Landmark Legislation 1774–2002: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties

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Stephen W. Stathis

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    Dedicated to my wife, Barbara, with love

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    Preface

    Since its inception, the U.S. Congress has served as a barometer of the mood of the country, and its members have given voice to the various interests of the nation. Despite a history of being innovative, responsive, and increasingly open to the people, Congress also has been seen by some as remote, irrelevant, and difficult to understand, and it has been an easy target for criticism. Especially in recent decades, many have doubted and sometimes made light of the role of Congress in the determination of national policy and the operation of the federal government.

    Landmark Legislation 1774–2002 seeks to improve understanding of the work of Congress by highlighting its most significant accomplishments. Congress is the crucible in which interests clash, ideas contend, and compromises are forged. Three recurring themes have dominated its work over the past two centuries: (1) Congress is an institution in which ideas can be initiated and allowed to incubate while its members try to reach consensus; (2) Congress responds to what the American people want from the federal government and what they think it should do; and (3) Congress stops legislation it sees as inappropriate, slows the legislative process to permit public support to build, and uses its oversight powers to ensure enforcement of its policies.

    Since 1789, more than 11,600 individuals have served as legislators in the halls of Congress. Their contributions are deeply etched in the legislative proposals that have been annually introduced, without interruption, since the first session of the First Congress. Although many of those ideas, on their face, were clearly impractical, the observations, suggestions, and propositions provide a meaningful barometer of prevailing perspectives and pressures, a stimulus for positive action, and the substance of what may become law.

    Nearly forty-four thousand public acts have been approved by Congress, submitted to the president for his approval, and signed into law since the First Congress convened. Many of these enactments represent momentary needs or fleeting passions, while others provide a glimpse of the continually changing texture of the national fabric. Only a relatively few, however, have withstood the test of history or so dramatically altered the perception of the role of government that they may be considered of enduring importance.

    Landmark Legislation documents Congress's most momentous accomplishments in determining the national policies to be carried out by the executive branch, in approving appropriations to support those policies, and in fulfilling its responsibility to ensure that such actions are being implemented as intended. Also included are notable treaties. Although some laws characterized as landmark have declined in importance or been forgotten over time, when passed they represented a recognition of needed action and guidance to administrative entities, a significant departure from previous policy, a creative response to an emergency, or a solution to a long-standing national concern.

    Evaluating the relative significance of an enactment with others in a given field and determining the precedents they set has proved an extraordinary exercise. The U.S. Congressional Serial Set, published by Congress, provides invaluable insight into the proceedings of the legislative branch. This largely forgotten collection of more than 14,500 volumes of congressional documents, reports, legislative journals, executive journals of the Senate, and reports made to Congress by the executive branch is a treasure trove that serves as the starting point for serious research on the institution. Equally valuable are the Annals of Congress, Register of Debates, Congressional Globe, CongressionalRecord, committee hearings transcripts, committee prints, Congressional Directory, and Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. These diverse published sources are supplemented by the vast holdings of congressional papers in the National Archives.

    Complementing these primary sources are a broad range of biographies of congressional personalities and general and specialized works on American history and politics that proved to be extremely useful in drawing conclusions and making judgments. Also, I consulted specialists in each of the various areas of expertise within the Congressional Research Service (CRS) of the Library of Congress and scholars throughout the academic community. Their insights were invaluable in preparing Landmark Legislation.

    Although some major laws and treaties no doubt have been inadvertently omitted, this volume seeks to illuminate the extremely important role Congress has assumed in shaping the political and historical characters of the American republic. It shows how and why Congress enlarged the responsibilities of the federal establishment and portrays the institutional development of a national government, the changing pattern of federal-state relations, and the continuing redefinition of constitutional rights. In doing so, it sheds light on how the actions of Congress affect each citizen of the United States and on how Congress does its job.

    The accompanying bibliographic selections focus not only on the unique and important role of Congress in formulating major policy changes but also on the forces prompting consideration and adoption of laws. The range of available materials shows that many fields of congressional inquiry await efforts by the scholarly community to provide an intellectual framework for understanding the inner workings of the American legislative process. Much of America's congressional heritage remains unexamined and unexplored.

    The numerous possibilities for scholarly inquiry offer rich opportunities for future generations of scholars. Although much of the work will necessitate extensive primary research in the vast collections of published and unpublished records of Congress, future scholars will be able to portray far more accurately and fully, and with greater insight, the deliberations and the decisions that demonstrate the framers' wisdom in creating the U.S. legislative framework. The basis of that framework is patience, with adequate allowance for every member and every viewpoint to be accorded its importance. The deliberate pace the framers ensured has allowed maximum opportunity for the people's voices to be heard.

    This study was first proposed more than two decades ago by Frederick H. Pauls, then chief of the Government Division of CRS. Under his guiding hand, and with the assistance of Christopher Dell, I produced an abbreviated version of this work as a CRS report in 1982. The current volume was originally suggested by Roger H. Davidson and has benefited from his continuing enthusiasm and insightful suggestions. I also wish to acknowledge with appreciation the steady encouragement, support, and sound advice of Daniel P. Mulhollan, director of CRS, W. Ralph Eubanks, director of the Library of Congress publishing office, and David Tarr, executive editor of CQ Press, without whom this study could not have been brought to completion.

    Landmark Legislation benefited enormously from the exceptional editorial skills and gift for the English language, as well as the sophisticated historical perspective, of longtime colleague and friend Thomas H. Neale. The time and attention he generously gave to the text, both editorially and as a contributor, were especially appreciated, as were his continuous expressions of encouragement.

    This book is dedicated with loving appreciation to my wife, Barbara, who endured all the frustrations inevitably accompanying such a project. For more than three decades she has steadfastly supported my career as a historian and expanded my horizons far beyond what I had ever dreamed possible.

    Stephen W.StathisAnnandale, Virginia

    Introduction

    During the eleven years between the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the convening of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the Continental Congress and its successor under the Articles of Confederation tried to hold together the loose association of the thirteen states that had broken from Great Britain. Ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the first effort by Americans to provide a written constitution for the “United States of America,” was completed early in 1781, more than three years after their adoption by the Continental Congress.

    Under the articles, the states retained control over the most essential governmental functions, and Congress—in which each state had an equal vote—was the sole instrument of national government. In their attempt to avoid anything like the system under which Great Britain had ruled her colonies, the colonists arguably left their own government too weak to perform its functions and duties. Almost from the outset, the confederation was beset with serious problems. These, for the most part, resulted from basic defects in the articles themselves, which failed to give Congress control over taxation and trade, made no provision for a federal executive or judiciary, and failed to provide the confederation any sanctions through which it might enforce its decisions.

    Even as the inadequacies of the Articles became apparent, the unanimous consent required for amendments proved impossible to obtain. As a consequence, the states had to take responsibility for settling many of their common problems. In March 1785, delegates from Virginia and Maryland met first at Alexandria, Virginia, and then at Mount Vernon, hoping to settle disputes relating to the navigation of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River. The success of the latter meeting led Virginia to issue an invitation to all the states to meet at Annapolis, Maryland, the following year to consider commercial reforms.

