Illegal Drugs399
    1021991–1993Child Support Recovery Act of 1992407
    1031993–1995Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act412
    1031993–1995Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994413
    1051997–1999Child Online Protection Act427
    1061999–2001Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000433
    1072001–20032001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States439
    1072001–2003USA PATRIOT Act440
    1082003–2005Justice for All Act of 2004447
    1092005–2007Protection of Unlawful Commerce in Arms Act452
    1092005–2007USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005453
    1092005–2007Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006453
    1092005–2007Military Commissions Act of 2006454
    1112009–2011Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act465
    1122011–2013Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012 (STOCK Act)471
    District of Columbia
    Sessions of CongressPage
    11789–1791Permanent Seat of Government13
    61799–1801Making Provision for Removal of Government to Washington26
    61799–1801Establishment of the Library of Congress26
    61799–1801District of Columbia Organic Act26
    241835–1837Congress Accepts Legacy Bequeathed by James Smithson69
    251837–1839Dueling Prohibited in District of Columbia71
    291845–1847Retrocession of the County of Alexandria in the District of Columbia to the State of Virginia81
    371861–1863District of Columbia Emancipation Act105
    411869–1871Territory of the District of Columbia124
    431873–1875District of Columbia Government Reorganization130
    451877–1879Permanent Government for the District of Columbia136
    601907–1909District of Columbia Child Labor Law186
    711929–1931Davis-Bacon Act235
    861959–1961Twenty-third Amendment (District of Columbia presidential vote)307
    911969–1971District of Columbia Court Reform and Criminal Procedure Act of 1970337
    911969–1971Nonvoting D.C. Delegate to the House of Representatives338
    951977–1979Proposed Constitutional Amendment Giving the District of Columbia Full Voting Participation in Congress363
    1051997–1999National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997425
    Economic Competition and Controls; Antitrust
    511889–1891Sherman Antitrust Act155
    551897–1899U.S. Industrial Commission Created168
    571901–1903Expedition Act (antitrust prosecutions)175
    631913–1915Clayton Antitrust Act199
    631913–1915Federal Trade Commission Act199
    651917–1919Lever Food and Fuel Control Act210
    651917–1919Railroad Control Act211
    651917–1919Webb-Pomerene Export Trade Act211
    671921–1923Cooperative Marketing Act (Capper-Volstead Act)220
    741935–1937Federal Antiprice Discrimination Act (Robinson-Patman Act)250
    751937–1939Miller-Tydings Enabling Act254
    751937–1939Wheeler-Lea Act (Advertising Act)255
    771941–1943Emergency Price Control Act of 1942264
    771941–1943Stabilization Act of 1942265
    811949–1951Defense Production Act of 1950286
    Sessions of CongressPage
    911969–1971Newspaper Preservation Act337
    911969–1971Economic Stabilization Act of 1970337
    921971–1973Economic Stabilization Act Amendments of 1971344
    981983–1985Shipping Act of 1984381
    1082003–2005Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform Act of 2004447
    Economic Development
    711929–1931Federal Employment Stabilization Act of 1931235
    721931–1933Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act238
    721931–1933Emergency Relief and Construction Act238
    731933–1935Civilian Conservation Corps242
    731933–1935National Industrial Recovery Act244
    781943–1945War Mobilization and Reconversion Act of 1944270
    791945–1947Employment Act of 1946274
    831953–1955Small Business Administration Act293
    851957–1959Small Business Investment Act304
    871961–1963Area Redevelopment Act312
    891965–1967Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965323
    951977–1979International Emergency Economic Powers Act363
    951977–1979Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978365
    971981–1983Small Business Innovation Development Act376
    1001987–1989Women's Business Ownership Act394
    1072001–2003Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act441
    1082003–2005American Jobs Creation Act of 2004447
    1102007–2009Economic Stimulus Act of 2008459
    1102007–2009Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008460
    1112009–2011American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009464
    1112009–2011Small Business Jobs Act of 2010466
    Education
    241835–1837Congress Accepts Legacy Bequeathed by James Smithson69
    371861–1863Morrill Land Grant College Act106
    491885–1887Hatch Agricultural Experiment Station Act149
    511889–1891Second Morrill Land Grant College Act156
    641915–1917Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act205
    791945–1947Fulbright Scholars Act275
    791945–1947National School Lunch Act of 1946275
    Sessions of CongressPage
    801949–1951United States Information and Educational Exchange Act (Smith-Mundt Act)280
    831953–1955Department of Health, Education, and Welfare293
    851957–1959National Defense Education Act of 1958304
    881963–1965Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963317
    881963–1965Vocational Education Act of 1963318
    881963–1965Nurse Training Act of 1964319
    891965–1967Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965322
    891965–1967Higher Education Act of 1965324
    901967–1969Bilingual Education Act331
    921971–1973Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act (Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act)345
    931973–1975Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (Buckley Amendment)352
    941975–1977Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975357
    961979–1981Department of Education Established369
    971981–1983Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 (education block grants)375
    1031993–1995Goals 2000: Educate America Act413
    1051997–1999Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997424
    1061999–2001American Competitiveness in the Twenty-first Century Act of 2000433
    1072001–2003No Child Left Behind Act of 2001440
    1102007–2009Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008459
    1112009–2011Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act (SAFRA Act)465
    1112009–2011Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010466
    Elections, Campaign Finance
    281843–1845Establishment of a Uniform Election Day for Presidential Elections78
    421871–1873Election Day Fixed127
    491885–1887Electoral Count Act148
    591905–1907Tillman Act (corporate political contributions)183
    681923–1925Federal Corrupt Practices Act of 1925226
    761939–1941Hatch Act (civil service)259
    781943–1945Smith-Connally Antistrike Act268
    781943–1945Soldier Vote Act269
    801947–1949Taft-Hartley Labor-Management Relations Act279
    861959–1961Twenty-third Amendment (District of Columbia presidential vote)307
    921971–1973Twenty-sixth Amendment (voting age)343
    921971–1973Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971344
    Sessions of CongressPage
    931973–1975Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974353
    981983–1985Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act382
    991985–1987Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act388
    1011989–1991Ethics Reform Act of 1989399
    1031993–1995National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (Motor Voter Act)411
    1031993–1995Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993412
    1072001–2003Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold Act)441
    1072001–2003Help America Vote Act of 2002442
    Energy, Power, Nuclear Development
    301847–1849Department of the Interior84
    651917–1919Daylight Standard Time Act211
    661919–1921Federal Water Power Act217
    701927–1929Boulder Canyon Project Act232
    731933–1935Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933243
    741935–1937Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935249
    741935–1937Rural Electrification Act of 1936250
    751937–1939Natural Gas Act256
    791945–1947Atomic Energy Act275
    831953–1955Atomic Energy Act of 1954275
    841955–1957Upper Colorado River Project299
    851957–1959Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act302
    931973–1975Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act351
    931973–1975Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974351
    931973–1975Energy Reorganization Act of 1974353
    941975–1977Energy Policy and Conservation Act357
    951977–1979Department of Energy Established362
    951977–1979Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977362
    951977–1979Energy Tax Act of 1978365
    951977–1979National Energy Conservation Policy Act366
    951977–1979National Gas Policy Act of 1978366
    951977–1979Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act366
    961979–1981Energy Security Act370
    961979–1981Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax of 1980370
    971981–1983Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982377
    1011989–1991Natural Gas Wellhead Decontrol Act of 1989398
    1021991–1993Energy Policy Act of 1992407
    1092005–2007Energy Policy Act of 2005452
    1092005–2007Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006454
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1102007–2009Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act461
    Environment and Conservation
    411869–1871Office of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries Created124
    511889–1891Forest Reserve Act of 1891157
    561899–1901Lacey Act (wildlife and bird protection)172
    581903–1905Insect Pest Act179
    611909–1911Insecticide Act of 1910190
    651917–1919Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918212
    681923–1925Helium Act of 1925226
    701927–1929Migratory Bird Conservation Act232
    751937–1939Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937255
    791945–1947Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1946276
    801947–1949Federal Water Pollution Act of 1948286
    811949–1951Fish Restoration Act298
    841955–1957Air Pollution Control Act of 1955299
    841955–1957Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1956300
    841955–1957Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956307
    861959–1961Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960307
    861959–1961Antarctic Treaty
    881963–1965Clean Air Act of 1963317
    881963–1965Wilderness Act of 1964319
    891965–1967Water Quality Act of 1965324
    891965–1967Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act324
    891965–1967National Historic Preservation Act325
    891965–1967Endangered Species Preservation Act326
    901967–1969Air Quality Control Act of 1967331
    901967–1969Aircraft Noise Abatement Act332
    901967–1969National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act333
    911969–1971National Environmental Policy Act of 1969336
    911969–1971Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970337
    911969–1971Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970337
    911969–1971Clean Air Amendments of 1970339
    921971–1973Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972345
    921971–1973Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972346
    921971–1973Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972346
    921971–1973Noise Control Act of 1972346
    921971–1973Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972346
    Sessions of CongressPage
    931973–1975Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973350
    931973–1975Endangered Species Act of 1973351
    931973–1975Safe Drinking Water Act353
    941975–1977Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976358
    941975–1977Toxic Substances Control Act358
    941975–1977Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976359
    951977–1979Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977362
    951977–1979Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977362
    961979–1981Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act371
    961979–1981Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“Superfund”)371
    991985–1987Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986387
    991985–1987“Superfund” Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986388
    991985–1987Water Resources Development Act of 1986389
    1001987–1989Water Quality Act of 1987392
    1011989–1991Oil Pollution Act of 1990399
    1011989–1991Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990401
    1021991–1993Energy Policy Act of 1992407
    1041995–1997Food Quality Protection Act of 1996419
    1041995–1997Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996419
    1041995–1997Sustainable Fisheries Act420
    1061999–2001Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan434
    1072001–2003Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act441
    1082003–2005Water Supply, Reliability, and Environmental Improvement Act447
    1082003–2005Arizona Water Settlements Act447
    Federal Employees
    161819–1821Tenure of Office Act of 1820 (Four Years' Law)52
    401867–1869Eight-Hour Day for Federal Workers119
    411869–1871Civil Service Commission124
    461879–1881Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act139
    471881–1883Pendleton Act (Civil Service Commission)142
    521891–1893Eight-Hour Workday159
    621911–1913Lloyd-LaFollette Act195
    641915–1917Federal Employees' Compensation Act of 1916205
    661919–1921Veterans Preference Act of 1919215
    661919–1921Citizenship for American Indian Veterans215
    Sessions of CongressPage
    661919–1921Civil Service Retirement Act of 1920216
    671921–1923Classification Act of 1923222
    681923–1925Rogers Foreign Service Act225
    731933–1935Economy Act242
    731933–1935Independent Offices Appropriation Act245
    761939–1941Hatch Act (civil service)259
    791945–1947Federal Tort Claims Act276
    791945–1947Foreign Service Act of 1946276
    811949–1951Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949284
    811949–1951Classification Act of 1949285
    811949–1951Performance Rating Act of 1950287
    861959–1961Federal Employees Health Benefits Act of 1959307
    871961–1963Bribery, Graft, and Conflicts of Interest Act of 1962314
    901967–1969Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967331
    901967–1969Quadrennial Pay Commission331
    911969–1971Postal Reorganization Act337
    931973–1975Rehabilitation Act of 1973350
    951977–1979Age Discrimination in Employment Act Amendments of 1978363
    951977–1979Civil Service Reform Act of 1978364
    961979–1981Foreign Service Act of 1980371
    991985–1987Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986387
    1011989–1991Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989398
    1031993–1995Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993412
    1031993–1995Federal Work Force Restructuring Act of 1994 (downsizing)413
    1072001–2003Aviation and Transportation Security Act440
    1072001–2003Homeland Security Act of 2002442
    1122011–2013Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012 (STOCK Act)471
    1122011–2013Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012471
    Federalism
    11789–1791Funding and Assumption Act of 1790 (foreign and domestic debt)13
    31793–1795Eleventh Amendment (federal courts jurisdiction)17
    901967–1969Civil Rights Act of 1968331
    921971–1973Revenue Sharing (state and local fiscal assistance)346
    941975–1977New York City Seasonal Financing Act of 1975357
    961979–1981Alaska Lands Conservation Act371
    1041995–1997Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995417
    Financial Regulation and Banking
    11789–1791First Bank of the United States13
    81803–1805Second National Bank Act31
    Sessions of CongressPage
    141815–1817Second Bank of the United States46
    371861–1863National Currency Act of 1863 (National Banking Act)107
    381863–1865National Bank Act of 1864110
    601907–1909Aldrich-Vreeland Emergency Currency Act186
    611909–1911Postal Savings Act190
    631913–1915Federal Reserve Act (Owen-Glass Act)198
    691925–1927McFadden Banking Act229
    721931–1933Glass-Steagall Act of 1932238
    731933–1935Emergency Banking Relief Act242
    731933–1935Banking Act of 1933 (Glass-Steagall Act)243
    731933–1935Securities Act of 1933243
    731933–1935National Housing Act245
    731933–1935Securities and Exchange Act of 1934246
    731933–1935Federal Credit Union Act246
    741935–1937Banking Act of 1935249
    761939–1941Investment Advisors Act of 1940260
    761939–1941Investment Company Act of 1940260
    791945–1947Export-Import Bank Act of 1945274
    841955–1957Bank Holding Company Act of 1956299
    901967–1969Consumer Credit Protection Act (Truth in Lending Act)332
    911969–1971Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act (Bank Secrecy Act)338
    911969–1971Fair Credit Reporting Act338
    911969–1971Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970339
    911969–1971Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970339
    931973–1975Equal Credit Opportunity Act353
    941975–1977Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976357
    951977–1979Community Reinvestment Act of 1977362
    951977–1979Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977363
    951977–1979International Banking Act of 1978364
    961979–1981Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980370
    971981–1983Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982377
    1011989–1991Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989398
    1011989–1991Securities Market Reform Act of 1990400
    1021991–1993Resolution Trust Corporation Funding Act of 1991405
    1021991–1993Resolution Trust Corporation Refinancing, Restructuring, and Improvement Act of 1991406
    1021991–1993Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991406
    1021991–1993Housing and Community Development Act of 1992408
    1031993–1995Resolution Trust Corporation Competition Act413
    1031991–1993Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act413
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1031993–1995Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994413
    1041995–1997Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996419
    1041995–1997National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996420
    1051997–1999Credit Union Membership Access Act426
    1061999–2001Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act431
    1061999–2001Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000434
    1072001–2003USA PATRIOT Act440
    1072001–2003Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Corporate Fraud Accountability Act of 2002)441
    1082003–2005Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act446
    1092005–2007USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005453
    1102007–2009Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008460
    1112009–2011Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (Credit CARD Act of 2009)465
    1112009–2011Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act (SAFRA Act)465
    1112009–2011Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act466
    1112009–2011Small Business Jobs Act of 2010466
    Foreign Affairs
    11789–1791Department of State12
    31793–1795Neutrality Act of 179418
    41795–1797Jay Treaty (Anglo-American Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation)20
    41795–1797Treaty of Peace and Amity with Algiers20
    41795–1797Pinckney's Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)20
    41795–1797Relief and Protection of American Seamen21
    51797–1799Logan Act (prohibit private citizen from dealing with foreign governments)23
    71801–1803Convention of 1800 (Treaty of Mortefontaine)28
    121811–1813Declaration of War with Great Britain and Ireland41
    121811–1813Trading with Enemies Prohibited41
    121811–1813Destruction of the Armed Vessels of the Enemy Encouraged41
    131813–1815Declaration of War with Algiers44
    131813–1815Treaty of Ghent (War of 1812 settlement)44
    141815–1817Treaty of Peace with Algiers46
    151817–1819Rush-Bagot Agreement46
    171821–1823Latin American Republics Act54
    191825–1827Mission at Congress of Panama58
    Sessions of CongressPage
    21831–1833Treaty on Final Settlement of Napoleonic War Spoliation Claims64
    281843–1845Treaty of Wang-Hsia (trade with China)78
    291845–1847Declaration of War with Mexico81
    291845–1847Appropriation to Secure Peace with Mexico82
    301847–1849Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (ended Mexican War)84
    301847–1849Treaty with New Granada (Bidlack Treaty)84
    311849–1851Clayton-Bulwer Treaty86
    351857–1859Treaties of Tientsin (trade with China)98
    421871–1873Treaty of Washington (U.S. claims against Great Britain)127
    521891–1893Diplomatic Appropriations Act159
    541895–1897Venezuela-British Guiana Boundary Commission165
    541895–1897Morgan-Cameron Resolution165
    551897–1899Recognition of Cuban Independence (Teller Amendment)168
    551897–1899Declaration of War with Spain168
    551897–1899Treaty of Paris (Peace Treaty between United States and Spain)169
    561899–1901Convention of 1900 (Samoan Islands partition)171
    561899–1901Foraker Act (established civil government in Puerto Rico)171
    561899–1901Platt Amendment (prohibited Cuba entering into agreements with foreign powers)172
    561899–1901Spooner Amendment (authorized the president to establish temporary government in Philippine Islands)172
    571901–1903Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (Panama Canal)174
    571901–1903Spooner (Isthmus Canal) Act174
    571901–1903Philippine Government Act175
    581903–1905Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (Panama Canal)178
    581903–1905Treaty with Cuba179
    581903–1905Temporary Government for the Canal Zone at Panama179
    591905–1907Consular Reorganization Act181
    591905–1907United States Court for China182
    591905–1907Treaty with Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)183
    621911–1913Panama Canal Act195
    651917–1919Declaration of War with Germany209
    651917–1919Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary210
    651917–1919Indemnity Act211
    651917–1919Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918212
    671921–1923World War Foreign Debt Commission Created220
    671921–1923Four-Power Treaty (insular possessions in Pacific Ocean)221
    Sessions of CongressPage
    671921–1923Nine-Power Treaty (China sovereignty, open door)221
    681923–1925Rogers Foreign Service Act225
    691925–1927Permanent Court of International Justice228
    701927–1929Kellogg-Briand Pact (renouncing war)232
    731933–1935Tydings-McDuffie Philippines Independence Act244
    731933–1935Johnson Debt Default Act of 1934245
    741935–1937Neutrality Act of 1935249
    751937–1939Neutrality Act of 1937254
    751937–1939Foreign Agents Registration Act254
    761939–1941Neutrality Act of 1939260
    771941–1943Lend-Lease Act263
    771941–1943Repeal of Portions of the Neutrality Act of 1939263
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Japan263
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Germany264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Italy264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Bulgaria264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Hungary264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Romania264
    791945–1947U.S. Participation in the United Nations274
    791945–1947Bretton Woods Agreements Act274
    791945–1947British Loan Act275
    791945–1947Fulbright Scholars Act275
    791945–1947Foreign Service Act of 1946276
    801947–1949Greek-Turkish Aid Pact279
    801947–1949Foreign Relief Act (post–World War II assistance)279
    801947–1949Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty)280
    801947–1949Foreign Assistance Act of 1948. Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 (Marshall Plan)280
    801947–1949United States Information and Educational Exchange Act (Smith-Mundt Act)280
    811949–1951North Atlantic Treaty285
    811949–1951Foreign Economic Assistance Act of 1950286
    821951–1953India Emergency Food Aid Act289
    821951–1953Mutual Security Act of 1951289
    821951–1953Termination of State of War with Germany289
    821951–1953Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951290
    821951–1953Treaty of Peace with Japan (Treaty of San Francisco)290
    821951–1953U.S.-Japan Security Treaty290
    821951–1953Mutual Security Act of 1952290
    831953–1955Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954294
    Sessions of CongressPage
    841955–1957Formosa and Pescadores Defense Act297
    841955–1957Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty and Protocol298
    841955–1957Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany298
    841955–1957Protocol to Admit West Germany to North Atlantic Treaty Organization298
    841955–1957Austrian State Treaty298
    851957–1959Middle East Resolution302
    851957–1959International Atomic Energy Treaty302
    861959–1961United States-Japan Security Treaty of 1960307
    861959–1961International Development Associations Act307
    861959–1961Antarctic Treaty307
    871961–1963Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Convention311
    871961–1963Foreign Assistance Act of 1961312
    871961–1963Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act312
    871961–1963Peace Corps Act312
    871961–1963Arms Control and Disarmament Act312
    871961–1963Foreign Assistance Act of 1962313
    881963–1965Nuclear Test Ban Treaty317
    881963–1965Gulf of Tonkin Resolution318
    901967–1969U.S.-USSR Consular Convention and Protocol330
    901967–1969Outer Space Treaty330
    901967–1969Foreign Assistance Act of 1967331
    911969–1971Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty336
    911969–1971Foreign Military Sales Act Amendments and Repeal of Gulf of Tonkin Resolution340
    921971–1973U.S.-USSR Antiballistic Missile Systems Treaty345
    921971–1973U.S.-USSR Strategic Arms Limitation Act345
    931973–1975Prohibition on Funds for U.S. Combat Activities in Southeast Asia350
    931973–1975War Powers Resolution351
    941975–1977Cambodian and Vietnamese Refugees357
    941975–1977Indochina Migration and Refugee Act Amendments358
    941975–1977International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976358
    941975–1977National Emergencies Act358
    951977–1979Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978363
    951977–1979Panama Canal Treaty (reverting control to Panama)363
    951977–1979Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal Treaty363
    Sessions of CongressPage
    961979–1981Taiwan Relations Act369
    961979–1981Special International Security Assistance Act of 1979 (military aid for Israel and Egypt)369
    961979–1981Panama Canal Act of 1979369
    961979–1981Foreign Service Act of 1980371
    971981–1983Restrictions on Military Assistance and Sales to El Salvador376
    971981–1983Boland Amendments (prohibit aid to overthrow government of Nicaragua)377
    981983–1985MX Missile (Fiscal 1984 Department of Defense Authorization)380
    981983–1985Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (use of War Powers Resolution)380
    981983–1985Aid to El Salvador and Nicaragua380
    991985–1987Repeal of the Clark Amendment (repealed prohibition of aid for military operations in Angola)386
    991985–1987Aid to Nicaraguan Contras386
    991985–1987Nuclear Cooperation Between United States and China386
    991985–1987Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986388
    1001987–1989Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty393
    1011989–1991Implementation of Bipartisan Accord on Central America398
    1011989–1991Threshold Test Ban Treaty (Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests Treaty)400
    1011989–1991Peaceful Underground Nuclear Explosions Treaty400
    1011989–1991Iraq Sanctions Act of 1990400
    1021991–1993Persian Gulf Resolution (authorization to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait)405
    1021991–1993Fiscal 1991 Intelligence Authorization405
    1021991–1993Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START)407
    1021991–1993Nuclear Test Explosions Ban407
    1021991–1993Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Market Support Act of 1992 (FREEDOM Support Act)407
    1031993–1995Assistance for the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union412
    1041995–1997Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996418
    1051997–1999Chemical Weapons Convention424
    1051997–1999Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic Join NATO425
    1051997–1999Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998427
    1051997–1999Iraq Liberation Act428
    1061999–2001Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000433
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1061999–2001United States-China Relations Act of 2000433
    1061999–2001Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000433
    1072001–20032001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States439
    1072001–2003Authorization of Use of Force Against Perpetrators of the September 11, 2001, Attacks439
    1072001–2003United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act439
    1072001–2003Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002442
    1082003–2005United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003455
    1092005–2007Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006454
    1102007–2009Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments of 2008459
    1102007–2009United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act461
    1112009–2011New START Treaty466
    General Commerce, Bankruptcy
    11789–1791Patent Act of 179012
    11789–1791First Copyright Law13
    21791–1793Patent Act of 179316
    61799–1801First Federal Bankruptcy Law25
    81803–1805Repeal of Bankruptcy Act of 180031
    211829–18311831 Revision of the Copyright Act62
    221831–1833Patent Acts of 183264
    241835–1837Patent Act of 183669
    271841–1843Bankruptcy Act of 184174
    391865–1867Bankruptcy Act of 1867115
    411869–1871Patent and Copyright Act of 1870123
    461879–1881Trademark Act of 1881139
    491885–1887Interstate Commerce Act148
    511889–1891Sherman Antitrust Act155
    511889–1891International Copyright Act157
    521891–1893Compulsory Testimony Act159
    551897–1899U.S. Industrial Commission Created168
    551897–1899Federal Bankruptcy Act168
    561899–1901National Bureau of Standards Created172
    571901–1903Permanent Census Bureau Act of 1902174
    571901–1903Department of Commerce and Labor Established175
    581903–1905Trademark Act of 1905179
    601907–1909Copyright Act of 1909187
    611909–1911Mann-Elkins Act (commerce regulation)190
    621911–1913Webb-Kenyon Act (interstate liquor shipments)195
    631913–1915Federal Trade Commission Act199
    631913–1915Clayton Antitrust Act199
    651917–1919Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition)210
    661919–1921National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act)215
    661919–1921Women's Bureau Created216
    701927–1929Hawes-Cooper Act232
    721931–1933Twenty-first Amendment (Prohibition repeal)239
    751937–1939Miller-Tydings Enabling Act254
    751937–1939Chandler Act of 1938 (bankruptcy)256
    791945–1947McCarran-Ferguson Act (state regulation of insurance)274
    791945–1947Export-Import Bank Act of 1945274
    791945–1947Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act275
    791945–1947Lanham Act (Trademark Act of 1946)279
    801947–1949Taft-Hartley Labor-Management Relations Act293
    831953–1955Small Business Administration Act304
    851957–1959Small Business Investment Act326
    891965–1967Fair Packaging and Labeling Act337
    911969–1971Newspaper Preservation Act344
    921971–1973Emergency Loan Guarantee Act359
    941975–1977Copyright Law Revision of 1976359
    951977–1979Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979370
    961979–1981Bayh-Dole Act (Patent Rights in Inventions Made with Federal Assistance)372
    971981–1983Patent and Trademark Fee Restructuring376
    981983–1985Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984381
    981983–1985Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984383
    1001987–1989Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988394
    1001987–1989Trademark Law Revision Act of 1988395
    1031993–1995Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1994414
    1051997–1999Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998426
    1051997–1999Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act of 1998 (commonly referred to as the “Mickey Mouse Protection Act”)427
    1051997–1999Digital Millennium Copyright Act427
    1061999–2001American Inventors Protection Act of 1999432
    1061999–2001Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act433
    1072001–2003Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Corporate Fraud Accountability Act of 2002)441
    1072001–2003Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002442
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1092005–2007Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005451
    1112009–2011Small Business Jobs Act of 2010466
    1122011–2013Leahy-Smith America Invents Act470
    Government Finance and Institutions, Coinage and Currency, Taxes and Expenditures
    11789–1791Department of the Treasury12
    11789–1791Funding and Assumption Act of 1790 (foreign and domestic debt)13
    21791–1793Coinage Act of 179215
    71801–1803Appropriations for Extinguishing the Public Debt28
    91805–1807Enforcement of Counterfeiting Prevention Act34
    121811–1813Treasury Notes Issued to Finance the War of 181241
    131813–1815War Loans43
    231833–1835Coinage Act of 183465
    241835–1837Deposit Act (U.S. funds in state banks)68
    241835–1837Coinage Act of 183769
    251837–1839Postponement of Fourth Installment of Deposits within States71
    251837–1839Repeal of Specie Circular71
    251837–1839Treasury Note Issue of 183771
    251837–1839Treasury Note Issue of 183871
    261839–1841First Independent Treasury Act73
    271841–1843Defining and Establishing the Fiscal Year of the U.S. Treasury76
    271841–1843Repeal of the Independent Treasury Act75
    291845–1847Independent Treasury Act of 184682
    321851–1853U.S. Mint Established in San Francisco89
    321851–1853Coinage Act of 185390
    341855–1857Coinage Act of 185796
    371861–1863Legal Tender Act (paper currency-greenbacks)105
    371861–1863National Loan105
    371861–1863National Currency Act of 1863107
    411869–1871Public Credit Act of 1869122
    421871–1873Coinage Act of 1873127
    431873–1875Currency Act of 1874130
    431873–1875Specie Resumption Act130
    441875–1877Legal Tender Status of the Trade Dollar Repealed134
    451877–1879Bland-Allison Act (silver coinage)136
    511889–1891Sherman Silver Purchase Act156
    531893–1895Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act162
    561899–1901Gold Standard Act of 1900171
    631913–1915Cotton Futures Act199
    631913–1915Harrison Narcotics Tax Act200
    671921–1923Budget and Accounting Act220
    671921–1923Revenue Act of 1921220
    Sessions of CongressPage
    731933–1935Gold Standard Repeal243
    731933–1935Gold Reserve Act of 1934244
    731933–1935Johnson Debt Default Act of 1934245
    731933–1935Silver Purchase Act of 1934246
    741935–1937Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)249
    761939–1941Federal Unemployment Tax Act259
    771941–1943Revenue Act of 1942 (Victory Tax of 1942)265
    791945–1947Export-Import Bank Act of 1945274
    811949–1951Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950286
    841955–1957Motto “In God We Trust” Placed on Paper Currency298
    921971–1973Revenue Sharing (state and local fiscal assistance)346
    931973–1975Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974352
    941975–1977Earned Income Tax Credit357
    941975–1977New York City Seasonal Financing Act of 1975357
    971981–1983Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981375
    971981–1983Fiscal 1983 Supplemental Appropriations376
    971981–1983Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982376
    991985–1987Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act)386
    991985–1987Private Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA387
    1001987–1989Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Reaffirmation Act of 1987392
    1011989–1991Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (removed the U.S. Postal Service from the federal budget and Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act provisions)399
    1011989–1991Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990. Budget Enforcement Act of 1990399
    1011989–1991Fiscal 1990 Dire Emergency Supplemental Appropriations401
    1011989–1991Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990405
    1021991–1993Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Supplemental Appropriations Act414
    1031993–1995Federal Acquisitions Streamlining Act
    1041995–1997Line Item Veto Act418
    1051997–1999Balanced Budget Act of 1997424
    1082003–2005Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003446
    1082003–2005American Jobs Creation Act of 2004447
    1092005–2007Deficit Reduction Act of 2005452
    1092005–2007Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005453
    1092005–2007Federal Funding and Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006453
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1102007–2009Economic Stimulus Act of 2008459
    1102007–2009Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008460
    1102007–2009Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008460
    1122011–2013Budget Control Act of 2011470
    1122011–2013American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012471
    Government Organization, Operations
    11789–1791Oath of Office for Federal and State Officials11
    11789–1791First Federal Census12
    11789–1791Permanent Seat of Government13
    61799–1801Making Provision for Removal of Government to Washington
    61799–1801Establishment of the Library of Congress26
    131813–1815Legislation to Ensure Distribution of Congressional Documents43
    131813–1815Purchase of the Library of Thomas Jefferson44
    131813–1815Repair and Construction of Public Buildings in Washington44
    151817–1819Flag Act of 181849
    161819–1821Tenure of Office Act of 1820 (Four Years' Law)52
    231833–1835Purchase of the Books and Papers of George Washington66
    251837–1839Census Act of 184071
    301847–1849Department of the Interior84
    361859–1861Federal Procurement Act of 1860101
    361859–1861Printing Act of 1860101
    371861–1863Ironclad Oath106
    461879–1881Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act139
    531893–1895Printing Act of 1895163
    571901–1903Permanent Census Bureau Act of 1902174
    611909–1911United States Bureau of Mines Created190
    651917–1919Overman Act (government organization powers)211
    661919–1921Anti-Lobbying Act215
    691925–1927Public Buildings Act229
    711929–1931Davis-Bacon Act235
    711929–1931Adoption of National Anthem235
    721931–19331933 Buy American Act239
    731933–1935Economy Act242
    731933–1935Independent Offices Appropriation Act245
    731933–1935National Archives Act245
    751937–1939National Cancer Institute Act254
    751937–1939Foreign Agents Registration Act255
    751937–1939Wagner-O'Day Act256
    761939–1941Administrative Reorganization Act of 1939259
    771941–1943Pledge of Allegiance Recognized265
    781943–1945Public Health Service Act269
    781943–1945Surplus Property Act of 1944269
    Sessions of CongressPage
    791945–1947Administrative Procedures Act275
    791945–1947Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act276
    791945–1947Federal Tort Claims Act276
    791945–1947Foreign Service Act of 1946276
    801947–1949Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act of 1948280
    801947–1949War Claims Act of 1948281
    811949–1951Executive Reorganization Act of 1949284
    811949–1951Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949284
    811949–1951Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950286
    811949–1951Performance Rating Act of 1950287
    811949–1951Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950287
    831953–1955Department of Health, Education, and Welfare293
    841955–1957“In God We Trust” Designated Official Motto299
    851957–1959Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization)303
    871961–1963Depository Library Act of 1962313
    891965–1967National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965324
    891965–1967Uniform Time Act of 1966325
    891965–1967Freedom of Information Act325
    901967–1969Public Broadcasting Act of 1967331
    901967–1969Flag Protection Act of 1968332
    921971–1973Federal Advisory Committee Act345
    931973–1975Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1974353
    931973–1975Privacy Act of 1974353
    941975–1977Government in the Sunshine Act358
    951977–1979Inspector General Act of 1978364
    951977–1979Ethics in Government Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980372
    981983–1985Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday380
    1001987–1989Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (required federal agencies to establish safeguards)394
    1011989–1991Whistleblower Protection Act398
    1011989–1991Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990401
    1031993–1995Government Performance and Results Act411
    1031993–1995Federal Work Force Restructuring Act (downsizing)413
    1031993–1995Federal Acquisitions Streamlining Act414
    1041995–1997Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995417
    1041995–1997Lobbying Disclosure Act417
    1051997–1999Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998426
    1072001–2003Aviation and Transportation Security Act440
    1072001–2003Homeland Security Act of 2002442
    1082003–2005Medical Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003446
    1082003–2005Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004448
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1092005–2007Federal Funding and Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006453
    1092005–2007Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006454
    1102007–2009Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Honest Leadership and Open Government Act458
    1102007–2009Openness Promotes Effectiveness in Our National Government Act of 2007459
    1112009–2011American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009464
    1112009–2011Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act465
    1112009–2011Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010465
    1122011–2013Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012471
    Health, Consumer Safety
    51797–1799First National Quarantine Act24
    451877–1879National Quarantine Act136
    451877–1879National Board of Health137
    571901–1903Biologics Control Act (Virus-Toxin Law)175
    591905–1907Meat Inspection Act183
    591905–1907Pure Food and Drug Act183
    601907–1909Opium Exclusion Act of 1909187
    611909–1911Insecticide Act of 1910190
    621911–1913Plant Quarantine Act of 1912194
    651917–1919Chamberlain-Kahn Act (informally referred to as the American Plan)212
    671921–1923Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act220
    711929–1931Ransdell Act235
    751937–1939National Cancer Institute Act254
    751937–1939Wheeler-Lea Act (Advertising Act)255
    751937–1939Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Wheeler-Lea Act)256
    781943–1945Public Health Service Act of 1943269
    781943–1945Public Health Service Act of 1944269
    791945–1947National School Lunch Act of 1946275
    791945–1947Hill-Burton Hospital Survey and Construction Act276
    801947–1949Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948280
    831953–1955Department of Health, Education, and Welfare293
    841955–1957Air Pollution Control Act of 1955298
    841955–1957Poliomyelitis Vaccination Assistance Act of 1955298
    841955–1957Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1956299
    841955–1957Health Research Facilities Act of 1956299
    Sessions of CongressPage
    861959–1961Social Security Amendments of 1960308
    871961–1963Community Health Services and Facilities Act of 1961313
    871961–1963Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Amendments of 1962 (Kefauver-Harris Amendments)314
    871961–1963Vaccination Assistance Act of 1962314
    881963–1965Nurse Training Act of 1964319
    891965–1967Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965323
    891965–1967Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act323
    891965–1967Social Security Amendments of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid)323
    891965–1967Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke Amendments324
    891965–1967Comprehensive Health Planning and Public Health Service Amendments of 1966326
    891965–1967Fair Packaging and Labeling Act326
    891965–1967Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act of 1966326
    901967–1969Wholesome Meat Act331
    901967–1969Wholesome Poultry Products Act332
    911969–1971Child Protection and Toy Safety Act of 1969336
    911969–1971Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970338
    911969–1971Poisoning Prevention Packaging Act of 1970339
    921971–1973National Cancer Act of 1971344
    921971–1973Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972344
    921971–1973Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC)345
    921971–1973Consumer Product Safety Act346
    951977–1979Pregnancy, Sex Discrimination Prohibition Act of 1978365
    981983–1985Social Security Amendments of 1983380
    981983–1985Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984381
    981983–1985Child Abuse Amendments of 1984382
    981983–1985Comprehensive Smoking Education Act382
    981983–1985National Organ Transplant Act382
    981983–1985Cigarette Safety Act of 1984383
    991985–1987Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986387
    1001987–1989Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988393
    1001987–1989AIDS Amendments of 1988394
    1001987–1989Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988395
    1011989–1991Nutrition Labeling and Education Act400
    1021991–1993Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Reorganization Act407
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1031993–1995Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993411
    1031993–1995Dietary Supplemental Health and Education Act414
    1041995–1997Food Quality Protection Act of 1996419
    1041995–1997Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996419
    1051997–1999Medicare Changes424
    1051997–1999State Children's Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP)425
    1051997–1999Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997425
    1061999–2001Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999432
    1082003–2005United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003445
    1082003–2005Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003446
    1082003–2005Medical Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003446
    1082003–2005Project BioShield Act of 2004446
    1102007–2009Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008459
    1102007–2009Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008460
    1102007–2009Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008460
    1112009–2011Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act465
    1112009–2011Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010465
    1112009–2011Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010465
    1112009–2011Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010466
    1112009–2011FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)466
    Housing
    721931–1933Federal Home Loan Bank Act238
    731933–1935Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933243
    731933–1935National Housing Act246
    751937–1939United States Housing Act of 1937 (Wagner-Steagall Act)255
    791945–1947Farmers Home Administration Act of 1946276
    811949–1951Housing Act of 1949284
    831953–1955Housing Act of 1954294
    871961–1963Housing Act of 1961312
    Sessions of CongressPage
    891965–1967Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965323
    891965–1967Department of Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965323
    901967–1969Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968332
    931973–1975Housing and Community Development Act of 1974352
    1011989–1991Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989399
    1011989–1991Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act401
    1021991–1993Housing and Community Development Act of 1992408
    1051997–1999Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998426
    1102007–2009Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008460
    1102007–2009Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008460
    Human Services, Welfare
    731933–1935Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933243
    791945–1947National School Lunch Act of 1946275
    791945–1947Farmers Home Administration Act of 1946276
    801947–1949War Claims Act of 1948281
    831953–1955Department of Health, Education, and Welfare293
    841955–1957Social Security Amendments of 1956300
    861959–1961Social Security Amendments of 1960308
    871961–1963Public Welfare Amendments of 1962313
    881963–1965Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963317
    881963–1965Economic Opportunity Act of 1964318
    881963–1965Food Stamp Act of 1964319
    891965–1967Older Americans Act of 1965322
    891965–1967Social Security Amendments of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid)323
    891965–1967Child Nutrition Act of 1966325
    891965–1967Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1966327
    911969–1971Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970339
    911969–1971Food Stamp Act of 1970339
    921971–1973Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC)345
    931973–1975Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973350
    931973–1975Disaster Relief Act of 1974352
    931973–1975Housing and Community Development Act of 1974352
    Sessions of CongressPage
    931973–1975Legal Services Corporation Act of 1974352
    931973–1975Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974352
    941975–1977Cambodian and Vietnamese Refugees357
    941975–1977Indochina Migration and Refugee Act Amendments (Laotian refugees)358
    961979–1981Refugee Act of 1980370
    981983–1985Child Support Enforcement Amendments of 1984381
    981983–1985Child Abuse Amendments of 1984382
    1001987–1989Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act392
    1001987–1989Family Support Act of 1988394
    1021991–1993Child Support Recovery Act of 1992407
    1041995–1997Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996419
    1051997–1999Balanced Budget Act of 1997424
    1051997–1999Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997425
    1051997–1999Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998426