    The achievement of the twelve delegates from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia who met in Annapolis on September 11–14, 1786, was not readily apparent. The only resolution adopted called for a general meeting of delegates from all thirteen states in Philadelphia the following May to consider what steps were “necessary to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.” James Madison and Alexander Hamilton persuaded their fellow delegates to adopt a report that described the state of the Union as “delicate and critical.”1 In February 1787, Congress endorsed the need for a convention in Philadelphia that could revise the Articles of Confederation and “render the federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of Government and preservation of the Union.”2 By early May 1787, only Rhode Island had failed to respond to the calls from Annapolis and Philadelphia, and most of the fifty-five men who would become the framers of the U.S. Constitution were on their way to Philadelphia to establish a new form of government.

    The framers' historic effort was designed to “form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.”3 It represented a second, and more successful, attempt of Americans to develop a constitution that would be flexible, yet strong enough to meet the long-term legislative, administrative, and judicial needs of the new nation.

    Intent of the Framers and the Powers of Congress

    The Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were to become fundamental testaments of free government in the United States. Throughout American history, the interplay of the system crafted in Philadelphia has often prompted the question, “What was the intent of the framers?” Ironically, even the framers frequently did not agree and often had different conceptions about the new government they were creating. A reading of the proceedings in Philadelphia, however, shows a clear intent on the part of the framers to make Congress the major source of policy initiatives and proposals.

    In designing Congress, the framers were influenced by both the successes and the failures of the Continental and Confederation Congresses. In particular, the Constitutional Convention of 1787 favored the principle of separation of powers, which reflected the concern of the founders with the relative powerlessness of Congress under the Articles of Confederation. Although the articles had not separated the legislative, executive, and judicial functions, most state governments at the time consisted of three branches. Most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention had experience as members of the ineffective Continental Congress or their state legislatures, which were generally more powerful. The legislative branch, with which most delegates most closely identified, was the first branch discussed in depth during the constitutional debates and the first to be established by the Constitution. The framers devoted more than twice as much attention to the responsibilities of Congress as to the other two branches combined. Much is left unstated in the Constitution regarding the executive and judicial branches, but few details are spared when Congress is discussed.

    The framers intended Congress to be a representative body, responsive to the demands of voters and constituents, reflecting local interests, yet responsible for making laws for the American people collectively. James Madison and the other statesmen who framed the Constitution acknowledged that, in a “republican government” such as the one they had created, the “legislative authority necessarily predominates.”4 Congress, in Madison's mind, had the obligation “to refine and enlarge the public views” and needed “wisdom” to “discern the true interest of their country.” The members' “patriotism and love of justice” should be such that they will be “least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.”5 “Nearly all legislation,” Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis observed in 1921, “involves a weighing of public needs as against private desires; and likewise a weighing of relative social values.”6 In creating a representative assembly as the structure within which the government considered its decisions, formulated policy, and enacted laws, the framers ensured that institutional restraints would operate not only to promote the primacy of the deliberative processes but also to allow the constraints of political reality to flourish.

    Seeking to correct the deficiencies of the Articles of Confederation, as well as to enlarge the authority of Congress in dealing with both foreign and domestic matters, the framers invested Congress with tremendous power. The Constitution mandated that Congress make all laws, specifically those “necessary and proper” for exercising the powers granted to it, and execute the powers granted to the other branches. Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution enumerates eighteen powers entrusted to Congress.7 Congress also was given almost unlimited power to control the expenditures of the executive branch through the appropriations process. In addition, Congress was given the responsibility of supervising the administration of the executive and judicial branches and the implicit responsibility of representing and informing the people. The legislative primacy of Congress also appears in the provisions for amending the Constitution (Article V), which call for approval by two-thirds of each house of Congress and ratification by three-fourths of the states.8 The role of the president and the Supreme Court in this latter process was limited to whatever informal influence they might exert.

    Constraining the Powers of Congress

    The framers were fearful that Congress might abuse its power, as many of the state legislatures had done during the Confederation period, and, as a consequence, attempted by several means to constrain that power. One remedy was “to divide the legislature into different branches; and to render them, by different modes of election and different principles of action, as little connected with each other as the nature of their common functions and their common dependence on society will admit.”9 A bicameral legislature provided a vital check, each house being able to counteract the other.

    Each chamber was granted certain exclusive powers. The House of Representatives was delegated the responsibility of choosing a president when no clear electoral winner emerged. The Constitution also provided that tax legislation must originate in the House, as must impeachment proceedings against a president or other federal officials. The Senate was given authority to ratify treaties; approve presidential nominations to the Supreme Court, cabinet positions, and ambassadorships; and conduct impeachment trials.

    The House of Representatives was intended to be the most immediately responsive element of the government. By virtue of their biannual election, representatives would be mindful of public opinion. The House, as James Madison explained in Federalist No. 52, was to have “an immediate dependence on, and an intimate sympathy with, the people.”10 Conversely, senators, who were selected by the state legislatures until 1913, when the Seventeenth Amendment provided for popular election, historically enjoyed greater independence because of their six-year terms. The Senate was envisioned by Madison as a safeguard against impulsive action “until reason, justice, and truth can regain their authority over the public mind.”11

    The chief constraint the framers placed on congressional power was the tripartite governmental system, each element having the means to check and balance the other. Under this system of separated powers, Congress was not to have absolute control over the legislative process. Article I, Section 7 stipulated that the president must sign legislation, thus approving it, for it to become law, and that a presidential veto could be overridden only by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. If, however, the president takes no action on a bill that has been presented, it can become law without his signature after ten days, provided Congress has not adjourned during the period. The failure of the president to sign a bill under these circumstances, with the intention that it not become law, is known as the “pocket veto.” Other legislative responsibilities imposed on the president by Article II, Section 3 required him to provide Congress “information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient;” to convene either or both houses of Congress into session “on extraordinary occasions;” and to adjourn them to a time of his choosing if they could not reach agreement on adjournment.

    Performance of Congress in Expectation and Practice

    Many observers, especially during the twentieth century, asserted, or even presumed, the president's primacy in the policy-making process in general and in the legislative process in particular. An examination of legislative accomplishments throughout the decades, however, clearly indicates that Congress has maintained a much more persistent and crucial role in achieving these accomplishments than conventional wisdom often allows. A more careful consideration of the activity involved in national lawmaking reveals a much more complex process in which Congress has always played, and continues to play, a part not only central, but also vital, in the initiation, development, and establishment of policy.

    One reason that the continuing centrality of Congress to the legislative policy-making process has been overlooked or minimized is the deliberative and representative nature of America's constitutional system. Legislation involves Congress as well as a wide variety of other actors, especially the president. The saliency of presidential involvement in the constitutional system is reinforced by the tendency of Congress, observable throughout U.S. history, to find occasion and means to delegate its functions. In assessing the operation of the system, however, these circumstances have arguably been overemphasized.

    Delegation of Power and Its Control

    Nearly two centuries ago, Chief Justice John Marshall wrote that “the legislature makes, the executive executes, and the judiciary construes the law.” Congress, Marshall declared, must keep to itself “powers which are strictly and exclusively legislative.”12 Congress cannot relinquish its responsibility for creating executive departments and agencies, authorizing and regulating their activities, overseeing their work, reviewing their performance, and holding them accountable. Despite Marshall's admonition, Congress has, over time, delegated a significant portion of its legislative power to the president, executive agencies, and independent regulatory commissions.

    Congress, however, also exercises a variety of means to check these delegations of authority. Operational guidelines are often established during the development of laws, and customs and traditions have evolved to confine executive discretion. Also, Congress, through the appropriations process and its oversight function, is continually able to review the operations and policies of the various agencies and influence their future direction. Through its oversight activities, Congress seeks to ensure that legislation is faithfully, effectively, and economically administered; internal management controls are adequate and effective; abuses of administrative discretion or improper conduct are discovered and corrected; and executive branch officials are held accountable for the use of public funds and for administrative shortcomings.