    1061999–2001Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999432
    1061999–2001Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000433
    1092005–2007Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006453
    1102007–2009Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008460
    Immigration, Naturalization, Citizenship
    11789–1791Uniform Rule of Naturalization12
    31793–1795Naturalization Act of 179518
    51797–1799Naturalization Act (first of Alien and Sedition Acts)23
    51797–1799Alien Friends Act (second of the Alien and Sedition Acts)23
    51797–1799Alien Enemies Act (third of the Alien and Sedition Acts)23
    51797–1799Sedition Act (fourth of the Alien and Sedition Acts)23
    71801–1803Naturalization Act of 180228
    151817–1819Steerage Act of 181949
    331853–18551855 Naturalization Act93
    381863–1865Immigration Act111
    411869–1871Naturalization Laws Extended to African Aliens123
    431873–1875Page Act of 1875131
    471881–1883Immigration Treaty between United States and China141
    471881–1883Chinese Exclusion Act142
    471881–1883Immigration Act of 1882142
    481883–1885Second Chinese Exclusion Act (Foran Act)144
    Sessions of CongressPage
    481883–1885Contract Labor Act (immigrant labor)145
    491885–1887Contract Labor Act Amended149
    491885–18871887 Alien Land Act149
    501887–1889Scott Act (Chinese Exclusion Act of 1888)151
    511889–1891Immigration Act of 1891156
    521891–1893Geary Chinese Exclusion Act159
    531893–1895Gresham-Yang Treaty163
    571901–1903Immigration Act of 1903175
    591905–1907Naturalization Act of 1906182
    591905–1907Immigration Act of 1907183
    591905–1907Citizenship and Expatriation Act183
    641915–1917Immigration Act of 1917205
    651917–1919Alien Naturalization Act211
    651917–1919Alien Act of 1918212
    661919–1921Citizenship for American Indian Veterans215
    671921–1923Immigration Quota Act220
    671921–1923Cable Act (woman's citizenship)221
    681923–1925Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act)225
    781943–1945Magnuson Act (Repeal of Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1943)269
    791945–1947War Brides Act274
    801947–1949Displaced Persons Act of 1948280
    821951–1953McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act290
    831953–1955Refugee Relief Act of 1953293
    891965–1967Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965324
    961979–1981Refugee Act of 1980370
    991985–1987Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (employment requirements)389
    1011989–1991Immigration Act of 1990401
    1041995–1997Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996419
    1051997–1999Workforce Investment Act of 1998426
    1061999–2001Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000433
    1061999–2001American Competitiveness in the Twenty-first Century Act of 2000433
    1061999–2001Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000433
    1092005–2007REAL ID Act of 2005452
    1102007–2009Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007458
    Indian Affairs
    11789–1791Trade and Intercourse Act of 179013
    41795–1797Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 179620
    91805–1807Office of Superintendent of Indian Trade Created34
    101809–1811Indian Trading House Act of 181138
    121811–1813Retaliation for Injustices by Indians41
    141815–1817Indian Trading License Law of 181646
    Sessions of CongressPage
    171821–1823Indian Trading Houses Abolished54
    211829–1831Indian Removal Act61
    231833–1835Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 183466
    231833–18351834 Indian Reorganization Act66
    301847–1849Department of the Interior84
    411869–1871Treaty Making with Indians Ended124
    491885–1887Dawes General Allotment (Severalty) Act148
    551897–1899Jurisdiction of U.S. Courts Extended to Indian Territory167
    551897–1899Curtis Act (provided for leasing of Indian tribal lands168
    661919–1921Citizenship for American Indian Veterans215
    681923–1925Indian Citizenship Act225
    731933–1935Indian Reorganization Act245
    791945–1947Indian Claims Commission Act276
    921971–1973Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act344
    1011989–1991Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act401
    1082003–2005Arizona Water Settlements Act447
    Judiciary
    11789–1791Judiciary Act of 178912
    31793–1795Eleventh Amendment (federal courts jurisdiction)17
    61799–1801Judiciary Act of 1801 (Midnight Judges Act)26
    71801–1803Repeal of the Judiciary Act of 180126
    71801–1803Judiciary Act of 180228
    91805–1807Judiciary Act of 180734
    241835–1837Judiciary Act of 183769
    331853–1855Court of Claims Established93
    371861–1863Tenth Circuit Act of 1863107
    391865–1867Bankruptcy Act of 1867115
    411869–1871Judiciary Act of 1869122
    421871–1873Salary Grab Act127
    431873–1875Jurisdiction and Removal Act of 1875 (Judiciary Act of 1875)130
    451877–1879Women Admitted to Practice before U.S. Supreme Court137
    511889–1891Courts of Appeals Act (Evarts Act)156
    591905–1907United States Court for China182
    671921–1923Conference of Senior Circuit Judges Act221
    681923–1925Judiciary Act of 1925 (Judges' Bill)226
    731933–1935Rules Enabling Act of 1934245
    751937–1939Supreme Court Retirement Act254
    751937–1939Judicial Procedures Reform Act255
    911969–1971District of Columbia Court Reform and Criminal Procedure Act of 1970337
    931973–1975Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974352
    931973–1975Federal Rules of Evidence Act354
    Sessions of CongressPage
    951977–1979Federal District and Circuit Judges Act of 1978364
    951977–1979Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978365
    951977–1979Ethics in Government Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Judicial Councils Reform and Judicial Conduct and Disability Act of 1980371
    971981–1983Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982376
    981983–1985Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984381
    1001987–1989Administration of Justice Improvement Act of 1988 (allowed Supreme Court greater discretion in deciding which cases it would hear)393
    1011989–1991Ethics Reform Act of 1989399
    1011985–1987Judicial Improvements Act of 1990402
    1072001–2003Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold Act)441
    1092005–2007Class Action Fairness Act of 2005451
    1122011–2013Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act of 2012 (STOCK Act)471
    Labor
    481883–1885Bureau of Labor144
    491885–1887Incorporation of National Trade Unions Legalized148
    501887–1889Department of Labor Act151
    521891–1893Eight-Hour Workday159
    521891–1893Railway Safety Appliance Act of 1893159
    531893–1895Labor Day Holiday162
    551897–1899Erdman Act (railway labor mediation)168
    571901–1903Department of Commerce and Labor Established175
    591905–1907Employers' Liability Act of 1906182
    601907–1909District of Columbia Child Labor Law186
    621911–1913Eight-Hour Workday for Federal Contractors194
    621911–1913Department of Labor Established195
    631913–1915Newlands Act of 1913198
    631913–1915Clayton Antitrust Act199
    641915–1917Keating-Owen Child Labor Act205
    641915–1917Adamson Act (eight-hour workday)205
    661919–1921Women's Bureau Created216
    681923–1925Proposed Child Labor Amendment225
    681923–1925Federal Arbitration Act of 1925226
    691925–1927Railway Labor Act of 1926228
    721931–1933Norris-LaGuardia Anti-Injunction Act238
    731933–1935National Employment System Act243
    731933–1935National Industrial Recovery Act244
    741935–1937Wagner-Connery National Labor Relations Act248
    741935–1937Walsh-Healey Government Contracts Act251
    Sessions of CongressPage
    751937–1939Federal Fair Labor Standards Act256
    761939–1941Federal Unemployment Tax Act259
    781943–1945Smith-Connally Antistrike Act268
    791945–1947Employment Act of 1946274
    801947–1949Taft-Hartley Labor-Management Relations Act279
    811949–1951Fair Labor Standards Act Amendments of 1949285
    821951–1953Federal Coal Mine Safety Act Amendments of 1952291
    861959–1961Landrum-Griffin Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959307
    871961–1963Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962313
    881963–1965Equal Pay Act of 1963317
    881963–1965Vocational Education Act of 1963318
    891965–1967Fair Labor Standards Act Amendments of 1966325
    901967–1969Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967331
    911969–1971Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (Coal Act)336
    911969–1971Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970339
    931973–1975Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973351
    951977–1979Age Discrimination in Employment Act Amendments of 1978363
    951977–1979Pregnancy, Sex Discrimination Prohibition Act of 1978365
    971981–1983Railway Labor-Management Dispute Act377
    971981–1983Job Training Partnership Act of 1982377
    991985–1987Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments of 1986389
    1001987–1989Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988393
    1001987–1989Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (plant closing disclosure)393
    1021991–1993Emergency Unemployment Compensation Act Amendments of 1991406
    1031993–1995Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993411
    1041995–1997Congressional Accountability Act of 1995 (Congress subject to labor and antidiscrimination laws)417
    1051997–1999Workforce Investment Act of 1998426
    1051997–1999American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998427
    1102007–2009Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008459
    1112009–2011American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009464
    National Security
    Sessions of CongressPage
    11789–1791Department of War12
    21791–1793First Militia Act of 179215
    21791–1793Second Militia Act of1792
    31793–1795Naval Act of 179415
    51797–1799Naval Armament for the Protection of American Commerce23
    51797–1799Department of the Navy23
    51797–1799Marine Corps Act23
    71801–1803Militia Act of 180329
    71801–1803U.S. Military Academy at West Point28
    121811–1813Army Increased40
    121811–1813Military Supplies Appropriation40
    121811–1813Military Expenses Loan40
    121811–1813Embargo on American Shipping40
    121811–1813Additional Militia Authorized40
    121811–1813Bounty Lands for Military Service40
    121811–1813Trading with Enemies Prohibited41
    121811–1813Navy Enlarged41
    121811–1813Army Further Enlarged41
    121811–1813Destruction of the Armed Vessels of the Enemy Encouraged41
    121811–1813General Staff within the War Department41
    131813–1815Bounty Increased for Military Service43
    131813–1815Naval Reduction Act of 181544
    131813–1815Army Reduction Act of 181544
    141815–1817Naval Expansion Act of 181646
    151817–18191819 Act to Protect the Commerce of the United States and Punish the Crime of Piracy50
    151817–1819Declaration of the Manner in Which Naval Ships Shall Be Named50
    251837–1839Defense of State of Maine72
    291845–1847Declaration of War with Mexico81
    291845–1847Appropriation to Secure Peace with Mexico82
    361859–1861Origin of the U.S. Army Signal Corps101
    371861–1863Railways and Telegraph Act of 1862105
    371861–1863Medal of Honor Act106
    371861–1863Conscription Act of 1863107
    451877–1879Posse Comitatus Act137
    471881–1883Navy Enlarged142
    511889–1891Battleship Act of 1890 (Naval Appropriations for 1891)155
    551897–1899Emergency Military Appropriations168
    551897–1899Reimbursement to States and Territories for Expenses Incurred in Spanish-American War169
    571901–1903Dick Militia Act of 1903175
    571901–1903General Staff Act of 1903175
    581903–1905Military Cargo Preference Act (Military Transportation Act of 1904)178
    Sessions of CongressPage
    611909–1911Defense Secrets Act of 1911191
    631913–1915Naval Militia Act199
    631913–1915War Risk Insurance Act199
    631913–1915U.S. Coast Guard Created200
    641915–1917National Defense Act203
    641915–1917Naval Act of 1916204
    641915–1917Council of National Defense204
    651917–1919Declaration of War with Germany209
    651917–1919Selective Service Act209
    651917–1919War Risk Insurance Act Amendments210
    651917–1919Espionage Act210
    651917–1919Aviation Act210
    651917–1919Lever Food and Fuel Control Act210
    651917–1919Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary210
    651917–1919Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1918211
    651917–1919Railroad Control Act211
    651917–1919Sabotage Act211
    651917–1919Alien Naturalization Act211
    651917–1919Sedition Act211
    651917–1919Chamberlain-Kahn Act (informally referred to as the American Plan)212
    651917–1919Manpower Act212
    661919–1921National Defense Act of 1920216
    671921–1923Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty221
    681923–1925Helium Act of 1925226
    701927–1929Naval Construction Act of 1929232
    731933–1935Naval Parity Act244
    751937–1939Naval Expansion Act255
    761939–1941Alien Registration Act (Smith Act)260
    761939–1941Selective Training and Service Act of 1940260
    771941–1943Lend-Lease Act263
    771941–1943Selective Service Extension of 1941263
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Japan263
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Germany264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Italy264
    771941–1943First War Powers Act, 1941264
    771941–1943Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 Amendments264
    771941–1943Second War Powers Act, 1942264
    771941–1943Women's Army Auxiliary Corps Act264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Bulgaria264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Hungary264
    771941–1943Declaration of a State of War with Romania264
    771941–1943Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service Act265
    771941–1943Teenage Draft Act of 1942265
    Sessions of CongressPage
    781943–1945Army and Navy Female Physicians and Surgeons Act268
    781943–1945Smith-Connally Antistrike Act268
    781943–1945Women's Army Corps Established268
    791945–1947British Loan Act275
    801947–1949Greek-Turkish Aid Act279
    801947–1949Foreign Relief Act (post–World War II assistance)279
    801947–1949National Security Act279
    801947–1949Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty)280
    801947–1949Foreign Assistance Act of 1948. Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 (Marshall Plan)280
    801947–1949Civil Air Patrol Act280
    811949–1951Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949284
    811949–1951National Security Act Amendments of 1949285
    811949–1951McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950287
    811949–1951Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950287
    821951–1953Termination of State of War with Germany289
    821951–1953Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act of 1951290
    821951–1953U.S.-Japan Security Treaty290
    831953–1955Communist Control Act of 1954294
    841955–1957Formosa and Pescadores Defense Act297
    841955–1957Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty and Protocol298
    841955–1957Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany298
    841955–1957Protocol to Admit West Germany to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization298
    841955–1957Reserve Forces Act of 1955298
    851957–1959Advanced Research Projects Agency Created303
    851957–1959Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization)303
    851957–1959Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958303
    861959–1961United States-Japan Security Treaty of 1960307
    871961–1963Arms Control and Disarmament Act312
    881963–1965Nuclear Test Ban Treaty317
    881963–1965Gulf of Tonkin Resolution318
    901967–1969Outer Space Treaty330
    911969–1971Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty336
    921971–1973U.S.-USSR Antiballistic Missile Systems Treaty345
    921971–1973U.S.-USSR Strategic Arms Limitation Act345
    931973–1975Prohibition on Funds for U.S. Combat Activities in Southeast Asia350
    931973–1975War Powers Resolution351
    Sessions of CongressPage
    941975–1977International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976358
    941975–1977National Emergencies Act358
    951977–1979International Emergency Economic Powers Act363
    951977–1979Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978363
    951977–1979Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act364
    961979–1981Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1981371
    971981–1983Fiscal 1982 Department of Defense Appropriations (MX missile, B-1 bomber)376
    981983–1985MX Missile (Fiscal 1984 Department of Defense Authorization)380
    981983–1985Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (use of War Powers Resolution)380
    991985–1987Military Retirement Reform Act387
    991985–1987Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization of 1986388
    1011989–1991Department of Defense Designated as Lead Agency for Detecting and Monitoring Shipment of Illegal Drugs399
    1011989–1991Threshold Test Ban Treaty (Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests Treaty)400
    1011989–1991Peaceful Underground Nuclear Explosions Treaty400
    1021991–1993Persian Gulf Resolution (Iraq–Kuwait War)405
    1021991–1993Persian Gulf War Veterans Benefits Act of 1991405
    1021991–1993Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Supplemental Appropriations Act405
    1021991–1993Fiscal 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act405
    1021991–1993Assignment of Women in the Armed Forces to Combat Aircraft406
    1021991–1993Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START)407
    1021991–1993Nuclear Test Explosions Ban407
    1021991–1993Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Market Support Act of 1992 (FREEDOM Support Act)407
    1031993–1995Assignment of Women in the Armed Forces to Combat Ships412
    1031993–1995Homosexuality in the Armed Forces412
    1031993–1995Stockpile Stewardship Program412
    1051997–1999Chemical Weapons Convention424
    1051997–1999Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic Join NATO425
    1051997–1999Iraq Liberation Act428
    1072001–20032001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States439
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1072001–2003Authorization of Use of Force Against Perpetrators of the September 11, 2001, Attacks439
    1072001–2003USA PATRIOT Act440
    1072001–2003Aviation and Transportation Security Act440
    1072001–2003Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Recovery from and Response to Terriorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002440
    1072001–2003Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002442
    1072001–2003Homeland Security Act of 2002442
    1072001–2003Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002442
    1082003–2005Project BioShield Act of 2004446
    1082003–2005Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004448
    1092005–2007REAL ID Act of 2005452
    1092005–2007USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005453
    1092005–2007Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006454
    1092005–2007Military Commissions Act of 2006454
    1102007–2009Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008459
    1102007–2009Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments of 2008459
    1112009–2011Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010466
    1112009–2011New START Treaty466
    Natural Resources and Public Works
    221831–1833First Protection for a Natural Resource (thermal springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas64
    301847–1849Department of the Interior84
    331853–1855Canadian Reciprocity Treaty (Elgin-Marcy Treaty)92
    331853–1855Graduation Act (public land price)92
    421871–1873General Mining Act of 1872127
    421871–1873Timber Culture Act127
    421871–1873Coal Lands Act128
    451877–1879Creation of the U.S. Geological Survey137
    461879–1881Mississippi River Commission139
    471881–1883River and Harbor Appropriations142
    481883–1885Prevention of Unauthorized Fencing of Public Lands145
    511889–1891General Land Revision Act of 1891156
    531893–1895Carey Desert Land Act163
    Sessions of CongressPage
    551897–1899Forest Management Act (Forest Service Organic Act)167
    551897–1899Curtis Act (Indian tribal lands leasing)168
    581903–1905Transfer Act of 1905 (forest control)179
    611909–1911Weeks Forest Purchase Act191
    641915–1917Flood Control Act of 1917205
    661919–1921Mineral Leasing Act of 1920215
    661919–1921Federal Water Power Act217
    681923–1925Clarke-McNary Reforestation Act225
    701927–1929Flood Control Act231
    701927–1929McSweeney-McNary Act (forest research and survey)232
    701927–1929Boulder Canyon Project Act232
    731933–1935Civilian Conservation Corps242
    731933–1935Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933243
    731933–1935National Industrial Recovery Act244
    731933–1935Indian Reorganization Act245
    731933–1935Taylor Grazing Act246
    741935–1937Emergency Relief Appropriations Act of 1935248
    741935–1937Bituminous Coal Conservation Act of 1935249
    741935–1937Flood Control Act of 1936250
    751937–1939Bituminous Coal Act of 1937254
    751937–1939Work Relief and Public Works Appropriations Act of 1938255
    821951–1953Federal Coal Mine Safety Act Amendments of 1952291
    831953–1955Submerged Lands Act293
    831953–1955Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act294
    891965–1967Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965323
    901967–1969Colorado River Basin Project Act332
    911969–1971Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (Coal Act)336
    921971–1973Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972346
    941975–1977Federal Land Policy and Management Act359
    941975–1977National Forest Management Act of 1976359
    961979–1981Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act370
    1021991–1993Energy Policy Act of 1992407
    Parks and Recreation
    301847–1849Department of the Interior84
    421871–1873Yellowstone National Park Act127
    591905–1907American Antiquities Act of 1906182
    641915–1917Establishment of National Park Service204
    851957–1959Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Act303
    881963–1965Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1964319
    Sessions of CongressPage
    901967–1969National Trails System Act333
    951977–1979Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977362
    Pension, Social Security, Disability, Health Care Insurance
    651917–1919Smith-Sears Veterans Rehabilitation Act (Soldier Rehabilitation Act)211
    661919–1921Fess-Smith Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act216
    741935–1937Social Security Act249
    741935–1937Railroad Retirement Act of 1935249
    761939–1941Social Security Amendments of 1939259
    781943–1945Public Health Service Act269
    811949–1951Social Security Amendments of 1950286
    841955–1957Social Security Amendments of 1956300
    861959–1961Social Security Amendments of 1960308
    871961–1963Self-Employed Individuals Tax Retirement Act of 1962314
    891965–1967Social Security Amendments of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid)323
    921971–1973Supplemental Security Income Program for the Aged. Blind, and Disabled346
    931973–1975Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)352
    971981–1983Social Security Act Amendments of 1981376
    981983–1985Social Security Amendments of 1983380
    981983–1985Retirement Equity Act of 1984381
    981983–1985Social Security Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984382
    991985–1987Private Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA387
    1001987–1989Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988393
    1041995–1997Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996419
    1051997–1999Medicare Changes424
    1072001–2003Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001439
    1092005–2007Pension Protection Act of 2006453
    1102007–2009Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008459
    1102007–2009Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008459
    1112009–2011Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act465
    1112009–2011Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010465
    Postal System
    11789–1791Office of Postmaster General12
    21791–1793Postal Act of 179215
    Sessions of CongressPage
    31793–1795Postal Act of 179418
    241835–1837Post Office Act of 183669
    281843–1845Postal Reform Act of 184578
    281843–1845Ocean Mail Contracts Authorized for Foreign Mail Delivery78
    291845–1847Postage Stamp Act82
    301849–1851Postal Act of 185187
    341855–1857Overland California Mail Act of 185796
    421871–1873Mail Fraud Act of 1872127
    611909–1911Postal Savings Act190
    681923–1925Kelly Act (Air Mail Act)226
    701927–1929Jones-White Merchant Marine Act231
    901967–1969Quadrennial Pay Commission331
    911969–1971Postal Reorganization Act337
    Presidency
    21791–1793Presidential Succession Act15
    81803–1805Twelfth Amendment (Electoral College balloting)31
    161819–1821Tenure of Office Act of 1820 (Four Years' Law)52
    231833–1835Purchase of the Books and Papers of George Washington66
    321851–1853Administration of the Oath of Office to Vice President–Elect William R. King90
    371861–1863Railways and Telegraph Act of 1862105
    391865–1867Command of the Army Act115
    391865–1867Tenure of Office Act (removing federal officials)115
    421871–1873Salary Grab Act127
    441875–1877Electoral Commission (disputed 1876 presidential election)134
    461879–1881Foreign Gifts and Decorations Act139
    471881–1883Presidential Widows Pensions141
    491885–1887Presidential Succession Act of 1886147
    491885–1887Electoral Count Act148
    491885–1887Tenure of Office Act Repealed149
    591905–1907Pay Increase for Vice President, Cabinet, and Members of Congress183
    641915–1917Federal Possession and Control Act204
    651917–1919Aviation Act210
    801947–1949Twenty-second Amendment (presidential terms)279
    801947–1949Presidential Succession Act of 1947279
    811949–1951Compensation of President, Vice President, and Speaker of the House284
    851957–1959Former Presidents Act304
    881963–1965Presidential Transition Act of 1964318
    891965–1967Twenty-fifth Amendment (presidential disability and vice president vacancy)322
    921971–1973Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (campaign finance)344
    Sessions of CongressPage
    931973–1975Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments of 1974353
    941975–1977National Emergencies Act358
    951977–1979Ethics in Government Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1981371
    1011989–1991Ethics Reform Act of 1989399
    1021991–1993Fiscal 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act405
    1041995–1997Line Item Veto Act418
    1051997–1999Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998427
    1072001–2003Authorization of Use of Force Against Perpetrators of the September 11, 2001, Attacks439
    Revenue: Taxes and Tariffs
    11789–1791Tariff Act of 178911
    11789–1791Whiskey Act (First Internal Revenue Law)13
    121811–1813Duties on Imports and Exports Increased41
    131813–1815Creation of Collection Districts for the Purpose of Assessing and Collecting Direct Taxes and Internal Duties43
    131813–1815Office of Commissioner of Revenue43
    131813–1815Revenue Acts of 181343
    131813–1815Direct Property Tax on States and Counties43
    131813–1815Duties on Retailers of Liquor and Imported Goods43
    131813–1815Stamp Tax on Bank Notes and Legal Instruments43
    131813–1815Direct Tax of 181543
    131813–1815Sales Tax on Manufactured Goods44
    131813–1815Sales Tax on Household Furniture and Watches44
    131813–1815Authority of Tax Collectors Strengthened44
    141815–1817Direct Tax Reduced46
    181823–1825Tariff Act of 182456
    201827–1829Tariff of Abominations, 182859
    221831–1833Tariff Act of 183264
    221831–1833Compromise Tariff of 183364
    221831–1833Force Bill (use of military for tax collection)64
    271841–1843Tariff Act of 184276
    291845–1847Walker Tariff Act76
    291845–1847Warehousing Act of 184682
    341855–1857Tariff of 185796
    361859–1861Morrill Tariff (Tariff Act of 1861)101
    371861–1863Revenue Act of 1861105
    371861–1863Internal Revenue Act of 1862106
    371861–1863Tariff Act of 1862106
    381863–1865Internal Revenue Act of 1864111
    381863–1865Morrill Tariff Amendments of 1864111
    Sessions of CongressPage
    381863–1865Emergency Income Tax111
    411869–1871Tariff Act of 1870123
    421871–1873Tariff Act of 1872127
    431873–1875Tariff Act of 1875130
    471881–1883Creation of a Tariff Commission142
    531893–1895Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act163
    551897–1899Dingley Tariff167
    551897–1899War Revenue Act168
    611909–1911Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act190
    611909–1911Sixteenth Amendment (federal income tax)190
    631913–1915Underwood Tariff Act198
    631913–1915Emergency War Revenue Act of 1914199
    641915–1917Revenue Act of 1916205
    651917–1919Liberty Loan Act209
    651917–1919War Revenue Act of 1917210
    651917–1919War Finance Corporation Act211
    671921–1923Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act221
    681923–1925Revenue Act of 1924225
    691925–1927Revenue Act of 1926228
    711929–1931Smoot-Hawley Tariff235
    731933–1935Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act245
    761939–1941Revenue Act of 1940260
    761939–1941Second Revenue Act of 1940260
    771941–1943Revenue Act of 1941263
    771941–1943Revenue Act of 1942 (Victory Tax of 1942)265
    781943–1945Current Tax Payment Act (withholding)268
    781943–1945Revenue Act of 1943269
    831953–1955Internal Revenue Code of 1954294
    871961–1963Tariff Classification Act of 1962313
    871961–1963Trade Expansion Act of 1962314
    871961–1963Revenue Act of 1962314
    881963–1965Revenue Act of 1964318
    901967–1969Revenue and Expenditures Control Act of 1968332
    911969–1971Tax Reform Act of 1969336
    921971–1973Revenue Act of 1971344
    921971–1973Revenue Sharing (state and local fiscal assistance)346
    931973–1975Trade Act of 1974354
    941975–1977Tax Reduction Act of 1975357
    941975–1977Tax Reform Act of 1976358
    951977–1979Tax Reduction and Simplification Act of 1977362
    951977–1979Energy Tax Act of 1978365
    951977–1979Revenue Act of 1978365
    961979–1981Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax of 1980370
    971981–1983Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981375
    971981–1983Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982376
    971981–1983Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982377
    981983–1985Trade and Tariff Act of 1984383
    991985–1987“Superfund” Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986388
    Sessions of CongressPage
    991985–1987Tax Reform Act of 1986389
    1011989–1991Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990. Budget Enforcement Act of 1990400
    1031993–1995Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993411
    1031993–1995General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Implementation Act (GATT)414
    1051997–1999Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997425
    1051997–1999Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998426
    1072001–2003Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001439
    1082003–2005Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003446
    1082003–2005American Jobs Creation Act of 2004447
    1092005–2007Deficit Reduction Act of 2005452
    1092005–2007Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005453
    1102007–2009Economic Stimulus Act of 2008459
    1122011–2013American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012471
    Science and Space
    91805–1807Survey of the Coasts of the United States Begun34
    271841–1843Appropriation for Construction of First Telegraph Line76
    371861–1863National Academy of Sciences Act107
    561899–1901National Bureau of Standards Created172
    811949–1951National Science Foundation Act286
    851957–1959National Aeronautics and Space Administration Act of 1958303
    871961–1963Initial Apollo Mission Funding312
    921971–1973Space Shuttle Program345
    941975–1977National Science and Technology Policy Act358
    981983–1985Initial Funding for Manned Space Station381
    1021991–1993Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992408
    1061999–2001American Competitiveness in the Twenty-first Century Act of 2000433
    1102007–2009Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008459
    1122011–2013Budget Control Act of 2011470
    Slavery, Civil Rights, Voting Rights
    21791–1793Fugitive Slave Act of 179315
    31793–1795Slave Trade Act of 179417
    61799–1801Slave Trade Act of 180026
    71801–1803Slave Trade Act of 180329
    91805–1807Slave Trade Prohibition Act34
    161819–1821Missouri Compromise of 182052
    161819–1821Second Missouri Compromise; Missouri Admitted to the Union52
    Sessions of CongressPage
    301847–1849Oregon Bill84
    311849–1851Fugitive Slave Act86
    311849–1851District of Columbia Slave Trade Act87
    331853–1855Kansas-Nebraska Act92
    351857–1859English Bill (Kansas and slavery)98
    361859–1861Corwin Amendment102
    371861–1863First Confiscation Act (freed slaves employed as soldiers against the United States)105
    371861–1863District of Columbia Emancipation Act105
    371861–1863Second Confiscation Act (freed slaves in areas taken by United States, provided for confiscation of rebel property)106
    381863–1865Freedmen's Bureau111
    381863–1865Thirteenth Amendment (slavery abolished)111
    391865–1867Civil Rights Act of 1866114
    391865–1867Fourteenth Amendment (citizenship)114
    391865–1867New Freedmen's Bureau Act114
    391865–1867Tennessee Readmitted to the Union114
    391865–1867First Reconstruction Act115
    401867–1869Second Reconstruction Act118
    401867–1869Third Reconstruction Act119
    401867–1869Fourth Reconstruction Act119
    401867–1869Omnibus Act (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina Readmitted to the Union)119
    401867–1869Freedmen's Bureau Discontinuance119
    401867–1869Fifteenth Amendment (voting)120
    411869–1871Virginia Readmitted to the Union122
    411869–1871Mississippi Readmitted to the Union122
    411869–1871Texas Readmitted to the Union123
    411869–1871First Force Act (First Ku Klux Klan Act)123
    411869–1871Georgia Readmitted to the Union124
    411869–1871Second Force Act (Second Ku Klux Klan Act)124
    421871–1873Third Force Act (Third Ku Klux Klan Act)126
    421871–1873Amnesty Act (ex-Confederates)127
    421871–1873Freedmen's Bureau Discontinued127
    431873–1875Civil Rights Act of 1875130
    471881–1883Edmunds Antipolygamy Act142
    531893–1895Federal Election Laws Repeal Act162
    541895–1897Act of Oblivion (repealed prohibition of Confederate officers from holding positions in army and navy of the United States)165
    661919–1921Nineteenth Amendment (women's suffrage)215
    851957–1959Civil Rights Act of 1957303
    861959–1961Civil Rights Act of 1960307
    871961–1963Twenty-fourth Amendment (poll tax prohibition)313
    881963–1965Civil Rights Act of 1964318
    891965–1967Voting Rights Act of 1965323
    Sessions of CongressPage
    901967–1969Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967331
    901967–1969Civil Rights Act of 1968331
    911969–1971Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1970337
    921971–1973Proposed Equal Rights Amendment345
    921971–1973Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972345
    921971–1973Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act (Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act)345
    931973–1975Rehabilitation Act of 1973350
    941975–1977Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1975357
    941975–1977Equal Credit Opportunity Act Amendments of 1976357
    951977–1979Age Discrimination in Employment Act Amendments of 1978363
    951977–1979Pregnancy, Sex Discrimination Prohibition Act of 1978365
    971981–1983Voting Rights Act Amendments376
    1001987–1989Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (Grove City College bill)393
    1001987–1989Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (penalized those who discriminated in housing sales and rentals)394
    1011989–1991Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990399
    1021991–1993Civil Rights Act of 1991 (job discrimination)406
    1092005–2007Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, and Coretta Scott King Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006453
    1102007–2009ADA Amendments Act of 2008460
    1112009–2011Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act465
    Territories
    491885–1887Edmunds-Tucker Act (antipolygamy)149
    561899–1901Convention of 1900 (Samoan Islands partition)171
    561899–1901Foraker Act (Puerto Rico government)171
    571901–1903Philippine Government Act175
    641915–1917First Jones Act (Organic Act of the Philippine Islands)204
    641915–1917Acquisition of Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands)205
    641915–1917Second Jones Act (Organic Act for Puerto Rico)205
    701927–1929Administration of American Samoa232
    731933–1935Tydings-McDuffie Philippines Independence Act244
    741935–1937Virgin Islands Organic Act250
    801947–1949Trusteeship Agreement for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands279
    811949–1951Organic Act of Guam286
    Sessions of CongressPage
    821951–1953Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico290
    831953–1955Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands294
    921971–1973Delegates to the House of Representatives from Guam and U.S. Virgin Islands345
    941975–1977Commonwealth Status Granted to the Northern Mariana Islands358
    951977–1979Delegate to the House of Representatives from American Samoa365
    Trade
    11789–1791Tariff Act of 178911
    41795–1797Jay Treaty (British troop withdrawal, shipping, trade)20
    41795–1797Pinckney's Treaty (river navigation, trade with Spain)20
    91805–1807Nonimportation Act (British goods)34
    101807–1809First Embargo Act (Embargo Act of 1807)36
    101807–1809Second Embargo Act36
    101807–1809Third Embargo Act36
    101807–1809First Enforcement Act36
    101807–1809Second Enforcement Act36
    101807–1809Nonintercourse Act (repeal Embargo Act)36
    111809–1811Macon's Bill No. 2 (trade with Britain, France)38
    111809–1811Non-Importation Act of 181138
    121811–1813Embargo on American Shipping40
    121811–1813Trading with Enemies Prohibited41
    141815–1817Tariff of 1816 (First Protective Tariff)46
    141815–1817Navigation Act of 181747
    151817–1819Navigation Act of 181849
    181823–1825Tariff Act of 182449
    181823–1825Russo-American Treaty of 182456
    201827–1829Tariff of Abominations, 182859
    211829–1831Reciprocity Act of 183061
    211829–1831Ottoman-American Treaty of Commerce and Navigation61
    221831–1833Tariff Act of 183264
    221831–1833Compromise Tariff of 183364
    271841–1843Tariff Act of 184276
    281843–1845Treaty of Wang-Hsia (trade with China)78
    291845–1847Walker Tariff Act80
    291845–1847Warehousing Act of 184682
    331853–1855Treaty of Kanagawa (trade with Japan)92
    331853–1855Canadian Reciprocity Treaty (Elgin-Marcy Treaty)92
    341855–1857Tariff of 185796
    351857–1859Treaties of Tientsin (trade with China)98
    361859–1861Morrill Tariff (Tariff Act of 1861)101
    371861–1863Tariff Act of 1862106
    381863–1865Morrill Tariff Amendments of 1864111
    411869–1871Tariff Act of 1870123
    421871–1873Tariff Act of 1872127
    431873–1875Tariff Act of 1875130
    Sessions of CongressPage
    441875–1877Hawaiian Reciprocity Treaty133
    471881–1883Creation of a Tariff Commission142
    471881–1883Mongrel Tariff of 1883142
    511889–1891McKinley Tariff Act156
    531893–1895Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act163
    551897–1899Dingley Tariff167
    611909–1911Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act190
    631913–1915Underwood Tariff Act198
    641915–1917Revenue Act of 1916205
    651917–1919Trading with the Enemy Act210
    651917–1919Webb-Pomerene Export Trade Act211
    671921–1923Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act221
    711929–1931Smoot-Hawley Tariff235
    721931–1933Revenue Act of 1932238
    731933–1935Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act245
    831953–1955Custom Simplification Act of 1954295
    871961–1963Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Convention311
    871961–1963Tariff Classification Act of 1962313
    871961–1963Trade Expansion Act of 1962314
    931973–1975Trade Act of 1974354
    941975–1977International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976358
    961979–1981Trade Agreements Act of 1979369
    981983–1985Trade and Tariff Act of 1984383
    1001987–1989Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988394
    1011989–1991Iraq Sanctions Act of 1990400
    1031993–1995North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act413
    1031993–1995General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Implementation Act414
    1041995–1997Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996418
    1061999–2001Trade and Development Act of 2000432
    1061999–2001United States-China Relations Act of 2000433
    1072001–2003United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act439
    1072001–2003Trade Act of 2002 (fast-track authority)441
    1082003–2005American Jobs Creation Act of 2004447
    Transportation
    91805–1807Cumberland Road (National Road) Act34
    171821–1823Maumee Road Act54
    181823–1825General Survey Act56
    181823–1825First River and Harbors Act (1824)56
    281843–1845Construction of Revenue Cutters and Steamers79
    311849–1851Railroad Land Grant Act of 185086
    321851–1853Right-of-Way Granted to All Railroads89
    321851–1853Steamboat Act of 185290
    321851–1853Lighthouse Board Created90
    Sessions of CongressPage
    321851–1853Transcontinental Railroad Survey90
    331853–18571855 Passenger Act93
    371861–1863Pacific Railroad Act106
    371861–1863Railways and Telegraph Act of 1862105
    381863–1865Northern Pacific Railroad Act111
    461879–1881Mississippi River Commission139
    471881–1883River and Harbor Appropriations142
    481883–1885American Shipbuilding Encouraged144
    481883–1885Bureau of Navigation Created145
    491885–1887Interstate Commerce Act148
    501887–1889Railroad Arbitration Act of 1888151
    521891–1893Railway Safety Appliance Act of 1893159
    551897–1899Erdman Act (railway labor mediation)168
    571901–1903Elkins Act (freight rebates)175
    581903–1905Military Cargo Preference Act (Military Transportation Act of 1904)179
    591905–1907Employers' Liability Act of 1906182
    591905–1907Hepburn Act (railway rate regulation)182
    601907–1909Employers' Liability Act of 1908186
    611909–1911Mann-Elkins Act (commerce regulation)190
    621911–1913Physical Valuation Act195
    631913–1915Newlands Act of 1913198
    631913–1915War Risk Insurance Act199
    631913–1915U.S. Coast Guard Created200
    631913–1915National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics200
    631913–1915Seamen's Act of 1915200
    641915–1917Federal-Aid Road Act of 1916 (Bankhead-Shackelford Act)203
    641915–1917Federal Possession and Control Act204
    641915–1917Adamson Act (eight-hour workday on interstate railroads)205
    641915–1917Shipping Act of 1916205
    651917–1919War Risk Insurance Act Amendments210
    651917–1919Railroad Control Act211
    661919–1921Transportation Act of 1920 (Esch-Cummins Act)216
    661919–1921Jones Merchant Marine Act216
    671921–1923Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921220
    681923–1925Hoch-Smith Resolution225
    681923–1925Kelly Act (Air Mail Act)226
    691925–1927Air Commerce Act228
    691925–1927Railway Labor Act of 1926228
    701927–1929Jones-White Merchant Marine Act231
    731933–1935Emergency Railroad Transportation Act244
    741935–1937Motor Carrier Act of 1935249
    741935–1937Railroad Retirement Act of 1935249
    741935–1937Merchant Marine Act of 1936250
    751937–1939Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938256
    771941–1943Repeal of Portions of the Neutrality Act of 1939263
    791945–1947Federal Airport Act275
    791945–1947Hobbs Anti-Racketeering Act275
    801947–1949Civil Air Patrol Act280
    831953–1955St. Lawrence Seaway Act of 1954 (Wiley-Dondero Act)294
    Sessions of CongressPage
    841955–1957Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 (interstate highways)299
    841955–1957Highway Revenue Act of 1956299
    851957–1959Airways Modernization Act of 1958302
    851957–1959Transportation Act of 1958303
    851957–1959Federal Aviation Act304
    871961–1963Crimes in the Sky Act312
    881963–1965Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964318
    891965–1967Highway Beautification Act of 1965324
    891965–1967National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966325
    891965–1967Highway Safety Act of 1966325
    891965–1967Department of Transportation Act326
    901967–1969Aircraft Noise Abatement Act332
    911969–1971Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970337
    911969–1971Urban Mass Transportation Assistance Act of 1970338
    911969–1971Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 (Amtrak)338
    931973–1975Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973350
    931973–1975Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973351
    931973–1975National Mass Transportation Assistance Act of 1974353
    931973–1975Hazardous Materials Transportation Act354
    941975–1977Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (Conrail)357
    951977–1979Airline Deregulation Act of 1978364
    961979–1981Motor Carrier Act of 1980 (trucking deregulation)370
    961979–1981Staggers Rail Act of 1980 (railroad deregulation)371
    971981–1983Bus Regulatory Reform Act of 1982377
    971981–1983Railway Labor-Management Dispute Act377
    971981–1983Surface Transportation Act of 1982381
    981983–1985Shipping Act of 1984381
    981983–1985Surface Transportation Assistance Act Amendments of 1984381
    981983–1985National Minimum Drinking Age Act
    991985–1987Conrail Privatization Act388
    1001987–1989Airport and Airway Safety and Capacity Expansion Act of 1987392
    1011989–1991Aviation Safety and Capacity Expansion Act of 1990400
    1011989–1991Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990400
    1021991–1993Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991406
    1041995–1997National Highway System Designation Act of 1995417
    1041995–1997Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act of 1995418
    1051997–1999Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-first Century426
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1061999–2001Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century432
    1072001–20032001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to the Terrorist Attacks on the United States439
    1072001–2003Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act439
    1072001–2003USA PATRIOT Act440
    1072001–2003Aviation and Transportation Security Act440
    1072001–2003Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Recovery from and Response to Terriorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002440
    1092005–2007Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)452
    1092005–2007USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005453
    1102007–2009Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007458
    1102007–2009Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008461
    1122011–2013Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21 Act)471
    1122011–2013FAA Modernization Act of 2012471
    Urban Assistance
    871961–1963Housing Act of 1961312
    881963–1965Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964318
    891965–1967Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965323
    891965–1967Department of Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965323
    891965–1967Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966326
    901967–1969Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968332
    911969–1971Urban Mass Transportation Assistance Act of 1970338
    931973–1975Housing and Community Development Act of 1974352
    931973–1975National Mass Transportation Assistance Act of 1974353
    1011989–1991Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989399
    1011989–1991Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act401
    1021991–1993Housing and Community Development Act of 1992408
    Sessions of CongressPage
    1031993–1995National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993412
    1051997–1999Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998426
    Veterans Affairs
    151817–1819Military Pension Act of 181849
    451877–1879Arrears of Pension Act137
    491885–1887Mexican War Service Pension Act149
    511889–1891Dependent and Disability Pension Act155
    651917–1919Alien Naturalization Act211
    651917–1919Smith-Sears Veterans Rehabilitation Act (Soldier Rehabilitation Act)211
    661919–1921Veterans Preference Act of 1919215
    671921–1923Establishment of Veterans Bureau220
    681923–1925War Adjustment Compensation Act (Soldiers Bonus Act)224
    681923–1925World War Veterans Act of 1924225
    711929–1931Veterans Administration Act235
    731933–1935Economy Act242
    731933–1935Independent Offices Appropriation Act245
    741935–1937Adjusted Compensation Payment Act of 1936250
    781943–1945GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944)269
    781943–1945Veterans Preferance Act of 1944269
    791945–1947War Brides Act274
    791945–1947Filipino Rescission Act of 1946274
    Sessions of CongressPage
    821951–1953Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 (Korean GI Bill of Rights)290
    841955–1957Servicemen's and Veterans Survivor Benefits Act300
    861959–1961Veterans Pension Act of 1959306
    891965–1967Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 (VA mortgages)323
    891965–1967Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act (Cold War GI Bill)324
    961979–1981Veterans Health Care Amendments of 1979369
    971981–1983Veterans Health Care, Training, and Small Business Loan Act of 1981375
    971981–1983Uniformed Services Former Spouses' Protection Act376
    981983–1985Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 1984382
    981983–1985Veterans Health Care Act of 1984383
    981983–1985Veterans Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act383
    1001987–1989New GI Bill Continuation Act392
    1001987–1989Department of Veterans Affairs Established394
    1001987–1989Veterans' Judicial Review Act395
    1021991–1993Agent Orange Act of 1991405
    1021991–1993Persian Gulf War Veterans Benefits Act of 1991405
    1102007–2009Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008459
    1112009–2011Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010465
  • Sources for Further Study

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    6 vols.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951.