    Also, when the courts have found that Congress has gone too far in delegating power, they have voided such actions. For example, the Line Item Veto Act, a majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held in 1998, was unconstitutional because it allowed the president effectively to rewrite bills he had already signed into law.13 Although the power of the courts to review the constitutionality of federal and state legislative enactments is nowhere expressly conveyed, the concept was utilized in colonial times and assumed by the framers in the Constitutional Convention and by the members of the state ratifying conventions. The Supreme Court, however, did not until 1803 in Marbury v. Madison expressly assert and exercise its power to strike down an act of Congress it considered inconsistent with the Constitution.14

    Presidential and Congressional Legislation

    Especially in the course of the twentieth century, many scholars, as well as the press and electronic media, have viewed the president, not Congress, as the prime mover of the legislative process. The limitations of this presidential role have received less emphasis. The Constitution is silent on the extent of participation by the president and his subordinates in the legislative process once a measure is proposed. Although the president's recommendations carry great weight, he may not introduce legislation or compel Congress to act on his proposals. To win votes for a proposal, the president must make clear what the likely effects of the bill will be and provide a rationale that will secure support.

    As Lawrence H. Chamberlain observed in The President, Congress, and Legislation, the “concept of presidential domination in legislation comes in part from the tendency of the press to magnify his every action.” While the president's deeds are broadcast to the nation through a multitude of media sources, the accomplishments of Congress receive relatively little coverage. “It is easier,” Chamberlain reasoned, “to follow the moves of one man than it is to trace the day-to-day developments of multitudinous committees, not to mention individual congressmen.”15

    Even when Congress has worked on a bill for months, and an administration has had only a limited role in its development, the president may receive much of the credit for its enactment. If a president decides to support a piece of legislation through a special message to Congress, a public statement, a White House conference, a radio or television appeal, or the efforts of his representatives, the proposal quickly becomes identified with the president regardless of its origin. Even if the president waits to comment on the merits of a bill until after it is signed into law, his limited association with the legislation often captures the spotlight. The same is the case when Congress overrides a presidential veto. This tendency to magnify the importance of the president, while frequently overlooking the role of Congress, distorts the history of the American legislative process.

    In the final analysis, it is often difficult to weigh the relative influence of Congress and the president in the legislative process and accurately gauge the continual and influential activities of outside interests. The assumption, however, should not be made that, during those periods when a president becomes “unusually active” in the process, Congress has relinquished its constitutional responsibility. “Despite the well-organized rise of the president as chief legislator, empirical research” by scholars has “consistently found that Congress is responsible for most proposed legislation, and a large share of enacted programs, either on its own or working in conjunction with the president.”16

    Although presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt have established much of the legislative agenda for Congress, the issues and ideas endorsed by the White House often have been germinating in Congress for a considerable period of time. Changing conditions within the nation or abroad may thrust to the forefront a legislative idea that has lain dormant for years or decades, or a presidential administration may breathe new life into a proposal whose time had supposedly passed. Also, Congress is one of the most “fertile” springs for presidential initiatives. “Difficult as it may be to determine the origin of a policy initiative, to identify the parent of an idea,” presidential scholar Mark A. Peterson writes, “it is evident that a large bulk of what becomes ‘presidential’ first met the legislative light of day as ‘congressional.’”17 Often, by the time a proposal appears in a presidential message or speech, the president's position has been significantly modified to take into consideration difficulties particular provisions face on Capitol Hill. As a consequence, proposals sent to the Congress frequently represent modifications in the president's preferences. Furthermore, much of the legislation considered by Congress is of little concern to the president or his administration.

    Genesis of Legislation

    Often, neither Congress nor the president would push a particular piece of legislation if it were not for the external influences of society at large. The ideas and pressure for much of the legislation approved by Congress and signed into law by the president originate at neither end of Pennsylvania Avenue. Individuals from virtually every walk of life have originated, and assisted in, the formulation of legislative initiatives that have dramatically begun, altered, or displaced a governmental policy. Ideas for legislative initiatives are brought to the attention of members of Congress by

    • the president in his annual State of the Union message, where he sets out his agenda for the coming year, in other speeches, messages, interviews, and press conferences, and through the White House congressional liaison office;
    • members of the president's cabinet and other executive branch officials and personnel responsible for the administration of governmental policies;
    • state and local officials;
    • lobbyists for interest groups such as the business community, trade organizations, labor unions, and professional associations;
    • academics, independent policy specialists, and members of think tanks and consulting groups;
    • technical advisers representing universities and other private and government research organizations;
    • the media;
    • congressional staff; and
    • private citizens.

    Much of the credit for legislation must be given to the individuals or groups most directly interested in the specific results of the proposal. Nevertheless, only Congress can transform an idea into a piece of legislation that may become law.

    Congress continues, as it has since 1789, to be an incubator for legislative proposals. A continuous exposure to legislative ideas has allowed Congress to remain a vigorous institution and an integral partner in the constitutional system. On Capitol Hill, proposals are procedurally introduced, subjected to hearings, debated on the House and Senate floor, and approved, before being sent to the White House for the president's signature. During the process of developing original or amendatory legislation, which often spans a number of years and several Congresses, the merits of a proposal may become the topic of national debate, and the proposal may be modified or significantly altered.

    Accomplishment of Legislation

    While the framers devoted great detail to Congress's legislative responsibilities, they said little about how Congress should organize itself, except that the Speaker, the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, should be elected and that the vice president, or the president pro tempore in his absence, should preside over the Senate. The Constitution's brevity in this regard has allowed Congress the freedom to “change over time” and transform itself “from an informal, non-specialised representative and legislative assembly, attempting to fulfill the republican aspirations of post-revolutionary Americans, into a complex, highly specialised, rather bureaucratic institution which acts … like a complete government intervening in all policy areas and at every stage of the policy-making process.” Congress's ability to change its internal structure and procedures has enabled it to respond for more than two centuries to “political, economic, and social changes which transformed the nature of problems facing constituents, and thus the public policies they were willing to support.”18 This transformation is most dramatically demonstrated in Congress's legislative accomplishments.

    Congress, Lawrence H. Chamberlain argued, is better suited to deal with the “long germinative period detectable in the genesis of most laws” than is any other agency in America's democracy. Its composition, organization, and accessibility, “coupled with its ever-changing personnel, tends to guarantee a maximum responsiveness to varied but always moving currents of thought.” A close examination of the official records of Congress reveals that individual senators and representatives frequently make a “substantial contribution” in “locating the weaknesses and gaps in our legislative fabric and initiating action to fill the breach.” Were it not for “their persistent efforts and their unwillingness to give up in the face of administration indifference or hostility it is probable” that the enactment of many important laws would have been delayed much longer and “their content would have been much less definite.”19

    Although the legislative initiative has “shifted many times between the legislative and executive branches, the U.S. Congress remains virtually the only national assembly in the world that drafts in detail the laws it passes rather than simply ratifying measures prepared by the government in power.”20 “In the United States,” Chamberlain observed, “legislation is characteristically a collegial process in which the role of the Congress is no less important than that of the President.”21 Chamberlain's observations, penned nearly sixty years ago, remain applicable today. In examining the origin of federal legislation over more than two centuries, landmark enactments have been approved during periods of comparative calm as well as during the stress of a national emergency. They have also gained acceptance when nonactivist presidents have occupied the Oval Office as well as strong ones.

    A 2000 study of the most important laws enacted in the last half of the twentieth century credits Congress with “calling upon the federal government to tackle a bold agenda worthy of the world's greatest democracy, and providing the statutory authority to act.” Survey responses from 450 history and political science professors, who were asked to select the government's greatest achievements of the past half century, “reflect a stunning level of bipartisan commitment.” “Great endeavors appear to require equally great consensus.”22 The lessons of achievement, the study concluded, are that

    [n]o one party, Congress, or president can be credited with any single achievement. Even Medicare, which was a signature accomplishment of the Great Society, and the Marshall Plan, which centered in a burst of legislation during the Truman administration, had antecedents in earlier Congresses and administrations. Rather, achievement appears to be the direct product of endurance, consensus, and patience.23

    The report “suggests that the federal government did more than aim high.” It “often succeeded in changing the nation and the world.” Three important themes underlie the government's greatest achievements: (1) a “coherent policy strategy,” (2) a conscious effort to take the “moral high ground despite significant resistance,” and (3) a “readiness to intervene where the private and nonprofit sectors simply would not.”24

    Notes

    1. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, ed. Worthington Chauncey Ford and Roscoe R. Hill (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904–1937), 31:680.

    2. Journals of the Continental Congress 32 (1787): 74.

    3. U.S. Constitution, preamble.

    4. Benjamin Fletcher Wright, ed., The Federalist (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966), No. 51, 356.

    5. Wright, The Federalist, No. 10, 134.

    6. Truax v. Corrigan, 257 U.S. 312, 357 (1921).

    7. These include the authority to tax, spend, and borrow; to regulate foreign and interstate commerce; to admit new states; to establish uniform naturalization and bankruptcy standards; to coin money, regulate its value, and fix the standard of weights and measures; to establish post offices and post roads; to develop copyright protections; to create federal courts of lesser authority than the U.S. Supreme Court, which was specifically provided for; to maintain a defense establishment; and to declare war.

    8. Article V of the Constitution also provides that “the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States” may “call a convention for proposing amendments.”

    9. Wright, The Federalist, No. 51, 357.

    10. Wright, The Federalist, No. 52, 361.

    11. Wright, The Federalist, No. 63, 415.

    12. Wayman v. Southard, 23 U.S. (10 Wheaton), 41, 44 (1825).

    13. Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998).

    14. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).

    15. Lawrence H. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1946), 15.

    16. Mark A. Peterson, “Legislative Initiative,” in The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress, ed. Donald C. Bacon, Roger H. Davidson, and Morton Keller (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 3:1275.

    17. Mark A. Peterson, Legislating Together: The White House and Capitol Hill from Eisenhower to Reagan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), 33, 35.

    18. Michael Foley and John E. Owens, Congress and the Presidency: Institutional Politics in a Separated System (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1996), 13.

    19. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation, 463.

    20. Roger H. Davidson and Walter J. Oleszek, Congress and Its Members, 8th ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002), 6.

    21. Chamberlain, The President, Congress, and Legislation, 15.

    22. Paul C. Light, “Government's Greatest Achievements of the Past Half Century,” Reform Watch, No. 2 (November 2000): 1, 4.

    23. Ibid., 11.

    24. Ibid., 1, 12.

    Finders Guide

    The Finder's Guide will help readers track legislation and treaties by major policy areas and national issues. Beginning with the First Congress, CQ Press editors assigned each summary entry in the book to at least one of forty-one categories and in many cases to several where the law or treaty had multiple purposes. Within each category, the entries are arranged chronologically by Congress. The Finder's Guide is intended to supplement the more detailed subject index found at the back of the volume by helping a reader track, for example, national security or continental development laws and treaties over the one-hundred seven Congresses surveyed. Because legislation often overlaps many areas, the categories are not neatly compartmentalized but will provide a roadmap in major areas on which Congress has legislated. An alphabetical list of categories follows. In the Guide pages categories are grouped together in related areas such as law and justice issues or federal state relationships.

    Government Finance and Institutions, Coinage and Currency, Taxes and Expenditures