    Bacon, Donald C., Roger H.Davidson, and MortonKeller, eds. The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. 4 vols.New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
    Bates, Christopher G., ed. The Early Republic and Antebellum America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. 4 vols.Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2010.
    Bates, Ernest Sutherland. The Story of Congress, 1789–1935. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1936.
    Carruth, Gorton. The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates,
    10th ed.
    New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997.
    Carter, Susan B., Scott SigmundGartner, Michael R.Haines, Alan L.Olmstead, RichardSutch, and GavinWright, eds. Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Times to the Present. Millennial ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
    Castel, Albert, and Scott L.Gibson. The Yeas and the Nays: Key Congressional Decisions, 1774–1945. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Western Michigan University, Institute of Public Affairs, New Issues Press, 1975.
    Chamberlain, Lawrence H.The President, Congress, and Legislation. New York: AMS Press, 1967.
    Chambers, John Whiteclay,
    II, ed.
    The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Christianson, Stephen G.Facts about the Congress. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1996.
    Ciment, James, ed. Encyclopedia of the Great Depression and the New Deal. Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe Reference, 2001.
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    Congress and the Nation, 1945–2010. 12 vols.Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1965–2010.
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    Foley, Michael, and John E.Owens. Congress and the Presidency: Institutional Politics in a Separated System. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1996.
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    Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: Government and Politics. 2 vols.Detroit: Gale, 2008.
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    Kutler, Stanley I., ed. Dictionary of American History.
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    Landsberg, Brian K., ed. Major Acts of Congress. 3 vols.New York: Macmillan Reference USA: Thomson/Gale, 2004.
    Leab, Daniel, Kenneth J.Bindas, Allan HarrisStein, JustinCorfield, and Steven L.Danver, eds. The Great Depression and the New Deal: A Thematic Encyclopedia. 2 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2010.
    Lehman, Jeffrey and ShirellePhelps, eds. West's Encyclopedia of American Law.
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    Levy, Leonard W., and LouisFisher, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. 4 vols.New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
    Levy, Peter B.Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
    Levy, Peter B.. Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.
    Light, Paul Charles. Government's Greatest Achievements: From Civil Rights to Homeland Defense. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002.
    Linton, Calvin D., ed. American Headlines: Year by Year. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson Inc., Publishers, 1985.
    Magill, Frank N., ed. Great Events from History: American Series. 3 vols.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1975.
    Morison, Samuel Eliot, Henry SteeleCommager, and William E.Leuchtenburg. The Growth of the American Republic.
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    2 vols.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: CQ Press, 2013.
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    Agriculture
    Benedict, Murray R.Farm Policies of the United States, 1790–1950: A Study of Their Origins and Development. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1953.
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    Arms Control
    Barnhart, Michael, ed. Congress and United States Foreign Policy: Controlling the Use of Force in the Nuclear Age. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1987.
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    Arts and Culture
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    Budget Process
    Fisher, Louis. “The Authorization-Appropriation Process in Congress: Formal Rules and Informal Practices.” Catholic University Law Review29 (Fall 1979): 51–105.
    Fisher, Louis. Presidential Spending Power. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
    Ippolito, Dennis S.Why Budgets Matter: Budget Policy and American Politics. University Park, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.
    Joyce, Philip G.The Congressional Budget Office: Honest Numbers, Power, and Policymaking. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2011.
    Joyce, Philip G., and Robert D.Reischauer. “Deficit Budgeting: The Federal Budget Process and Budget Reform.” Harvard Journal on Legislation29 (Summer 1992): 429–453.
    Lee, Robert D., Jr., Ronald W.Johnson, and Philip G.Joyce. Public Budgeting Systems.
    8th ed.
    Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008.
    Lynch, Thomas D.Federal Budget and Financial Management Reform. New York: Quorum Books, 1991.
    McCaffery, Jerry, and L. R.Jones. Budgeting and Financial Management in the Federal Government. Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age, 2001.
    Meyer, Annette E.Evolution of United States Budgeting. Rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.
    Penner, Rudolph G., and Alan J.Abramson. Broken Purse Strings: Congressional Budgeting 1974 to 1988. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Gerald R. Ford Foundation; Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 1988.
    Powell, Fred Wilbur, comp. Control of Federal Expenditures: A Documentary History, 1775–1894. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1939.
    Rubin, Irene. The Politics of Public Budgeting: Getting and Spending, Borrowing and Balancing.
    6th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2010.
    Schick, Allen. The Capacity to Budget. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1990.
    Schick, Allen. Congress and Money: Budgeting, Spending, and Taxing. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 1980.
    Schick, Allen. The Federal Budget: Politics, Policy, Process.
    3d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2007.
    Sky, Theodore. To Provide for the General Welfare: A History of the Federal Spending Power. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, 2003.
    Smithies, Arthur. The Budgetary Process in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955.
    White, Joseph, and AaronWildavsky. The Deficit and the Public Interest: The Search for Responsible Budgeting in the 1980s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
    Wildavsky, Aaron, and NaomiCaiden. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process.
    5th ed.
    New York: Pearson/Longman, 2004.
    Campaign Finance Reform
    Alexander, Herbert E.Money in Politics. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1972.
    Corrado, Anthony. “Money and Politics: A History of Federal Campaign Finance.” In Campaign Finance Reform: A Sourcebook, edited by AnthonyCorrado, Thomas E.Mann, Daniel R.Ortiz, TrevorPotter, and Frank J.Sorauf, 27–60. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.
    Corrado, Anthony, Thomas E.Mann, David R.Ortiz, and TrevorPotter. The New Campaign Finance Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.
    Hohenstein, Kurt. Coining Corruption: The Making of the American Campaign Finance System. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007.
    Mutch, Robert E.Campaigns, Congress, and Courts: The Making of Federal Campaign Finance Law. New York: Praeger, 1988.
    Overacker, Louise, and Victor J.West. Money in Elections. New York: Macmillan, 1932.
    Pollock, James K.Party Campaign Funds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.
    Censorship and Freedom of Speech
    Finan, Christopher M.From the Palmer Raids to the Patriot Act: A History of the Fight for Free Speech in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 2007.
    Foerstel, Herbert N.Free Expression and Censorship in America: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
    Rasmussen, R. Kent. Censorship. 3 vols.Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 1997.
    Vile, John R., David L.Hudson Jr., and DavidSchult. Encyclopedia of the First Amendment. 2 vols.Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2009.
    Census
    Alonso, William, and PaulStarr, eds. The Politics of Numbers. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1987.
    Alterman, Hyman. Counting People: The Census in History. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.
    Anderson, Margo J.The American Census: A Social History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988.
    Anderson, Margo J., Constance F.Citro, and Joseph J.Salvo, eds. Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census: From the Constitution to the American Community Survey.
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2012.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, 2002.
    Citizenship
    Bredbenner, Candice Lewis. A Nationality of Her Own: Women, Marriage, and the Law of Citizenship. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
    Curran, Thomas J.Xenophobia and Immigration, 1820–1930. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1975.
    Franklin, Frank G.The Legislative History of Naturalization in the United States: From the Revolutionary War to 1861. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1971.
    Karst, Kenneth L.Belonging to America: Equal Citizenship and the Constitution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.
    Kettner, James H.The Development of American Citizenship, 1608–1870. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.
    Newman, John J.American Naturalization Processes and Procedures, 1790–1985. Indianapolis: Family History Section, Indiana Historical Society, 1985.
    Smith, Rogers M.Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
    Civil Liberties
    Hall, Kermit L., ed. Civil Liberties in American History: Major Historical Interpretations. 2 vols.New York: Garland Publishing, 1987.
    Lasswell, Harold Dwight. National Security and Individual Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.
    Murphy, Paul L.The Constitution in Crisis Times, 1918–1969. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.
    Murphy, Paul L.. World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States. New York: Norton, 1979.
    Neely, Mark E., Jr.The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
    Preston, William, Jr.Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933.
    2d ed.
    Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
    Regan, Priscilla M.Legislating Privacy: Technology, Social Values, and Public Policy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Smith, James Morton. Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1956.
    Civil Rights
    Bradley, David, and Shelley FisherFishkin, eds. The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America. 3 vols.Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe Reference, 1998.
    Carmines, Edward G., and James A.Stimson. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
    Graham, Hugh Davis. The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960–1972. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Lowery, Charles D., and John F.Marszalek. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Present. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992.
    Lowery, Charles D., John F.Marszalek, and Thomas AdamsUpchurch, eds. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Twenty-first Century. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.
    Martin, Waldo E., Jr., and PatriciaSullivan, eds. Civil Rights in the United States. 2 vols.New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000.
    Orfield, Gary. Congressional Power: Congress and Social Change. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.
    Sigler, Jay A.Civil Rights in America: 1500 to the Present. Detroit: Gale, 1998.
    Civil Service
    Fish, Carl Russell. The Civil Service and Patronage. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963.
    Hartman, Robert W., and Arnold R.Weber, eds. The Rewards of Public Service: Compensating Top Federal Officials. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1980.
    Ingraham, Patricia W.The Foundation of Merit: Public Service in American Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
    Ingraham, Patricia W., and David H.Rosenbloom, eds. The Promise and Paradox of Civil Service Reform. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
    Kettl, Donald F.The Global Public Management Revolution.
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.
    Light, Paul C.The Tides of Reform: Making Government Work, 1945–1995. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
    Shafritz, Jay M., NormaRiccucci, David H.Rosenbloom, and AlbertHyde. Personnel Management in Government: Politics and Process.
    5th ed.
    New York: M. Dekker, 2001.
    Stahl, O. Glenn. Public Personnel Administration.
    8th ed.
    New York: Harper and Row, 1983.
    U.S. Civil Service Commission. Biography of an Ideal: A History of the Federal Civil Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Office of Public Affairs, December 1974.
    U.S. Civil Service Commission. History of the Federal Civil Service, 1789 to the Present. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1941.
    U.S. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Legislative History of Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. 2 vols. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 96–2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
    U.S. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Manpower and Civil Service. History of Civil Service Merit Systems of the United States and Selected Foreign Countries, Together with Executive Reorganization Studies and Personnel Recommendations. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print 94–29. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Biography of an Ideal: A History of the Federal Civil Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, U.S. Civil Service Commission, 2003.
    Van Riper, Paul P.History of the United States Civil Service. Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Company, 1958.
    Communications and Telecommunications
    Aufderheide, Patricia. Communications Policy and the Public Interest: The Telecommunications Act of 1996. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
    Bittner, John R.Broadcasting and Telecommunication: An Introduction.
    3d ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1991.
    Brock, Gerald W.Telecommunication Policy for the Information Age: From Monopoly to Competition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994.
    Gordon, John Steele. A Thread Across the Ocean: The Heroic Story of the Transatlantic Cable. New York: Walker & Co., 2002.
    Hearn, Chester G.Circuits in the Sea: The Men, the Ships, and the Atlantic Cable. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2004.
    Horwitz, Robert Britt. The Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
    Shaw, James. Telecommunications Deregulation and the Information Economy.
    2d ed.
    Boston: Artech House, 2001.
    Starr, Paul. The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic Books, 2004.
    Stone, Alan. Public Service Liberalism: Telecommunications and Transitions in Public Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.
    Thompson, Robert Luther. Wiring a Continent: The History of the Telegraph Industry in the United States, 1832–1866. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1947.
    Zarkin, Michael J.Social Learning and the History of U.S. Telecommunications Policy, 1900–1996. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2003.
    Congressional Oversight
    Aberbach, Joel D.Keeping a Watchful Eye: The Politics of Congressional Oversight. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1990.
    Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congress and the Executive.
    4th ed.
    College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
    Foreman, Christopher H., Jr.Signals from the Hill: Congressional Oversight and the Challenge of Social Regulation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988.
    Harris, Joseph P.Congressional Control of Administration. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1964.
    Lee, Mordecai. Congress vs. the Bureaucracy: Muzzling Agency Public Relations. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 2011.
    McKay, William, and Charles W.Johnson. Parliament and Congress: Representation and Scrutiny in the Twenty-first Century. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273621.001.0001
    National Academy of Public Administration. Panel on Congress and the Executive. Beyond Distrust: Building Bridges between Congress and the Executive. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration, 1992.
    Ogul, Morris S.Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy: Studies in Legislative Supervision. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976.
    Ripley, Randall B., and Grace A.Franklin. Congress, the Bureaucracy, and Public Policy.
    5th ed.
    Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1991.
    Congressional Pay
    Boeckel, Richard M.Wages and Hours of Members of Congress.” Editorial Research Reports2 (October 13, 1937): 299–320.
    Byrd, Robert C.The Senate 1789–1989. 4 vols. Edited by WendyWolff. 100th Cong., 1st sess. S. Doc. 100–20. Vol. 2, 347–359. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Congressional Pay and Perquisites: History, Facts, and Controversy. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1992.
    Fisher, Louis. “History of Pay Adjustments for Members of Congress.” In The Rewards of Public Service: Compensating Top Federal Officials, edited by Robert W.Hartman and Arnold R.Weber, 25–52. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1980.
    Congressional Reform
    Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J.Oleszek. Congress Against Itself. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.
    Galloway, George B.The Operation of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.” American Political Science Review45 (March 1951):41–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1950883
    Kravitz, Walter. “The Advent of the Modern Congress: The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970.” Legislative Studies Quarterly15 (August 1990): 375–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/439769
    McKay, William, and Charles W.Johnson. Parliament and Congress: Representation and Scrutiny in the Twenty-first Century. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273621.001.0001
    Rieselbach, Leroy N.Congressional Reform. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1994.
    U.S. Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. Organization of the Congress, Final Report of the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress: Organization of the Congress Pursuant to H. Con. Res. 192 (102d Congress). 103d Cong., 1st sess. H. Rept. 103–413, Vol. 2; S. Rept. 103–215, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
    Wolfensberger, Donald R.Congress and the People: Deliberative Democracy on Trial. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
    Zelizer, Julian E.On Capitol Hill: The Struggle to Reform Congress and Its Consequences, 1948–2000. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    Conscription
    Chambers, John Whiteclay, II. To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America. New York: Free Press, 1987.
    Flynn, George Q.The Draft, 1940–1973. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1993.
    Segal, David R.Recruiting for Uncle Sam: Citizenship and Military Manpower Policy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989.
    U.S. Selective Service System. The Selective Service Act: Its Legislative History, Amendments, Appropriations, Cognates, and Prior Instruments of Security. 5 vols.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954.
    Constitutional Amendments
    Ames, Herman Vandenburg. The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States during the First Century of Its History. New York: B. Franklin, 1970.
    Bernstein, Richard B., with JeromeAgel. Amending America: If We Love the Constitution So Much, Why Do We Keep Trying to Change It?New York: Times Books, 1993.
    Grimes, Alan P.Democracy and the Amendments to the Constitution. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1987.