    Revenue: Taxes and Tariffs

    Financial Regulation and Banking

    Economic Competition and Controls; Antitrust

    Economic Development

    Trade

    Foreign Affairs

    National Security

    Transportation

    General Commerce, Bankruptcy

    Communication, Information Technology

    Science and Space

    Postal System

    Environment and Conservation

    Energy, Power, Nuclear Development

    Natural Resources and Public Works

    Parks and Recreation

    Agriculture

    Health, Consumer Safety

    Human Services, Welfare

    Veterans Affairs

    Education

    Housing

    Urban Assistance

    Labor

    Pension, Social Security, Disability, Health Care Insurance

    Slavery, Civil Rights, Voting Rights

    Immigration, Naturalization, Citizenship

    Civil Liberties

    Judiciary

    Criminal Justice, Law Enforcement

    Government Organization, Operations

    Federal Employees

    Elections, Campaign Finance

    Congress

    Presidency

    Continental Development, Union Expansion

    Federalism

    Indian Affairs

    District of Columbia

    Territories

  • Sources for Further Study

    General References
    Bacon, Donald C., Roger H.Davidson, and MortonKeller, eds. The Encyclopedia of the United States Congress. 4 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
    Bates, Ernest Sutherland. The Story of Congress, 1789–1935. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1936.
    Biskupic, Joan, and ElderWitt. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court,
    3d ed.
    2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.
    Carruth, Gorton. The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates,
    10th ed.
    New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997.
    Castel, Albert, and Scott L.Gibson. The Yeas and the Nays: Key Congressional Decisions, 1774–1945. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Western Michigan University, Institute of Public Affairs, New Issues Press, 1975.
    Chamberlain, Lawrence H.The President, Congress, and Legislation. New York: AMS Press, 1967.
    Chambers, John Whiteclay, II, ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Christianson, Stephen G.Facts about the Congress. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1996.
    Congress and the Nation, 1945–2001. 10 vols. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1965–2002.
    Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 1945–2001. 57 vols. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1948–2002.
    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress,
    5th ed.
    2 vols. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.
    DeGregorio, William A.The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents,
    6th ed.
    Ft. Lee, N.J.: Barricade Books, 2001.
    Dictionary of American History.
    Rev. ed.
    8 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976, 1978.
    Dictionary of American History. 2 vol. supplement. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Reference Books, 1996.
    Graham, Otis L., Jr., and MeghanRobinson Wander, eds. Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times: An Encyclopedic View. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.
    Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.On the Hill: A History of the American Congress. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.
    Kane, Joseph Nathan, StevenAnzovin, and JanetPodell, eds. Facts about the Presidents,
    7th ed.
    New York: H. W. Wilson, 2001.
    Keller, Helen Rex. The Dictionary of Dates. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1934.
    Kirkendall, Richard S., ed. The Harry S. Truman Encyclopedia. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1989.
    Kurian, George Thomas, ed. A Historic Guide to the U.S. Government. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    Levy, Peter B.Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
    Levy, Peter B.Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.
    Levy, Leonard W., and Kenneth L.Karst. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution,
    2d ed.
    6 vols. New York: Macmillan, 2000.
    Levy, Leonard W., and LouisFisher, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. 4 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
    Linton, Calvin D., ed. American Headlines: Year by Year. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson Inc., Publishers, 1975.
    Magill, Frank N., ed. Great Events from History: American Series. 3 vols. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1985.
    Moore, John L., Jon P.Preimesberger, and DavidTarr, eds. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections,
    4th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.
    Morison, Samuel Eliot, HenrySteele Commager, and William E.Leuchtenburg. The Growth of the American Republic,
    7th ed.
    2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
    Morris, Richard B., and Morris, Jeffrey B., eds. Encyclopedia of American History,
    7th ed.
    New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996.
    Nelson, Michael, ed. Guide to the Presidency,
    3d ed.
    2 vols. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.
    Peterson, Merrill D.The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
    Roller, David C., and Robert W.Twyman, eds. The Encyclopedia of Southern History. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.
    Rosenboom, Eugene H., and Alfred E.EckesJr.A History of Presidential Elections: From George Washington to Jimmy Carter,
    4th ed.
    New York: Macmillan, 1979.
    Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., ed. The Almanac of American History. New York: Putnman Publishing Company, 1986.
    Sisung, Kelle S.Federal Agency Profiles for Students. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 1999.
    Sloan, Irving J., comp. and ed. American Landmark Legislation: Primary Materials. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1976–1977.
    Sloan, Irving J., comp. and ed American Landmark Legislation: Primary Materials. Second series. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1984.
    West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 12 vols. Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 1998.
    Whitnah, Donald R., ed. Government Agencies. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.
    Young, Roland. Congressional Politics in the Second World War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.
    Agriculture
    Benedict, Murray R.Farm Policies of the United States, 1790–1950: A Study of Their Origins and Development. New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1953.
    Bowers, Douglas E., Wayne D.Rasmussen, and Gladys L.Baker. History of Agricultural Price-Support and Adjustment Programs, 1933–84. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research, 1984.
    Cochrane, Willard W.The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis,
    2nd ed.
    Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.
    Harding, T. Swann, ed. Some Landmarks in the History of the Department of Agriculture. Agricultural History Series no. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, rev. July 1948.
    Rasmussen, Wayne D., ed. Agriculture in the United States. A Documentary History. 4 vols. New York: Random House, 1975.
    Rasmussen, Wayne D., and Gladys L.Baker. The Department of Agriculture. New York: Praeger, 1972.
    Schapsmeier, Edward L., and Frederick H.Schapsmeier. Encyclopedia of American Agricultural History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975.
    Smith, Maryann S., and DennisRoth, comp. Chronological Landmarks in American Agriculture. Agriculture Information Bulletin 425. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, rev. November 1990.
    U.S. House Committee on Agriculture. United States House of Representatives Committee on Agriculture 150th Anniversary, 16th Congress, 1820 to 91st Congress, 1970. 91st Cong., 2d sess. H. Doc. 91–350. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government. Printing Office, 1970.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. A Brief History of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry: United States Senate and Landmark Agricultural Legislation 1825–1986. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. The United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 1825–1998: Members, Jurisdiction, and History. 105th Cong., lst sess. S. Doc. 105–24. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.
    Arms Control
    Barnhart, Michael, ed. Congress and United States Foreign Policy: Controlling the Use of Force in the Nuclear Age. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1987.
    Blacker, Coit D., and GloriaDuffy, eds. International Arms Control: Issues and Agreements,
    2d ed.
    Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1984.
    Clarke, Duncan L.Politics of Arms Control: The Role and Effectiveness of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. New York: Free Press, 1979.
    Dupuy, Trevor N., and Gay M.Hammerman, eds. A Documentary History of Arms Control and Disarmament. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1973.
    Hyde, Harlow A.Scraps of Paper: The Disarmament Treaties between the World Wars. Lincoln, Neb.: Media Publishing, 1988.
    Kaufman, Robert Gordon. Arms Control during the Pre-Nuclear Era: The United States and Naval Limitation between the Two World Wars. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
    Krepon, Michael, and DanCaldwell, eds. The Politics of Arms Control Treaty Ratification. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
    Platt, Alan, and Lawrence D.Weiler, eds. Congress and Arms Control. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1978.
    U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Security, and Science. Fundamentals of Nuclear Arms Control. 99th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 1986.
    Arts and Culture
    Benedict, Stephen, ed. Public Money and the Muse: Essays on Government Funding for the Arts. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991.
    Cummings, Milton C., Jr., and Richard S.Katz, eds. The Patron State: Government and the Arts in Europe, North America, and Japan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
    Dubin, Steven C.Bureaucratizing the Muse: Public Funds and the Cultural Worker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
    Larson, Gary O.The Reluctant Patron: The United States Government and the Arts, 1943–1965. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.
    Levy, Alan Howard. Government and the Arts: Debates Over Federal Support of the Arts in America from George Washington to Jesse Helms. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1997.
    Mulcahy, Kevin V., and Harold F.Kendrick. “Congress and Culture: Legislative Reauthorization and the Arts Endowment.”Journal of Arts Management and Law17 (winter 1988): 39–56.
    Mulcahy, Kevin V., and MargaretJane Wyszomirski, eds. America's Commitment to Culture: Government and the Arts. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995.
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane. “Congress, Presidents, and the Arts: Collaboration and Struggle.”The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science499 (September 1988): 124–135.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716288499001010
    Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane, ed. Congress and the Arts: A Precarious Alliance?New York: ACA Books, 1988.
    Banking and Finance
    Dewey, Davis Rich. Financial History of the United States,
    12th ed.
    New York: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers, 1968.
    Moody, J. Carroll, and Gilbert C.Fite. The Credit Union Movement: Origins and Development, 1850–1970. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.
    Munn, Glenn G., F. L.Garcia, and Charles J.Woelfel. Encyclopedia of Banking and Finance,
    9th ed.
    3 vols. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 1993.
    Myers, Margaret G.A Financial History of the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.
    Schweikart, Larry, ed. Banking and Finance, 1913–1989. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
    Schweikart, LarryBanking and Finance to 1913. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
    Studenski, Paul, and Herman E.Krooss. Financial History of the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1952.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs. A Reference Guide to Banking and Finance, Second, Revised Edition. 98th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 98-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Compilation of Basic Banking Laws: Revised through May 1, 1995. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 104-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.
    U.S. House Committee on Commerce. Compilation of Securities Laws within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Commerce. 106th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 106-B. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1999.
    Bankruptcy
    King, Lawrence P., ed. Collier Bankruptcy Manual,
    3d ed.
    Vol. 1. New York: Matthew Bender and Company, 1999.
    Norton, William L., Jr., ed. Norton Bankruptcy Law and Practice,
    2d ed.
    Vol. 1. Deerfield, Ill.: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1997.
    Sullivan, Teresa A., ElizabethWarren, and JayLawrence Westbrook. As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
    Tabb, Charles Jordan. “The History of the Bankruptcy Laws in the United States.”American Bankruptcy Institute Law Review3 (spring 1995): 5–51.
    Warren, Charles. Bankruptcy in United States History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935.
    Budget Process
    Fisher, Louis. “The Authorization-Appropriation Process in Congress: Formal Rules and Informal Practices.”Catholic University Law Review29 (fall 1979): 51–105.
    Fisher, LouisPresidential Spending Power. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
    Joyce, Philip G., and Robert D.Reischauer. “Deficit Budgeting: The Federal Budget Process and Budget Reform.”Harvard Journal on Legislation29 (summer 1992): 429–453.
    Penner, Rudolph G., and Alan J.Abramson. Broken Purse Strings: Congressional Budgeting 1974 to 1988. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Gerald R. Ford Foundation; Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 1988.
    Schick, Allen. The Capacity to Budget. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1990.
    Schick, AllenCongress and Money: Budgeting, Spending, and Taxing. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, 1980.
    Smithies, Arthur. The Budgetary Process in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955.
    White, Joseph, and AaronWildavsky. The Deficit and the Public Interest: The Search for Responsible Budgeting in the 1980s. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1989.
    Wildavsky, Aaron, and NaomiCaiden. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process,
    4th ed.
    New York: Addison Wesley/Longman, 2001.
    Campaign Finance Reform
    Alexander, Herbert E.Money in Politics. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1972.
    Corrado, Anthony. “Money and Politics: A History of Federal Campaign Finance.” In Campaign Finance Reform: A Sourcebook, edited by AnthonyCorrado, Thomas E.Mann, Daniel R.Ortiz, TrevorPotter, and Frank J.Sorauf, 27–60Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.
    Mutch, Robert E.Campaigns, Congress, and Courts: The Making of Federal Campaign Finance Law. New York: Praeger, 1988.
    Overacker, Louise, and Victor J.West. Money in Elections. New York: Macmillan, 1932.
    Pollock, James K.Party Campaign Funds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.
    Citizenship
    Bredbenner, Candice Lewis. A Nationality of Her Own: Women, Marriage, and the Law of Citizenship. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1998.
    Franklin, Frank G.The Legislative History of Naturalization in the United States: From the Revolutionary War to 1861. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1971.
    Karst, Kenneth L.Belonging to America: Equal Citizenship and the Constitution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989.
    Kettner, James H.The Development of American Citizenship, 1608–1870. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.
    Smith, Rogers M.Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
    Civil Liberties
    Hall, Kermit L., ed. Civil Liberties in American History: Major Historical Interpretations. 2 vols. New York: Garland Publishing, 1987.
    Lasswell, Harold Dwight. National Security and Individual Freedom. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.
    Murphy, Paul L.The Constitution in Crisis Times, 1918–1969. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.
    Murphy, Paul L.World War I and the Origin of Civil Liberties in the United States. New York: Norton, 1979.
    Neely, Mark E., Jr.The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
    Preston, William, Jr.Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933,
    2d ed.
    Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
    Regan, Priscilla M.Legislating Privacy: Technology, Social Values, and Public Policy. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Smith, James Morton. Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1956.
    Civil Rights
    Bradley, David, and ShelleyFisher Fishkin, eds. The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America. 3 vols. Armonk, N.Y.: Sharpe Reference, 1998.
    Carmines, Edward G., and James A.Stimson. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
    Graham, Hugh Davis. The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960–1972. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Lowery, Charles D., and John F.Marszalek. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Present. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992.
    Orfield, Gary. Congressional Power: Congress and Social Change. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.
    Sigler, Jay A.Civil Rights in America: 1500 to the Present. Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 1998.
    Civil Service
    Biography of an Ideal: A History of the Federal Civil Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Office of Public Affairs, December 1974.
    Fish, Carl Russell. The Civil Service and Patronage. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963.
    Ingraham, Patricia W., and David H.Rosenbloom, eds. The Promise and Paradox of Civil Service Reform. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
    Light, Paul C.The Tides of Reform: Making Government Work, 1945–1995. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
    Shafritz, Jay M., NormaRiccucci, David H.Rosenbloom, and AlbertHyde. Personnel Management in Government: Politics and Process,
    5th ed.
    New York: M. Dekker, 2001.
    Stahl, O. Glenn. Public Personnel Administration,
    8th ed.
    New York: Harper and Row, 1983.
    U.S. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Legislative History of Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. 2 vols. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 96-2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
    U.S. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Manpower and Civil Service. History of Civil Service Merit Systems of the United States and Selected Foreign Countries, Together with Executive Reorganization Studies and Personnel Recommendations. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print 94-29. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    Van Riper, Paul P.History of the United States Civil Service. Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Company, 1958.
    Communications and Telecommunications
    Aufderheide, Patricia. Communications Policy and the Public Interest: The Telecommunications Act of 1996. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
    Bittner, John R.Broadcasting and Telecommunication: An Introduction,
    3d ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1991.
    Brock, Gerald W.Telecommunication Policy for the Information Age: From Monopoly to Competition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994.
    Horwitz, Robert Britt. The Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
    Shaw, James. Telecommunications Deregulation and the Information Economy,
    2d ed.
    Boston: Artech House, 2001.
    Stone, Alan. Public Service Liberalism: Telecommunications and Transitions in Public Policy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.
    Thompson, Robert Luther. Wiring a Continent: The History of the Telegraph Industry in the United States, 1832–1866. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1947.
    Congressional Oversight
    Aberbach, Joel D.Keeping a Watchful Eye: The Politics of Congressional Oversight. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1990.
    Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congress and the Executive,
    4th ed.
    College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
    Foreman, Christopher H., Jr.Signals from the Hill: Congressional Oversight and the Challenge of Social Regulation. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988.
    Harris, Joseph P.Congressional Control of Administration. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1964.
    National Academy of Public Administration. Panel on Congress and the Executive. Beyond Distrust: Building Bridges between Congress and the Executive. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration, 1992.
    Ogul, Morris S.Congress Oversees the Bureaucracy: Studies in Legislative Supervision. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976.
    Ripley, Randall B., and Grace A.Franklin. Congress, the Bureaucracy, and Public Policy,
    5th ed.
    Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1991.
    Congressional Pay
    Boeckel, Richard M.Wages and Hours of Members of Congress.”Editorial Research Reports2 (October 13, 1937): 299–320.