    Kyvig, David E.Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996.
    Levy, Leonard W., and Kenneth L.Karst, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. 6 vols.
    2d ed.
    New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000.
    Newman, Roger K., ed. The Constitution and Its Amendments. 4 vols.New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1999.
    Palmer, Kris E., ed. Constitutional Amendments, 1789 to the Present. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 2000.
    U.S. Congress. Senate. The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation: Analysis of Cases Decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 28, 2002. Prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress; Johnny H.Killian, George A.Costello, Kenneth R.Thomas, co-eds. David M.Ackerman, HenryCohen, RobertMeltz, contributors. 108th Cong., 2d sess., S. Doc. 108–17. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.
    Vile, John R.A Companion to the United States Constitution and Its Amendments.
    5th ed.
    Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2010.
    Vile, John R.. Encyclopedia of Constitutional Amendments, Proposed Amendments, and Amending Issues, 1789–2010.
    3d ed.
    Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2010.
    Vile, John R.. Rewriting the United States Constitution: An Examination of Proposals from Reconstruction to the Present. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    Consumer Protection
    Asch, Peter. Consumer Safety Regulation: Putting a Price on Life and Limb. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
    Brobeck, Stephen, Robert N.Mayer, and Robert O.Herrmann, eds. Encyclopedia of the Consumer Movement. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997.
    Burda, Joan M.An Overview of Federal Consumer Law. Chicago: American Bar Association, Solo and Small Firm Section, General Practice, 1998.
    Frank, Dana. Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999.
    Goodwin, Lorine Swainston. The Pure Food, Drink, and Drug Crusaders, 1879–1914. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999.
    Hasin, Bernice Rothman. Consumers, Commissions, and Congress: Law, Theory, and the Federal Trade Commission, 1968–1985. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987.
    Krohn, Lauren. Consumer Protection and the Law: A Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1995.
    Maney, Ardith, and LoreeBykerk. Consumer Politics: Protecting Public Interests on Capitol Hill. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.
    Marsh, Gene A.Consumer Protection Law in a Nutshell,
    3d ed.
    St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 1999.
    Meier, Kenneth J., E. ThomasGarman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics,
    3d ed.
    Houston, Tex.Dame Publications, 1998.
    The Continental Congress
    Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Bicentennial ed. [rev. and expanded]. New York: D. McKay Co., 1974.
    Burnett, Edmund Cody. The Continental Congress. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975, c1941.
    Ford, Worthington Chauncey, and Roscoe R.Hill, eds. Journals of the Continental Congress: 1774–1789. 34 vols.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904–1936.
    Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, Richard AlanRyerson, JamesArnold, and RobertaWiener, eds. The Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History. 5 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2006.
    Henderson, H. James. Party Politics in the Continental Congress. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
    Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1953.
    Jillson, Calvin, and Rick K.Wilson. Congressional Dynamics: Structure, Coordination, and Choice in the First American Congress, 1774–1789. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994.
    Montross, Lynn. The Reluctant Rebels: The Story of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970.
    Rakove, Jack N.The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, c1979.
    Sanders, Jennings B.Evolution of Executive Departments of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1935.
    Selesky, Harold E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution.
    2d ed.
    2 vols.Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006.
    Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents, and Intellectual Property Rights
    Bowker, Richard Rogers. Copyright: Its history and Its Law. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1912.
    Calvert, Robert, ed. The Encyclopedia of Patent Practice and Invention Management. Huntington, N.Y.: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974, 1964.
    Campbell, Levin H.The Patent System of the United States so Far as It Relates to the Granting of Patents: A History. Washington, D.C.: Press of McGill & Wallace, 1891.
    Goldman, Abe A.The History of U.S.A. Copyright Law Revision, 1901–1954. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Copyright Office, 1955.
    Joyce, Craig, WilliamPatry, MarshallLeaffer, and PeterJaszi. Copyright Law.
    8th ed.
    New Providence, N.J.: LEXIS Publishers, 2010.
    Klitzke, Ramon A.History of Patents—U.S.” In The Encyclopedia of Patent Practice and Invention Management, edited by RobertCalvert, 392–404. Huntington, N.Y.: R. E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974.
    McCarthy, J. Thomas. “Historical Basis of Trademarks and Legislative History.” Chap. 5 in McCarthy on Trademarks and Unfair Competition.
    4th ed.
    6 vols.St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 1996.
    Outline of the History of the United States Patent Office. Washington, D.C.: Patent Office Society, 1936.
    Patry, William F. Introduction to Latman's the Copyright Law.
    6th ed.
    , 1–15. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 1986.
    Solberg, Thorvald. Copyright in Congress, 1789–1904: A Bibliography and Chronological Record of All Proceedings in Congress in Relation to Copyright from April 15, 1789, to April 28, 1904, First Congress, 1st Session, to Fifty-Eighth Congress, 2d Session. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.
    U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice. The History of Private Patent Legislation in the House of Representatives. Prepared by Christine P.Benagh. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
    U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The Story of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, 1988.
    Walterscheid, Edward C.To Promote the Progress of Useful Arts: American Patent Law and Administration, 1798–1836. Littleton, Colo.: F. B. Rothman, 1998.
    Weber, Gustavus Adolphus. The Patent Office: Its History, Activities and Organization. Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins Press, 1924.
    Criminal Justice
    Beale, Sara Sun. “Federal Criminal Jurisdiction.” In Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, edited by Sanford H.Kadish. 4 vols. Vol. 1, 775–779. New York: Free Press, 1993.
    Chernoff, Harry A., Christopher M.Kelly, and John R.Kroger. “The Politics of Crime.” Harvard Journal on Legislation33 (Summer 1996): 527–584.
    Conboy, Martin. “Federal Criminal Law.” In Law: A Century of Progress, 1835–1935, edited by AlisonReppy. 3 vols. Vol. 1, 295–346. New York: New York University Press, 1937.
    Extending Federal Powers Over Crime.” Law and Contemporary Problems1 (October 1934): 399–508.
    Friedman, Lawrence. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
    Henderson, Dwight F.Congress, Courts, and Criminals: The Development of Federal Criminal Law, 1801–1829. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.
    Marion, Nancy E.A History of Federal Crime Control Initiatives, 1960–1993. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.
    Oliver, Willard M., and Nancy E.Marion, eds. The Making of Criminal Justice Policy in the United States: Essays on the Role of the President, the Congress, and the Public. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen, 2008.
    Strazzella, James A.The Federalization of Criminal Law. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Criminal Justice Section, Task Force on the Federalization of Criminal Law, 1998.
    Debt Limit
    Robinson, Marshall A.The National Debt Ceiling: An Experiment in Fiscal Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1959.
    Shuman, Howard E.Politics and the Budget: The Struggle between the President and the Congress.
    3d ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1992.
    Stabile, Donald R., and Jeffrey A.Cantor. The Public Debt of the United States: An Historical Perspective, 1775–1990. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    U.S. Congress. Congressional Budget Office. “Debt Subject to Limit.” Chap. 4 in Federal Debt and Interest Costs. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, 1993.
    Defense
    Allison, William Thomas, Jeffrey G.Grey, and Janet G.Valentine. American Military History: A Survey from Colonial Times to the Present.
    2d ed.
    Boston: Pearson, 2012.
    Bauer, K. Jack.Naval Shipbuilding Programs, 1794–1860,” Military Affairs, v. 29 (Spring 1965), 29–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1985025
    Blechman, Barry M., with the assistance of W. PhilipEllis. The Politics of National Security: Congress and U.S. Defense Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Borklund, C. W.The Department of Defense. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1968.
    Brown, Jerold E., ed. Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.
    Ekirch, Arthur Alphonse. The Civilian and the Military: A History of the American Antimilitarist Tradition. Oakland, Calif.: Independent Institute, 2010.
    Hagan, Kenneth J.This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power. New York: Free Press; Toronto: Collier Macmillan, 1991.
    Hagan, Kenneth J., and Michael T.McMaster, eds. In Peace and War: Interpretations of American Naval History. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2008.
    Hewes, James E., Jr.From Root to McNamara: Army Organization and Administration, 1900–1963. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1975.
    Huntington, Samuel P.The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957.
    Inouye, Daniel K.Congress and the Military.” In Encyclopedia of the American Military: Studies of the History, Traditions, Policies, Institutions, and Roles of the Armed Forces in War and Peace, edited by John E.Jessup and Louise B.Ketz. 3 vols. Vol. 3, 235–278. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
    Jessup, John E., and Louise B.Ketz, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Military: Studies of the History, Traditions, Policies, Institutions, and Roles of the Armed Forces in War and Peace. 3 vols.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
    Kolodziej, Edward A.The Uncommon Defense and Congress, 1945–1963. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1966.
    Legere, Laurence J.Unification of the Armed Forces. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.
    Millett, Allan R., and PeterMaslowski.For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. New York: Free Press, 1994.
    Smith, Louis. American Democracy and Military Power: A Study of Civil Control of the Military Power in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
    Snow, Donald M., and Dennis M.Drew. From Lexington to Baghdad and Beyond: War and Politics in the American Experience.
    3d ed.
    Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2010.
    Stewart, Richard W., ed. American Military History. 2 vols.
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 2009–2010.
    Symonds, Craig L.Navalists and Antinavalists: The Naval Policy Debate in the United States, 1785–1827. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1980.
    Weigley, Russell F.History of the United States Army. Enl. ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
    Young, Roland. Congressional Politics in the Second World War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.
    Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs
    Bailey, Thomas A.A Diplomatic History of the American People. 10th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.
    Barnes, William, and John HeathMorgan. The Foreign Service of the United States: Origins, Development, and Functions. Washington, D.C.: Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Historic Office, 1961.
    DeConde, Alexander, ed. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas.
    2d ed.
    3 vols.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002.
    DeConde, Alexander, ed. A History of American Foreign Policy.
    3d ed.
    New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978.
    Findling, John E.Dictionary of American Diplomatic History.
    2d ed.
    New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
    Flanders, Stephen A., and Carl N.Flanders. Dictionary of American Foreign Affairs. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
    Hodge, Carl C., and Cathal J.Nolan, eds. U.S. Presidents and Foreign Policy: From 1789 to the Present. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2007.
    Jentleson, Bruce W., and Thomas G.Peterson. Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations. 4 vols.New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Plischke, Elmer. U.S. Department of State: A Reference History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.
    Smith, Joseph. Historical Dictionary of United States-Latin American Relations. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2007.
    Steigman, Andrew L.The Foreign Service of the United States: First Line of Defense. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985.
    Tuch, Hans N.Communicating with the World: U.S. Public Diplomacy Overseas. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.
    Westerfield, Bradford. Foreign Policy and Party Politics: Pearl Harbor to Korea. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
    Disabled and Handicapped
    Berkowitz, Edward D.Disabled Policy: America's Programs for the Handicapped. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
    Colker, Ruth, and Adam A.Milani. Federal Disability Law in a Nutshell.
    4th ed.
    St. Paul, Minn.: West/Thomson, 2010.
    Nielsen, Kim E.A Disability History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press, 2012.
    Rothstein, Laura F.Disabilities and the Law.
    4th ed.
    Egan, Minn.: West Group, 2012.
    Schweik, Susan M.The Ugly Laws: Disability in Public. New York: New York University, 2009.
    Scotch, Richard K.From Good Will to Civil Rights: Transforming Federal Disability Policy.
    2d ed.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2001.
    Stone, Deborah A.The Disabled State. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1984.
    Van Etten, C. Angela.Americans with Disabilities Act: Analysis and Implications. Rochester, N.Y.: Lawyers Cooperative Pubishers, 1993.
    District of Columbia
    Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800–1950. 2 vols.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1962–1963.
    Harris, Charles Wesley.Congress and the Governance of the Nation's Capital: The Conflict of Federal and Local Interests. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1995.
    U.S. Congress. House. Governance of the Nation's Capital: A Summary History of the Forms and Powers of Local Government for the District of Columbia, 1790 to 1973. 100th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Serial No. S-2. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1990.
    Economic Policy and Business
    Carson, Thomas, and MaryBonk, eds. Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. 2 vols.Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.
    Clark, Cynthia L., ed. The American Economy: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2011.
    Dubofsky, Melvyn, ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History. 2 vols.New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
    Fainsod, Merle, LincolnGordon, and Joseph C.Palamountain Jr.Government and the American Economy,
    3d ed.
    New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1959.
    Landmarks in Modern American Business. Edited by the editors of Salem Press. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 2000.
    Newman, Peter, ed. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law. 3 vols.London: Macmillan Reference; New York: Stockton Press, 1998.
    Northrup, Cynthia Clark, ed. The American Economy: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2003.
    Porter, Glenn, ed. Encyclopedia of American Economic History: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas. 3 vols.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.
    Pusateri, C. Joseph.A History of American Business.
    2d ed.
    Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1988.
    Puth, Robert C.American Economic History.
    3d ed.
    Fort Worth, Tex. Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.
    Robinson, Richard, comp. United States Business History, 1602–1988: A Chronology. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
    Scheiber, Harry N., Harold G.Vatter, and Harold UnderwoodFaulkner. American Economic History. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1976.
    Schweikart, Larry. The Entrepreneurial Adventure: A History of Business in the United States. Fort Worth, Tex. Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.
    Walton, Gary M., and HughRockoff. History of the American Economy.
    12th ed.
    Mason, Ohio: Cengage, 2013.
    Education
    Blanchfield, Deirdre S.Environmental Encyclopedia. 2 vols.
    4th ed.
    Detroit: Cengage Learning, 2011.
    Carleton, David. Landmark Congressional Laws on Education. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
    Cross, Christopher T.Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. New York: Teachers College Press, Teachers College, Columbia University, 2004.
    Eidenberg, Eugene, and Roy D.Morey. An Act of Congress: The Legislative Process and the Making of Education Policy. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1969.
    Gladieux, Lawrence E., and Thomas R.Wolanin. Congress and the Colleges: The National Politics of Higher Education. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1976.
    Graham, Hugh Davis.The Uncertain Triumph: Federal Education Policy in the Kennedy and Johnson Years. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.
    Hill, David Spencer, and William AlfredFisher.Federal Relations to Education: Report of the National Advisory Committee on Education. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: National Capital Press, 1931.
    Lapati, Americo D.Education and the Federal Government: A Historical Record. New York: Mason/Charter Publishers, 1975.
    Lu, Hsien. Federal Role in Education: A Comprehensive Study of Federal Relations to Education in the United States—Their Past, Present, and Future. New York: American Press, 1968, 1965.
    Milazzo, Paul Charles.Unlikely Environmentalists: Congress and Clean Water, 1945–1972. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2006.
    Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.The Law of Public Education.
    4th ed.
    Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1994.
    Rudy, Willis. Building America's Schools and Colleges: The Federal Contribution. Cranbury, N.J.: Cornwall Books, 2003.
    Russo, Charles J., ed. Encyclopedia of Education Law. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963916
    Russo, Charles J., ed. Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412969024
    Sears, William P., Jr.The Roots of Vocational Education. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1931.
    Emergency Powers
    Lehman, John F.Making War. The 200-Year-Old Battle Between the President and Congress Over How America Goes to War. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992.
    Relyea, Harold C.Stretch Points of the Constitution: National Emergency Powers.” In Renewing the Dream: National Archives Bicentennial ‘87 Lectures on Contemporary Constitutional Issues, edited by Ralph S.Pollock. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America; Washington, D.C.: National Archives Volunteers Constitution Study Group, 1986.
    Tap, Bruce. Over Lincoln's Shoulder: The Committee on the Conduct of the War. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations and U.S. Senate Special Committee on National Emergencies and Delegated Emergency Powers. The National Emergencies Act (Public Law 94–412): Source Book: Legislative History, Texts, and Other Documents. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    U.S. Senate Special Committee on National Emergency Powers and Delegated Emergency Powers. A Brief History of Emergency Powers in the United States: A Working Paper, Prepared for the Special Committee on National Emergencies and Delegated Emergency Powers, United States Senate. Prepared by Harold C. Relyea. 93d Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.
    Zeisberg, Mariah Ananda.War Powers: The Politics of Constitutional Authority. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2013.
    Energy and Natural Resources
    Clark, John G.Energy and the Federal Government: Fossil Fuel Policies, 1900–1946. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
    Davis, David Howard.Energy Politics.
    4th ed.
    New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.
    Energy Policy.
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1981.
    Fehner, Terrence R., and Jack M.Holl. Department of Energy, 1977–1994: A Summary History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, November 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/10106088
    Kash, Don E., and Robert W.Rycroft. U.S. Energy Policy: Crisis and Complacency. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.
    Katz, James Everett.Congress and National Energy Policy. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1984.
    Rabbitt, Mary C.The United States Geological Survey, 1879–1989. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    U.S. Congress. Senate. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Vietor, Richard H. K.Energy Policy in America since 1945: A Study of Business Government Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528057
    Environment and Conservation
    Bailey, Christopher J.Congress and Air Pollution: Environmental Policies in the USA. New York: Manchester University Press, 1998.
    Bean, Michael J., and Melanie J.Rowland. The Evolution of National Wildlife Law.
    3d ed.
    Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.
    Brooks, Karl Boyd.Before Earth Day: The Origins of American Environmental Law, 1945–1970. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009.
    Clark, Ray, and LarryCanter, eds. Environmental Policy and NEPA: Past, Present, and Future. Boca Raton, Fla.: St. Lucie Press, 1997.
    Cooley, Richard A., and GeoffreyWandesforde-Smith, eds. Congress and the Environment. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970.
    Cunningham, William P., TerenceBall, Terence H.Cooper, Eville, Gorham, Malcolm T.Hepworth, and Alfred A.Marcus, eds. Environmental Encyclopedia.
    2d ed.
    Detroit: Gale, 1998.
    Hays, Samuel P.Explorations in Environmental History: Essays by Samuel P. Hays. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.
    Lindstrom, Matthew, ed. Encyclopedia of the U.S. Government and the Environment: History, Policy, and Politics. 2 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2011.
    MacDonnell, Lawrence J., and Sarah F.Bates, eds. The Evolution of Natural Resources Law and Policy. Boulder, Colo.: Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado School of Law, 2010.
    Meier, Kenneth J., E. ThomasGarman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics.
    3d ed.
    Houston, Tex. Dame Publications, 1998.
    Petulla, Joseph M.American Environmental History.
    2d ed.
    Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Publishing Company, 1988.
    Rosenbaum, Walter A.Environmental Politics and Policy.
    8th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011.
    Smith, Frank E.The Politics of Conservation. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. History of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–45. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Vig, Norman J., and Michael E.Kraft, eds. Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-first Century.
    8th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2013.
    Executive Branch
    Arnold, Peri E.Making the Managerial Presidency: Comprehensive Reorganization Planning, 1905–1996.
    2d ed.
    Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1998.
    Carpenter, Daniel P.The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862–1928. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001.
    Emmerich, Herbert. Federal Organization and Administrative Management. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1971.
    Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congress and the Executive.
    4th ed.
    College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
    Fisher, Louis, and RonaldMoe. “Presidential Reorganization Authority: Is It Worth the Cost?Political Science Quarterly96 (Summer 1981): 301–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2150341
    Levy, Leonard W., and LouisFisher, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. 4 vols.New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
    Seidman, Harold. Politics, Position, and Power: The Dynamics of Federal Organization.
    5th ed.
    New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877–1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665080
    Sundquist, James L.Congress as Public Administrator.” In A Centennial History of the American Administrative State, edited by Ralph ClarkChandler, 261–289. New York: Free Press, 1987.
    White, Leonard Dupee. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan, 1948.
    White, Leonard Dupee. The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829–1861. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
    White, Leonard Dupee. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801–1829. New York: Macmillan, 1951.
    White, Leonard Dupee. The Republican Era, 1869–1901: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
    Exploration
    Dupree, A. Hunter.Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities to 1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957.