    Byrd, Robert C.The Senate 1789–1989. 4 vols. Edited by WendyWolff. 100th Cong., 1st sess. S. Doc. 100–20. Vol. 2, 347–359. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Fisher, Louis. “History of Pay Adjustments for Members of Congress.” In The Rewards of Public Service: Compensating Top Federal Officials, edited by Robert W.Hartman, and Arnold R.Weber, 25–52. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1980.
    Congressional Reform
    Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J.Oleszek. Congress against Itself. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1977.
    Galloway, George B.The Operation of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946.”American Political Science Review45 (March 1951): 41–68.
    Kravitz, Walter. “The Advent of the Modern Congress: The Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970.”Legislative Studies Quarterly15 (August 1990): 375–399.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/439769
    Rieselbach, Leroy N.Congressional Reform. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986.
    U.S. Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress. Organization of the Congress, Final Report of the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress: Organization of the Congress Pursuant to H. Con. Res. 192 (102d Congress). 103d Cong., 1st sess. H. Rept. 103–413, Vol. 2; S. Rept. 103–215, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
    Conscription
    Chambers, John Whiteclay, II. To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America. New York: Free Press, 1987.
    Flynn, George Q.The Draft, 1940–1973. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas Press, 1993.
    U.S. Selective Service System. The Selective Service Act: Its Legislative History, Amendments, Appropriations, Cognates, and Prior Instruments of Security. 5 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954.
    Constitutional Amendments
    Ames, Herman Vandenburg. The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States during the First Century of Its History. New York: B. Franklin, 1970.
    Bernstein, Richard B., with JeromeAgel. Amending America: If We Love the Constitution So Much, Why Do We Keep Trying to Change It?New York: Times Books, 1993.
    Grimes, Alan P.Democracy and the Amendments to the Constitution. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1978.
    Kyvig, David E.Explicit and Authentic Acts: Amending the U.S. Constitution, 1776–1995. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1996.
    Newman, Roger K., ed. The Constitution and Its Amendments. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1999.
    Palmer, Kris E., ed. Constitutional Amendments, 1789 to the Present. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 2000.
    Vile, John R.Encyclopedia of Constitutional Amendments, Proposed Amendments, and Amending Issues, 1789–1995. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1996.
    Vile, John R.Rewriting the United States Constitution: An Examination of Proposals from Reconstruction to the Present. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    Consumer Protection
    Asch, Peter. Consumer Safety Regulation: Putting a Price on Life and Limb. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
    Brobeck, Stephen, Robert N.Mayer, and Robert O.Herrmann, eds. Encyclopedia of the Consumer Movement. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1997.
    Burda, Joan M.An Overview of Federal Consumer Law. Chicago: American Bar Association, Solo and Small Firm Section, General Practice, 1998.
    Hasin, Bernice Rothman. Consumers, Commissions, and Congress: Law, Theory, and the Federal Trade Commission, 1968–1985. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987.
    Krohn, Lauren. Consumer Protection and the Law: A Dictionary. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1995.
    Maney, Ardith, and LoreeBykerk. Consumer Politics: Protecting Public Interests on Capitol Hill. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.
    Marsh, Gene A.Consumer Protection Law in a Nutshell,
    3d ed.
    St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 1999.
    Meier, Kenneth J., E.Thomas Garman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics,
    3d ed.
    Houston, Texas: Dame Publications, 1998.
    Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents, and Intellectual Property Rights
    Goldman, Abe A.The History of U.S.A. Copyright Law Revision, 1901–1954. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Copyright Office, 1955.
    Joyce, Craig, WilliamPatry, MarshallLeaffer, and PeterJaszi. Copyright Law,
    5th ed.
    New York: LEXIS Publishers, 2000.
    Klitzke, Ramon A.History of Patents-U.S.” In The Encyclopedia of Patent Practice and Invention Management, edited by RobertCalvert, 392–404. Huntington, N.Y.: R. E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1974.
    McCarthy, J. Thomas. “Historical Basis of Trademarks and Legislative History.”Chap. 5 in McCarthy on Trademarks and Unfair Competition,
    4th ed.
    6 vols. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 1996.
    Patry, William F. Introduction to Latman's the Copyright Law,
    6th ed.
    , 1–15. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 1986.
    Solberg, Thorvald. Copyright in Congress, 1789–1904: A Bibliography and Chronological Record of All Proceedings in Congress in Relation to Copyright from April 15, 1789, to April 28, 1904, First Congress, 1st Session, to Fifty-Eighth Congress, 2d Session. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.
    U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice. The History of Private Patent Legislation in the House of Representatives. Prepared by Christine P.Benagh. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
    Criminal Justice
    Beale, Sara Sun. “Federal Criminal Jurisdiction.” In, Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, edited by Sanford H.Kadish. 4 vols. Vol. 1, 775–779. New York: Free Press, 1993.
    Chernoff, Harry A., Christopher M.Kelly, and John R.Kroger. “The Politics of Crime.”Harvard Journal on Legislation33 (summer 1996): 527–584.
    Conboy, Martin. “Federal Criminal Law.” In Law: A Century of Progress, 1835–1935, edited by AlisonReppy. 3 vols. Vol. 1, 295–346. New York: New York University Press, 1937.
    Extending Federal Powers Over Crime.”Law and Contemporary Problems1 (October 1934): 399–508.
    Friedman, Lawrence. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
    Henderson, Dwight F.Congress, Courts, and Criminals: The Development of Federal Criminal Law, 1801–1829. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.
    Marion, Nancy E.A History of Federal Crime Control Initiatives, 1960–1993. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.
    Strazzella, James A.The Federalization of Criminal Law. Washington, D.C.: American Bar Association, Criminal Justice Section, Task Force on the Federalization of Criminal Law, 1998.
    Debt Limit
    Robinson, Marshall A.The National Debt Ceiling: An Experiment in Fiscal Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1959.
    Shuman, Howard E.Politics and the Budget: The Struggle between the President and the Congress,
    3d ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1992.
    Stabile, Donald R., and Jeffrey A.Cantor. The Public Debt of the United States: An Historical Perspective, 1775–1990. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    U.S. Congress. Congressional Budget Office. “Debt Subject to Limit.” Chap. 4 in Federal Debt and Interest Costs. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office, 1993.
    Defense
    Blechman, Barry M., with the assistance of W. PhilipEllis. The Politics of National Security: Congress and U.S. Defense Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Borklund, C. W.The Department of Defense. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1968.
    Huntington, Samuel P.The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957
    Inouye, Daniel K.Congress and the Military.” In Encyclopedia of the American Military: Studies of the History, Traditions, Policies, Institutions, and Roles of the Armed Forces in War and Peace, edited by John E.Jessup, and Louise B.Ketz. 3 vols. Vol. 3, 235–278. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
    Jessup, John E., and Louise B.Ketz, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Military: Studies of the History, Traditions, Policies, Institutions, and Roles of the Armed Forces in War and Peace. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
    Kolodziej, Edward A.The Uncommon Defense and Congress, 1945–1963. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1966.
    Legere, Laurence J.Unification of the Armed Forces. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988.
    Millett, Allan R., and PeterMaslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. New York: Free Press, 1994.
    Smith, Louis. American Democracy and Military Power: A Study of Civil Control of the Military Power in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
    Snow, Donald M., and Dennis M.Drew. From Lexington to Desert Storm: War and Politics in the American Experience,
    2d ed.
    Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 2000.
    Weigley, Russell F.History of the United States Army.
    Enl. ed.
    Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1984.
    Young, Roland. Congressional Politics in the Second World War. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.
    Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs
    Bailey, Thomas A.A Diplomatic History of the American People,
    10th ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.
    Barnes, William, and JohnHeath Morgan. The Foreign Service of the United States: Origins, Development, and Functions. Washington, D.C.: Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Historic Office, 1961.
    DeConde, Alexander, ed. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas,
    2d ed.
    3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002.
    DeConde, AlexanderA History of American Foreign Policy,
    3d ed.
    New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1978.
    Findling, John E.Dictionary of American Diplomatic History,
    2d ed.
    New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
    Jentleson, Bruce W., and Thomas G.Peterson. Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Steigman, Andrew L.The Foreign Service of the United States: First Line of Defense. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985.
    Westerfield, Bradford. Foreign Policy and Party Politics: Pearl Harbor to Korea. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
    Disabled and Handicapped
    Berkowitz, Edward D.Disabled Policy: America's Programs for the Handicapped. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
    Rothstein, Laura F.Disabilities and the Law,
    2d ed.
    St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 1997.
    Scotch, Richard K.From Good Will to Civil Rights: Transforming Federal Disability Policy,
    2d ed.
    Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2001.
    Stone, Deborah A.The Disabled State. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1984.