    Goetzmann, William H.New Lands, New Men: America and the Second Great Age of Discovery. Austin: Texas State Historical Society, 1995.
    Hechler, Ken. Toward the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959–79. U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. 99th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.
    Logsdon, John M.The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.
    Manning, Thomas G.Government in Science: The U.S. Geological Survey, 1867–1894. Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1967.
    McCurdy, Howard E.The Space Station Decision: Incremental Politics and Technological Choice. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.
    Family Policies
    Jacobs, Francine H., and Margery W.Davies, eds. More Than Kissing Babies? Current Child and Family Policy in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Auburn House, 1994.
    Michel, Sonya. Children's Interests/Mothers’ Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
    Steiner, Gilbert Y.The Futility of Family Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1981.
    U.S. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. Federal Programs Affecting Children and Their Families, 1992: A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. 102d Cong., 2d sess. H. Rept. 102–1075. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.
    Zigler, Edward F., Sharon LynnKagan, and Nancy W.Hall, eds. Children, Families, and Government: Preparing for the Twenty-first Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    Federalism
    Conlan, Timothy. From New Federalism to Devolution: Twenty-five Years of Intergovernmental Reform. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
    Dilger, Robert Jay, ed. American Intergovernmental Relations Today: Perspectives and Controversies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986.
    Elazar, Daniel J.The American Partnership. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
    Graves, W. Brooke.American Intergovernmental Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development, and Current Status. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964.
    Grodzins, Morton, ed. The American System: A New View of Government in the United States. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1966.
    Marbach, Joseph R., EllisKatz, and Troy E.Smith. Federalism in America: An encyclopedia. 2 vols.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2006.
    Riker, William H.The Development of American Federalism. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3273-9
    Walker, David B.The Rebirth of Federalism: Slouching toward Washington.
    2d ed.
    Chappaqua, N.Y.: Chatham House Publishers, 2000.
    Wright, Deil S.Understanding Intergovernmental Relations.
    3d ed.
    Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1988.
    Zimmerman, Joseph F.Contemporary American Federalism: The Growth of National Power. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2002.
    Foreign Aid
    Guess, George M.The Politics of United States Foreign Aid. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
    Meyer, Jeffrey A.Congressional Control of Foreign Assistance.” Yale Journal of International Law13 (Winter 1988): 69–110.
    Obey, David R., and CarolLancaster. “Funding Foreign Aid.” Foreign Policy71 (Summer 1988): 141–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1148909
    Payaslian, Simon. U.S. Foreign Economic and Military Aid: The Reagan and Bush Administrations. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.
    Ruttan, Vernon W.United States Development Assistance Policy: The Domestic Politics of Foreign Economic Aid. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
    Sewell, John W., and Christine E.Contee. “Foreign Aid and Gramm-Rudman.” Foreign Affairs65 (Summer 1986): 1015–1036. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20043199
    Tarnoff, Curt, and Larry Q.Nowels. U.S. Foreign Assistance: The Rationale, the Record, and the Challenges in the Post-Cold War Era. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association, 1994.
    U.S. Agency for International Development. Development and the National Interest: U.S. Economic Assistance into the Twenty-first Century. Washington, D.C.: Agency for International Development, 1989.
    U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Background Materials on Foreign Assistance: Report of the Task Force on Foreign Assistance to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. 101st Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Report of the Task Force on Foreign Assistance to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. 101st Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Government Ethics
    Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Special Committee on Congressional Ethics. Congress and the Public Trust: Report. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
    Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Special Committee on Congressional Ethics. Special Committee on the Federal Conflict of Interest Laws. Conflict of Interest and Federal Service. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960.
    Thompson, Dennis F.Ethics in Congress: From Individual to Institutional Corruption. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1995.
    Government Printing and Publishing
    Huston, John Alexander.Historical Sketch of the Government Printing Office, 1861–1916. Washington, D.C.: The Forston Press, 1916.
    Kling, Robert E.The Government Printing Office. New York: Praeger, 1970.
    Schmeckebier, Laurence F.The Government Printing Office: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1925.
    Stathis, Stephen W. “The Evolution of Government Printing and Publishing in America.” Government Publications Review7 (1980): 377–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-335X%2880%2990070-9
    U.S. Government Printing Office. Keeping America Informed: The U.S. Government Printing Office: 150 Years of Service to the Nation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.
    U.S. Government Printing Office. 100 GPO Years, 1861–1961: A History of United States Public Printing. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961.
    Walters, John S.U.S. Government Publication: Ideological Development and Institutional Politics from the Founding to 1970. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2005.
    Gun Control
    Carter, Gregg Lee.The Gun Control Movement. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997.
    Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law.
    2d ed.
    3 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2012.
    Henderson, Harry. Gun Control. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
    Kruschke, Earl R.Gun Control: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1995.
    Patterson, Samuel C., and Keith R.Eakins. “Congress and Gun Control.” In The Changing Politics of Gun Control, edited by John M.Bruce and ClydeWilcox, 45–73. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
    Spitzer, Robert J.The Politics of Gun Control.
    5th ed.
    Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm Publishers, 2012.
    Utter, Glenn H., and Robert J.Spitzer. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.
    2d ed.
    Amenia, N.Y.: Grey House Publishers, 2011.
    Wilson, Harry L.Guns, Gun Control, and Elections: The Politics and Policy of Firearms. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
    Health and Medicine
    Anderson, Odin W.Health Services as a Growth Enterprise in the United States since 1875.
    2d ed.
    Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, 1990.
    Cooper, Richard M., ed. Food and Drug Law. Washington, D.C.: Food and Drug Law Institute, 1991.
    Feldstein, Paul J.Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective on Health Reform.
    5th ed.
    Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2011.
    Fox, Daniel M.Health Policies, Health Politics: The British and American Experience, 1911–1965. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.
    Goodman, Richard A., Richard E.Hoffman, WilfredoLopez, Gene W.Matthews, Mark A.Rothstein, and Karen L.Foster, eds. Law in Public Health Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301489.001.0001
    Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J.Ornstein. Intensive Care: How Congress Shapes Health Policy. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution Press, 1995.
    Marmor, Theodore R.The Politics of Medicare.
    2d ed.
    New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2000.
    Morone, James A., Theodor J.Litman, and Leonard S.Robins, eds. Health Politics and Policy.
    4th ed.
    Clifton Park, N.Y.: Delmar Cengage Learning, 2008.
    Shonick, William. Government and Health Services: Government's Role in the Development of U.S. Health Services, 1930–1980. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Starr, Paul. Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle Over Health Care Reform. Rev. ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2013.
    Starr, Paul.. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.
    Strickland, Stephen P.Politics, Science, and Dread Disease: A Short History of United States Medical Research Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.
    Temin, Peter. Taking Your Medicine: Drug Regulation in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    Housing, Subsidized Housing, and Housing Finance
    Fish, Gertrude Sipperly, ed. The Story of Housing. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
    Hays, R. Allen.The Federal Government and Urban Housing: Ideology and Change in Public Policy.
    3d ed.
    Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2012.
    Mitchell, J. Paul, ed. Federal Housing Policy and Programs. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1985.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development. Housing—A Reader. 98th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 98–5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
    U.S. House Committee on Financial Services. A Chronology of Housing Legislation and Selected Executive Actions, 1892–2003. 108th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print 108-D. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003
    U.S. House Committee on Financial Services. Compilation of Basic Laws on Housing and Community Development: Revised through December 31, 2002 (End of the 107th Congress). 108th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 108-C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs. Congress and American Housing 1892–1967. 90th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
    Immigration Policy
    Bankston, Carl L., III, ed. Encyclopedia of American Immigration. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 2010.
    Bernard, William S.Immigration: History of U.S. Policy.” In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, edited by StephanThernstrom, AnnOrlov, and OscarHandlin, 486–495. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1980.
    Cose, Ellis. A Nation of Strangers: Prejudice, Politics, and the Populating of America. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1992.
    Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M.Reimers. Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration.
    5th ed.
    New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
    Fitzgerald, Keith. The Face of the Nation: Immigration, the State, and the National Identity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
    Gold, Martin. Forbidden Citizens: Chinese Exclusion and the U.S. Congress: A Legislative History. Alexandria, Va.: http://TheCapital.Net, 2012.
    Hutchinson, E. P.Legislative History of American Immigration Policy, 1798–1965. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.
    Jones, Maldwyn Allen.American Immigration.
    2d ed.
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
    LeMay, Michael C., ed. Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration. 3 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2013.
    LeMay, Michael C.U.S. Immigration: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004.
    LeMay, Michael, and Elliott RobertBarkan, eds. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Laws and Issues: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. History of the Immigration and Naturalizaton Service. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. The Immigration and Naturalization Systems of the United States. 81st Cong., 2d sess. S. Rept. 1515. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.
    Indian Policy
    Bee, Robert L.The Politics of American Indian Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing Company, 1982.
    Davis, Mary B., ed. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.
    Harmon, George Dewey.Sixty Years of Indian Affairs: Political, Economic, and Diplomatic, 1789–1850. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1941.
    Henriksson, Markku. The Indian on Capitol Hill: Indian Legislation and the United States Congress, 1862–1907. Helsinki: Societas Historica Finlandiae, 1988.
    Hoxie, Frederick E.A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.
    Johansen, Bruce E., and Barry M.Pritzker, eds. Encyclopedia of American Indian History. 4 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2008.
    Kappler, Charles J., comp. and ed. Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. 7 vols.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903.
    Newton, Nell Jessup, ed. Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law. New Providence, N.J.: LexisNexis, 2012.
    Prucha, Francis Paul.American Indian Treaties: The History of a Political Anomaly. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
    Prucha, Francis Paul.. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. 2 vols.Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
    Rockwell, Stephen J.Indian Affairs and the Administrative State in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750977
    Schmeckebier, Laurence F.The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1927.
    Stuart, Paul. The Indian Office: Growth and Development of the American Institution, 1865–1900. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1979.
    Taylor, Theodore W.The Bureau of Indian Affairs. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.
    Tyler, S. Lyman.A History of Indian Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1973.
    Intelligence Policy
    Fain, Tyrus G., with Katharine C.Plant and RossMilloy, eds. The Intelligence Community: History, Organization, and Issues. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1977.
    Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. The CIA and American Democracy.
    3d ed.
    New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.
    Johnson, Loch K.A Season of Inquiry: Congress and Intelligence. Chicago: Dorsey Press, 1988.
    Koh, Harold Hongju.The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power after the Iran-Contra Affair. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
    Lowenthal, Mark M.Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy.
    5th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2012.
    Smist, Frank J., Jr.Congress Oversees the United States Intelligence Community, 1947–1994.
    2d ed.
    Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.
    U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Legislative Oversight of Intelligence Activities: The U.S. Experience. 103d Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 103–88. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
    Watson, Bruce W., Susan M.Watson, and Gerald W.Hopple, eds. United States Intelligence: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990.
    Internal Improvements
    Albjerg, Victor J.Federal Policy toward Internal Improvements, 1789–1861.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin, 1927.
    Albjerg, Victor J.. “Internal Improvements without a Policy (1789–1860).” Indiana Magazine of History28 (September 1932): 168–179.
    Armstrong, Ellis L., Michael C.Robinson, and Suellen M.Hoy, eds. History of Public Works in the United States, 1776–1976. Chicago: American Public Works Association, 1976.
    Goodrich, Carter. Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
    Harrison, Joseph H., Jr.The Internal Improvement Issue in the Politics of the Union, 1783–1825.” PhD diss., University of Virginia, 1954.
    Hill, Forest Garrett.Roads, Rails and Waterways: The Army Engineers and Early Transportation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
    Jackson, W. Turrentine.Wagon Roads West: A Study of Federal Road Surveys and Construction in the Trans-Mississippi West, 1846–1869. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1965.
    Larson, John Lauritz.‘Bind the Republic Together’: The National Union and the Struggle for Internal Improvements.” Journal of American History74 (September 1987): 363–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1900027
    Rae, John Bell.Federal Land Grants in Aid of Canals.” Journal of Economic History4 (November 1944): 167–177.
    Internal Security
    Carr, Robert K.The House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1945–1950. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1952.
    Goodman, Walter. The Committee: The Extraordinary Career of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1968.
    Herman, Arthur. Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. New York: Free Press, 2000.
    Irons, Peter. Justice at War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
    Latham, Earl. The Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.
    Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents.
    2d ed.
    Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 2001.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. Administration of the Internal Security Act of 1950. Prepared by A. WarrenLittman. 94th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. Internal Security Manual, Revised to July 1973: Provisions of Federal Statutes, Executive Orders, and Congressional Resolutions Relating to the Internal Security of the United States. 2 vols. 93d Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.
    Judiciary and Judicial Review
    Carp, Robert A., and RonaldStidham. The Federal Courts.
    4th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.
    Crowe, Justin. Building the Judiciary: Law, Courts, and the Politics of Institutional Development. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2012.
    Lehman, Jeffrey, and ShirellePhelps, eds. West's Encyclopedia of American Law.
    2d ed.
    13 vols.Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 2005.
    Marcus, Maeva, ed. Origins of the Federal Judiciary: Essays on the Judiciary Act of 1789. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    Posner, Richard A.The Federal Courts: Challenge and Reform. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Ritz, Wilfred J.Rewriting the History of the Judiciary Act of 1789. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.
    Savage, David G., ed. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court.
    5th ed.
    2 vols.Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2010.
    Surrency, Erwin C.History of the Federal Courts.
    2d ed.
    Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 2002.
    Wheeler, Russell R., and CynthiaHarrison. Creating the Federal Judicial System.
    3d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center, 2005.
    Wilson, Steven Harmon, ed. The U.S. Justice System: An Encyclopedia. 3 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2012.
    Labor
    Ashford, Nicholas Askounes.Crisis in the Workplace: Occupational Disease and Injury, A Report to the Ford Foundation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976.
    Cihon, Patrick J., and James OttavioCastagnera. Employment & Labor Law.
    7th ed.
    Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.
    Commons, John R., and John B.Andrews. Principles of Labor Legislation.
    2d ed.
    Holmes Beach, Fla.: Gaunt Inc., 2001.
    Derber, Milton, and EdwinYoung, ed. Labor and the New Deal. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957.
    Fields, C. Kerry, and Henry R.Cheeseman. Contemporary Employment Law. New York: Aspen Publishers, 2010.
    Forbath, William E.Law and the Shaping of the American Labor Movement. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.
    Gregory, Charles O., and Harold A.Katz. Labor and the Law.
    3d ed.
    New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1979.
    Kaps, Robert W., J. ScottHamilton, and Timm J.Bliss. Labor Relations in the Aviation and Aerospace Industries. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2012.
    McNaughton, Wayne L., and JosephLazar. Industrial Relations and the Government. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1954.
    Moss, David A.Socializing Security: Progressive-Era Economists and the Origins of American Social Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Nordlund, Willis J.The Quest for a Living Wage: The History of the Federal Minimum Wage Program. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
    Rehmus, Charles M. “Evolution of Legislation Affecting Collective Bargaining in the Railroad and Airline Industries.” In The Railway Labor Act at Fifty: Collective Bargaining in the Railroad and Airline Industries, edited by BenjaminVaaron, Beatrice M.Brugoon, Donald E.Cullen, Dana E.Eischen, Mark L.Kahn, Charles M.Rehmus, and JacobSeidenberg, 1–22. Washington, D.C.: National Mediation Board, 1977.
    Van Horn, Carl E. and Herbert A.Schaffner, eds. Work in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Policy, and Society. 2 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2003.
    Lobbying
    Mulhollan, Daniel P.An Overview of Lobbying by Organizations.” In U.S. Congress. Commission on the Operation of the Senate. Senators, Offices, Ethics, and Pressures, 157–192. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
    Ornstein, Norman J., and ShirleyElder. Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Policymaking. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1978.
    Schriftgiesser, Karl. The Lobbyists: The Art and Business of Influencing Lawmakers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.
    Susman, Thomas M., ed. “Introduction to Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act.” Chap. 1 in The Lobbying Manual: A Compliance Guide for Lawyers and Lobbyists. Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, 1993.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations. Congress and Pressure Groups: Lobbying in a Modern Democracy. 99th Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 99–161. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.
    Maritime Policy
    Gibson, Andrew and ArthurDonovan. The Abandoned Ocean: A History of United States Maritime Policy. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.
    Labaree, Benjamin W., William M.Fowler, Jr., Edward W.Sloan, John B.Hattendorf, Jeffrey J.Safford, and Andrew W.German. America and the Sea: A Maritime History. Mystic, Conn.: Mystic Seaport, 1998.
    Lawrence, Samuel A.United States Merchant Shipping Policies and Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1966.
    Noble, Dennis L.Lighthouses & Keepers: The U.S. Lighthouse Service and Its Legacy. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
    Money and Monetary Policy
    Allen, Larry. The Encyclopedia of Money.
    2d ed.
    Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2009.
    Doty, Richard G.America's Money, America's Story: A Chronicle of American Numismatic History.
    2d ed.
    Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, 2008.
    Lange, David W.History of the United States Mint and Its Coinage. Atlanta, Ga. Whitman Publishing, 2006.
    Schwarz, Ted. A History of United States Coinage. San Diego, Calif.: A.S. Barnes; London: Tantivy Press, 1980.
    Taxay, Don. The United States Mint and Coinage: An Illustrated History from 1776 to the Present. New York: Arco Publishing Company, 1966.
    Narcotics and Other Dangerous Drugs
    Belenko, Steven R., ed. Drugs and Drug Policy in America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.
    Greenberg, Martin Alan.Prohibition Enforcement: Charting a New Mission. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1999.
    Inciardi, James A., ed. Handbook of Drug Control in the United States. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
    Maisto, Stephen A., MarkGalizio, and Gerard J.Connors. Drug Use and Abuse. 6th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2011.
    McWilliams, John C.Through the Past Darkly: The Politics and Policies of America's Drug War.” In Drug Control Policy: Essays in Historical and Comparative Perspective, edited by William O.Walker III. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.
    Morgan, H. Wayne.Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800–1980. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1981.
    Musto, David F.The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control.
    3d ed.
    New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Musto, David F., and PamelaKorsmeyer. The Quest for Drug Control: Politics and Federal Policy in a Period of Increasing Substance Abuse, 1963–1981. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.12987/yale/9780300090369.001.0001
    Temin, Peter. Taking Your Medicine: Drug Regulation in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    Walker, William O., III.Drug Control in the Americas. Rev. ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989.
    National Parks and Forests
    Dilsaver, Lary M., ed. America's National Park System: The Critical Documents. Lanham, Md.: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 1994.
    Frome, Michael. The Forest Service.
    2d ed.
    Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.
    Ise, John. Our National Park Policy: A Critical History. Baltimore, Md.: Published for Resources for the Future by Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961.
    Runte, Alfred. National Parks: The American Experience.
    4th ed.
    Lanham, Md.: Taylor Trade Publishers, 2010.
    Sellars, Richard West. Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2009.
    Smith, Darrell Hevenor.The Forest Service: Its History, Activities and Organization. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1930.
    U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. Forest Service Planning: Accommodating Uses, Producing Outputs, and Sustaining Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, 1992.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Wilkinson, Charles F., and H. MichaelAnderson. Land and Resource Planning in the National Forests. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1987.
    Williams, Gerald W.The Forest Service: Fighting for Public Lands. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007.
    Older Americans
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew.Shades of Gray: Old Age, American Values, and Federal Policies since 1920. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983.
    Estes, Carroll L.The Aging Enterprise. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980.
    Hudson, Robert B.The Aging in Politics: Process and Policy. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1981.
    Hudson, Robert B., ed. The New Politics of Old Age Policy.
    2d ed.
    Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
    Koff, Theodore H., and Richard W.Park. Aging Public Policy: Bonding the Generations.
    2d ed.
    Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Company, 1999.
    Pratt, Henry J.The Gray Lobby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
    Torres-Gil, Fernando M.The New Aging: Politics and Change in America. New York: Auburn House, 1992.
    U.S. Social Security Administration. History of the Provisions of Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance, 1935–1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Social Security Administration, 1997.
    Postal Service
    Baxter, Vern K.Labor and Politics in the U.S. Postal Service. New York: Plenum Press, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1468-2
    Cullinan, Gerald. The United States Postal Service. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973.
    Fowler, Dorothy Ganfield.Unmailable: Congress and the Post Office. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1977.
    Fuller, Wayne Edison.The American Mail; Enlarger of the Common Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
    John, Richard R.Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.
    Kielbowicz, Richard Burket.News in the Mail: The Press, Post Office, and Public Information, 1700–1860s. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
    Mayton, William Ty.The Missions and Methods of the Postal Power.” In Governing the Postal Service, edited by J. GregorySidak, 60–113. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1994.
    Scheele, Carl H.A Short History of the Mail Service. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970.
    Presidential Disability, Succession, and Tenure
    Bayh, Birch. One Heartbeat Away: Presidential Disability and Succession. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1968.
    Engdahl, Sylvia, ed. Amendment XXV: Presidential Disability and Succession. Detroit: Gale Cengage Learning, 2010.
    Feerick, John D.The Twenty-fifth Amendment: Its Complete History and Applications.
    3d ed.
    New York: Fordham University Press, 2013.
    Silva, Ruth. Presidential Succession. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1951.
    Stathis, Stephen W.The Twenty-second Amendment: A Practical Remedy or Partisan Maneuver?Constitutional Commentary7 (Winter 1990): 61–88.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments. Selected Materials on the Twenty-fifth Amendment. 93d Cong., 1st sess. S. Doc. 93–42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.
    Privacy
    Cate, Fred H.Privacy in the Information Age. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.
    Hanus, Jerome J., and Harold C.Relyea. “A Policy Assessment of the Privacy Act.” American University Law Review25 (Spring 1976): 555–593.
    Personal Privacy in an Information Society: The Report of the Privacy Protection Study Commission. Washington, D.C.: Privacy Protection Study Commission, July 1977.
    Regan, Priscilla M.Legislating Privacy: Technology, Social Values, and Public Policy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Smith, Robert Ellis.Ben Franklin's Web Site: Privacy and Curiosity from Plymouth Rock to the Internet. Providence, R.I.: Privacy Journal, 2000.
    Swire, Peter P., and Robert E.Litan. None of Your Business: World Data Flows, Electronic Commerce, and the European Privacy Directive. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations and U.S. House Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Government Information and Individual Rights. Legislative History of the Privacy Act of 1974, S. 3418 (Public Law 93–579): Source Book on Privacy. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Joint Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    Westin, Alan F.Privacy and Freedom. New York: Atheneum, 1967.
    Public Lands
    America 200: The Legacy of Our Lands. Special bicentennial ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1976.
    Cawley, R. McGreggor.Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.
    Foss, Phillip O.Politics and Grass: The Administration of Grazing on the Public Domain. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1960.
    Gates, Paul W.History of Public Land Law Development. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
    Hibbard, Benjamin Horace.A History of the Public Land Policies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965.
    Oberly, James W.Sixty Million Acres: American Veterans and the Public Lands before the Civil War. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1990.
    Robbins, Roy M.Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776–1936. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1942.
    Rohrbough, Malcolm J.The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789–1837. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
    Stegner, Wallace. Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1954.
    Utley, Robert M., and BarryMackintosh. The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1988.
    Wilkinson, Charles F.Crossing the Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1992.
    Public Works
    Armstrong, Ellis L., Michael C.Robinson, and Suellen M.Hoy, eds. History of Public Works in the United States, 1776–1976. Chicago: American Public Works Association, 1976.
    Hill, Forest G.Roads, Rails and Waterways: The Army Engineers and Early Transportation. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.
    Hoy, Suellen M., and Michael C.Robinson, comp. Public Works History in the United States: A Guide to the Literature. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1982.
    Maass, Arthur. Congress and the Common Good. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
    Maass, Arthur.. Muddy Waters: The Army Engineers and the Nation's Rivers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951.
    Pross, Edward L.History of Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Bills, 1866–1933.” PhD diss., Ohio State University, 1938.
    U.S. Federal Highway Administration. America's Highways, 1776–1976: A History of the Federal-Aid Program. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1977.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. History of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–45. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Regulation and Deregulation
    Cushman, Robert T.The Independent Regulatory Commissions. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
    Derthick, Martha, and Paul J.Quirk. The Politics of Deregulation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1985.
    Funk, William F., Jeffrey S.Lubbers, and CharlesPou Jr., eds. Federal Administrative Procedure Sourcebook.
    4th ed.
    Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Administrative and Regulatory Practice, 2008.
    Koch, Charles H., Jr.Administrative Law and Practice.
    3d ed.
    5 vols.Egan, Minn.: West/Thomson, 2010.
    Lubbers, Jeffrey S.A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking. 5th ed. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2012.
    Meier, Kenneth J. E., ThomasGarman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics.
    3d ed.
    Houston, Tex. Dame Publications, 1998.
    Vietor, Richard H. K.Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994.
    Weidenbaum, Murray L.Business, Government, and the Public.
    7th ed.
    Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004.
    Religion
    Ahlstrom, Sydney E.A Religious History of the American People.
    2d ed.
    2 vols.New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004.
    Benson, Peter L., and Dorothy L.Williams. Religion on Capitol Hill: Myths and Realities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    Cookson, Catharine, ed. Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom. New York: Routledge, 2003.
    Djupe, Paul A., and Laura R.Olson. Encyclopedia of American Religion and Politics. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
    Edel, Wilbur. Defenders of the Faith: Religion and Politics from the Pilgrim Fathers to Ronald Reagan. New York: Praeger, 1987.
    Fowler, Robert Booth, Allen D.Hertzke, and Laura R.Olson. Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices.
    2d ed.
    Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
    Queen, Edward L., Stephen R.Prothero, and Gardiner H.Shattuck, Jr.Encyclopedia of American Religious History.
    3d ed.
    New York: Facts on File, 2009.
    Reichley, A. James.Religion in American Public Life. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1985.
    Stokes, Anson Phelps.Church and State in the United States. 3 vols.New York: Harper and Row, 1950.
    Woods, James E., Jr., and DerekDavis, eds. The Role of Religion in the Making of Public Policy. Waco, Tex. Baylor University, J. M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, 1991.
    Science and Technology
    Barke, Richard. Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986.
    Blanpied, William A.A History of Federal Science Policy from the New Deal to the Present. Houston: Rice University Press, 2010.
    Del Sesto, Steven L.Science, Politics, and Controversy: Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States, 1946–1974. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1979.
    Dupree, A. Hunter.Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
    Kleinman, Daniel Lee.Politics on the Endless Frontier: Postwar Research Policy in the United States. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.
    National Academy of Sciences. Committee on Science and Public Policy. Federal Support of Basic Research in Institutions of Higher Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council, 1964.
    Penick, James L., Jr., Carroll W.Pursell Jr., Morgan B.Sherwood, and Donald C.Swain. The Politics of American Science, 1939 to the Present. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972.
    U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology. A History of Science Policy in the United States, 1940–1985. 99th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Serial R. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.
    Slavery
    Alexander, Thomas B.Sectional Stress and Party Strength: A Study of Roll-Call Voting Patterns in the United States House of Representatives, 1836–1860. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University, 1967.
    Franklin, John Hope, and EvelynHigginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans.
    9th ed.
    New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.
    Freehling, William W.The Road to Disunion. 2 vols.New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1964.
    Knupfer, Peter B.The Union as It Is: Constitutional Unionism and Sectional Compromise, 1787–1861. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
    Miller, William Lee.Arguing about Slavery: The Great Battle in the United States Congress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
    Potter, David M.The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1976
    Small Business
    Anglund, Sandra M.Small Business Policy and the American Creed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
    Aoyama, Yuko, and Michael B.Teitz. Small Business Policy in Japan and the United States: A Comparative Analysis of Objectives and Outcomes. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of International Studies, International and Area Studies, 1996.
    Bean, Jonathan J.Beyond the Broker State: Federal Policies toward Small Business, 1936–1961. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
    Blackford, Mansel G.A History of Small Business in America.
    2d ed.
    Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
    Parris, Addison W.The Small Business Administration. New York: F. A. Praeger, 1968.
    Phillips, Joseph Dexter.Little Business in the American Economy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1958.
    Social Security
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew.Social Security: Visions and Revisions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752742
    Altmeyer, Arthur J.The Formative Years of Social Security. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
    Coll, Blanche D.Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929–1979. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.
    Derthick, Martha. Policymaking for Social Security. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1979.
    Lubove, Roy. The Struggle for Social Security, 1900–1935.
    2d ed.
    Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986.
    Nash, Gerald D., Noel H.Pugach, and Richard F.Tomasson, eds. Social Security: The First Half-Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.
    Schieber, Sylvester J., and John B.Shoven. The Real Deal: The History and Future of Social Security. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Select Committee on Aging. Fifty Years of Social Security: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. 99th Cong., 1st sess. S. Print 99–70. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.
    Witte, Edwin Emil.The Development of the Social Security Act: A Memorandum on the History of the Committee on Economic Security and Drafting and Legislative History of the Social Security Act. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962.
    Social Welfare and Poverty
    Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Rev. ed. Boston: South End Press, 1996.
    Amenta, Edwin. Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
    Axinn, June, and Mark J.Stern. Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need.
    7th ed.
    Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2008.
    Day, Phyllis J.A New History of Social Welfare.
    6th ed.
    Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2009.
    Gordon, Linda. Pitied but Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890–1935. New York: Free Press, 1994.
    Quadagno, Jill S.The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.
    Weir, Margaret, Ann SholaOrloff, and ThedaSkocpol, eds. The Politics of Social Policy in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Statehood
    The Concept of Statehood within the American Federal System: A Report for the Alaska Statehood Commission. Prepared by Birch, Horton, Bittner, and Monroe, PC, for the Alaska Statehood Commission. Fairbanks, Alaska, April 15, 1981.
    Dávila-Colón, Luis R.Equal Citizenship, Self-Determination, and the U.S. Statehood Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law13 (Spring 1981): 315–374.
    Grupo de Investigadores Puertorriquenos. Breakthrough from Colonialism: An Interdisciplinary Study of Statehood. 2 vols.Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1984.
    Murphy, Russell D.Strategic Calculations and the Admission of New States into the Union, 1789–1960: Congress and the Politics of Statehood. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008.
    U.S. Congress. Senate. Organic Acts for the United States. 56th Cong. 1st sess. S. Doc. 148. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1900.
    Taxation
    Blakey, Roy G., and Gladys C.Blakey. The Federal Income Tax. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1940.
    Blank, Steven A., Kirk J.Stark, and Joseph J.Thorndike. War and Taxes. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
    Brownlee, W. Elliot.Federal Taxation in America: A Short History.
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511511707
    Cordes, Joseph J., Robert D.Ebel, and Jane G.Gravelle, eds.
    2d ed.
    The Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 2005.
    Doris, Lillian, ed. The American Way in Taxation: Internal Revenue, 1862–1963. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1963.
    IRS Historical Fact Book: A Chronology, 1646–1992. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, 1993.
    Kimmel, Lewis H.Federal Budget and Fiscal Policy, 1789–1958. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1959.
    Paul, Randolph Evernghim.Taxation in the United States. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1954.
    Pechman, Joseph A.Federal Tax Policy. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1987.
    Ratner, Sidney. American Taxation, Its History as a Social Force in Democracy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1942.
    Stanley, Robert. Dimensions of Law in the Service of Order: Origins of the Federal Income Tax, 1861–1913. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
    Verdier, James M.The President, Congress, and Tax Reform: Patterns Over Three Decades.” Annals of the American Academy of Political Science499 (September 1988): 114–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716288499001009
    Willan, Robert M.Income Taxes: Concise History and Primer. Baton Rouge, La.: Claitor's Publishing Division, 1994.
    Witte, John F.The Politics and Development of the Federal Income Tax. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.
    Territories and Possessions
    Laughlin, Stanley K., Jr.The Law of United States Territories and Affiliated Jurisdictions. Rochester, N.Y.: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing, 1995.
    Leibowitz, Arnold H.Defining Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United States Territorial Relations. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989.
    Pomeroy, Earl S.The Territories and the United States, 1861–1890: Studies in Colonial Administration. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969.
    Pratt, Julius W.America's Colonial Experiment: How the United States Gained, Governed, and in Part Gave Away a Colonial Empire. New York: Prentice Hall, 1950.
    Stuart, Peter C.Isles of Empire: The United States and Its Overseas Possessions. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Trade and Tariffs
    Aaronson, Susan Ariel.Trade and the American Dream: A Social History of Postwar Trade Policy. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996.
    Destler, I. M.American Trade Politics.
    4th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics; New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 2005.
    Dobson, John M.Two Centuries of Tariffs: The Background and Emergence of the U.S. International Trade Commission. Washington, D.C.: U.S. International Trade Commission, December 1976.
    Eckes, Alfred E., Jr.Opening America's Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy since 1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Northrup, Cynthia Clark, and Elaine C.Prange Turney. Encyclopedia of Tariffs and Trade in U.S. History. 3 vols.Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.
    Pastor, Robert A.Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy, 1929–1976. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
    Ratner, Sidney. The Tariff in American History. New York: Van Nostrand, 1972.
    Taussig, F. W.The Tariff History of the United States.
    8th ed.
    New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1936.
    Transportation
    Goodrich, Carter. Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
    Haney, Lewis H.A Congressional History of Railways in the United States. 2 vols.Madison, Wis.: Democratic Printing Company, State Printer, 1910.
    Kane, Robert M., and Allan D.Vose. Air Transportation.
    16th ed.
    Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2012.
    Lawrence, Harry. Aviation and the Role of Government. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub., 2004.
    Locklin, D. Philip.Economics of Transportation.
    7th ed.
    Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1972.
    Mauch, Christof, and ThomasZeller, eds. The World Beyond the Windshield: Roads and Landscapes in the United States and Europe. Athens Ohio University Press; Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2008.
    Rose, Mark H., Bruce E.Seely, and Paul F.Barrett. The Best Transportation System in the World: Railroads, Trucks, Airlines, and American Public Policy in the Twentieth Century. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2006.
    Rose, Mark H., and Raymond A.Mohl. Interstate: Highway Politics and Policy Since 1939.
    3d ed.
    Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2012.
    Smerk, George M.The Federal Role in Urban Mass Transportation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
    Swift, Earl. The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.
    U.S. Department of Transportation. Office of Environmental Affairs. A Nation in Motion: Historic American Transportation Sites. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    U.S. Federal Highway Administration. America's Highways, 1776–1976: A History of the Federal-Aid Program. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1977.
    U.S. Office of Federal Coordinator of Transportation. Public Aids to Transportation. 4 vols.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1938–1940.
    Witnah, Donald R.U.S. Department of Transportation: A Reference History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.
    Treaties
    Axelrod, Alan. American Treaties and Alliances. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.
    Bevans, Charles I., comp. Treaties and Other Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949. 13 vols.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1968–1976.
    Dangerfield, Royden J.In Defense of the Senate: A Study in Treaty Making. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1933.
    Fleming, Denna Frank.The Treaty Veto of the American Senate. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1930.
    Glennon, Michael J.The Senate Role in Treaty Ratification.” American Journal of International Law77 (April 1983): 257–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2200853
    Hayden, Joseph Ralston.The Senate and Treaties, 1789–1817: The Development of the Treaty-Making Functions of the United States Senate during Their Formative Period. New York: Macmillan, 1920.
    Holt, W. Stull.Treaties Defeated by the Senate: A Study of the Struggle between President and Senate Over the Conduct of Foreign Relations. Union, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 1999.
    U.S. Department of State. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952–.
    U.S. Department of State. Office of Legal Adviser. Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on January 1, 1999. Department of State Publication 9434. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate. 106th Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 106–7. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.
    Wiktor, Christian L.Treaties Submitted to the United States Senate: Legislative History, 1989–2004. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004153318.i-475
    Urban Policy
    Biles, Roger. The Fate of Cities: Urban America and the Federal Government, 1945–2000. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.
    Cleaveland, Frederic N., RoyceHanson, M. KentJennings, John E.Moore, Judith HeimlichParris, and Randall B.Ripley. Congress and Urban Problems: A Casebook on the Legislative Process. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1969.
    Fox, Kenneth. Metropolitan America: Urban Life and Urban Policy in the United States, 1940–1980. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
    GelfandMark I.A Nation of Cities: The Federal Government and Urban America, 1933–1965. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
    Hays, R. Allen.The Federal Government and Urban Housing.
    3d ed.
    Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2012.
    Judd, Dennis R., and ToddSwanstrom. City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy.
    8th ed.
    Boston: Longman, 2012.
    Kaplan, Marshall, and FranklinJames, eds. The Future of National Urban Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.
    Kleinberg, Benjamin. Urban America in Transformation: Perspectives on Urban Policy and Development. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1995.
    Martin, Roscoe C.The Cities and the Federal System. New York: Atherton Press, 1965.
    Peterson, Paul E.City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226922645.001.0001
    Teaford, Jon C.The Twentieth-Century American City.
    2d ed.
    Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
    Veterans
    Dearing, Mary. Veterans in Politics: The Story of the G.A.R. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1952.
    Dillingham, William Pyrle.Federal Aid to Veterans, 1917–1941. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1952.
    Glasson, William Henry.History of Military Pension Legislation in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1900.
    Levitan, Sar A., and Karen A.Cleary. Old Wars Remain Unfinished: The Veteran Benefits System. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
    Pencak, William, ed. Encyclopedia of the Veteran in America. 2 vols.Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2009.
    Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.
    U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The Veterans Benefits Administration: An Organizational History, 1776–1994. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Benefits Administration, 1995.
    U.S. House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs. The Provision of Federal Benefits for Veterans: An Historical Analysis of Major Veterans’ Legislation, 1862–1954. 84th Cong., 1st sess. House Committee Print 171. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955.
    Voting and Suffrage
    Chute, Marchette. The First Liberty: A History of the Right to Vote in America, 1619–1850. New York: Dutton, 1969.
    Flexner, Eleanor, and EllenFitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. Enl. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Foster, Lorn S., ed. The Voting Rights Act: Consequences and Implications. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985.
    Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. Rev. ed. New York: Basic Books, 2009.
    Peirce, Neal R., and Lawrence D.Longley. “The Right to Vote in America.” Chap. 5 in The People's President: The Electoral College in American History and the Direct Vote Alternative. Rev. ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.
    Porter, Kirk H.A History of Suffrage in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1918.
    Rogers, Donald W., and ChristineScriabine, eds. Voting and the Spirit of American Democracy: Essays on the History of Voting and Voting Rights in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
    Women's Issues and Rights
    Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. Encyclopedia of Women's History in America.
    2d ed.
    New York: Facts on File, 2000.
    Davis, Flora. Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960. Rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
    Flexner, Eleanor, and EllenFitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Freeman, Jo. The Politics of Women's Liberation: A Case Study of an Emerging Social Movement and Its Relation to the Policy Process. New York: McKay, 1975.
    Gelb, Joyce, and Marian LiefPalley. Women and Public Policies: Reassessing Gender Politics. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
    Harrison, Cynthia. On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945–1968. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
    Hartmann, Susan M.From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
    McGlen, Nancy E., KarenO'Connor, Lauravan Assendelft, WendyGunther-Canada. Women, Politics, and American Society.
    5th ed.
    Boston: Longman, 2011.
    Mink, Gwendolyn, and AliceO'Connor, ed. Poverty in the United States: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, and Policy. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004.

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