    Tucker, Bonnie Poitras. Federal Disability Law in a Nutshell,
    2d ed.
    St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 1998.
    Van Etten, C. Angela. Americans with Disabilities Act: Analysis and Implications. Rochester, N.Y.: Lawyers Cooperative Pubishers, 1993.
    District of Columbia
    Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800–1950. 2 vols. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1962.
    Harris, Charles Wesley. Congress and the Governance of the Nation's Capital: The Conflict of Federal and Local Interests. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1995.
    U.S. Congress. House. Governance of the Nation's Capital: A Summary History of the Forms and Powers of Local Government for the District of Columbia, 1790 to 1973. 100th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Serial No. S-2. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1990.
    Economic Policy and Business
    Carson, Thomas, and MaryBonk, eds. Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. 2 vols. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group, 1999.
    Fainsod, Merle, LincolnGordon, and Joseph C.PalamountainJr.Government and the American Economy,
    3d ed.
    New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1959.
    Newman, Peter, ed. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law. 3 vols. London: Macmillan Reference; New York: Stockton Press, 1998.
    Porter, Glenn, ed. Encyclopedia of American Economic History: Studies of the Principal Movements and Ideas. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.
    Pusateri, C. Joseph. A History of American Business. Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1984.
    Puth, Robert C.American Economic History,
    3d ed.
    Fort Worth, Texas: Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993.
    Robinson, Richard, comp. United States Business History, 1602–1988: A Chronology. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
    Scheiber, Harry N., Harold G.Vatter, and HaroldUnderwood Faulkner. American Economic History. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1976.
    Schweikart, Larry. The Entrepreneurial Adventure: A History of Business in the United States. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.
    Walton, Gary M., and HughRockoff. History of the American Economy,
    9th ed.
    Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001.
    Education
    Eidenberg, Eugene, and Roy D.Morey. An Act of Congress: The Legislative Process and the Making of Education Policy. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1969.
    Gladieux, Lawrence E., and Thomas R.Wolanin. Congress and the Colleges: The National Politics of Higher Education. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1976.
    Graham, Hugh Davis. The Uncertain Triumph: Federal Education Policy in the Kennedy and Johnson Years. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.
    Hill, David Spencer, and WilliamAlfred Fisher. Federal Relations to Education: Report of the National Advisory Committee on Education. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: National Capital Press, 1931.
    Lapati, Americo D.Education and the Federal Government: A Historical Record. New York: Mason/Charter Publishers, 1975.
    Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.The Law of Public Education,
    4th ed.
    Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1994.
    Sears, William P., Jr.The Roots of Vocational Education. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1931.
    Emergency Powers
    Relyea, Harold C.Stretch Points of the Constitution: National Emergency Powers.” In Renewing the Dream: National Archives Bicentennial ‘87 Lectures on Contemporary Constitutional Issues, edited by Ralph S.Pollock. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America; Washington, D.C.: National Archives Volunteers
    Constitution Study Group, 1986. Tap, Bruce. Over Lincoln's Shoulder: The Committee on the Conduct of the War. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations and U.S. Senate Special Committee on National Emergencies and Delegated Emergency Powers. The National Emergencies Act (Public Law 94–412): Source Book: Legislative History, Texts, and Other Documents. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    U.S. Senate Special Committee on National Emergency Powers and Delegated Emergency Powers. A Brief History of Emergency Powers in the United States: A Working Paper, Prepared for the Special Committee on National Emergencies and Delegated Emergency Powers, United States Senate. Prepared by Harold C. Relyea. 93d Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.
    Energy and Natural Resources
    Clark, John G.Energy and the Federal Government: Fossil Fuel Policies, 1900–1946. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
    Davis, David Howard. Energy Politics,
    4th ed.
    New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.
    Energy Policy,
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1981.
    Fehner, Terrence R., and Jack M.Holl. Department of Energy, 1977–1994: A Summary History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, November 1994.
    Kash, Don E., and Robert W.Rycroft. U.S. Energy Policy: Crisis and Complacency. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.
    Katz, James Everett. Congress and National Energy Policy. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1984.
    Rabbitt, Mary C.The United States Geological Survey, 1879–1989. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1050. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    U.S. Congress. Senate. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources United States Senate as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Vietor, Richard H.K.Energy Policy in America since 1945: A Study of Business Government Relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
    Environment and Conservation
    Bean, Michael J., and Melanie J.Rowland. The Evolution of National Wildlife Law,
    3d ed.
    Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1997.
    Clark, Ray, and LarryCanter, eds. Environmental Policy and NEPA: Past, Present, and Future. Boca Raton, Fla.: St. Lucie Press, 1997.
    Cooley, Richard A., and GeoffreyWandesforde-Smith, eds. Congress and the Environment. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 1970.
    Cunningham, William P., TerenceBall, Terence H.Cooper, EvilleGorham, Malcolm T.Hepworth, and Alfred A.Marcus, eds. Environmental Encyclopedia,
    2d ed.
    Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 1998.
    Hays, Samuel P.Explorations in Environmental History: Essays by Samuel P. Hays. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998.
    Meier, Kenneth J., E.Thomas Garman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics,
    3d ed.
    Houston, Texas: Dame Publications, 1998.
    Petulla, Joseph M.American Environmental History,
    2d ed.
    Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Publishing Company, 1988.
    Rosenbaum, Walter A.Environmental Politics and Policy,
    5th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.
    Smith, Frank E.The Politics of Conservation. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. History of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–45. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Vig, Norman J., and Michael E.Kraft, eds. Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-first Century,
    5th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.
    Executive Branch
    Arnold, Peri E.Making the Managerial Presidency: Comprehensive Reorganization Planning, 1905–1996,
    2d ed.
    Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, 1998.
    Emmerich, Herbert. Federal Organization and Administrative Management. University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1971.
    Fisher, Louis. The Politics of Shared Power: Congress and the Executive,
    4th ed.
    College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
    Fisher, Louis, and RonaldMoe. “Presidential Reorganization Authority: Is It Worth the Cost?Political Science Quarterly96 (summer 1981): 301–318.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2150341
    Levy, Leonard W., and LouisFisher, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. 4 vols. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
    Seidman, Harold. Politics, Position, and Power: The Dynamics of Federal Organization,
    5th ed.
    New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877–1920. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
    Sundquist, James L.Congress as Public Administrator.” In A Centennial History of the American Administrative State, edited by RalphClark Chandler, 261–289. New York: Free Press, 1987.
    White, Leonard Dupee. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan, 1948.
    Sundquist, James L.The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829–1861. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
    Sundquist, James L.The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801–1829. New York: Macmillan, 1951.
    Sundquist, James L.The Republican Era, 1869–1901: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
    Exploration
    Dupree, A. Hunter. Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities to 1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957.
    Goetzmann, William H.New Lands, New Men: America and the Second Great Age of Discovery. Austin, Texas: Texas State Historical Society, 1995.
    Hechler, Ken. Toward the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959–79. U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. 99th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.
    Logsdon, John M.The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.
    Manning, Thomas G.Government in Science: The U.S. Geological Survey, 1867–1894. Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1967.
    McCurdy, Howard E.The Space Station Decision: Incremental Politics and Technological Choice. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.
    Family Policies
    Jacobs, Francine H., and Margery W.Davies, eds. More Than Kissing Babies?: Current Child and Family Policy in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Auburn House, 1994.
    Michel, Sonya. Children's Interests/Mothers' Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
    Steiner, Gilbert Y.The Futility of Family Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1981.
    U.S. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. Fzederal Programs Affecting Children and Their Families, 1992: A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. 102d Cong., 2d sess. H. Rept. 102–1075. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.
    Zigler, Edward F., SharonLynn Kagan, and Nancy W.Hall, eds. Children, Families, and Government: Preparing for the Twenty-first Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    Federalism
    Conlan, Timothy. From New Federalism to Devolution: Twenty-five Years of Intergovernmental Reform. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
    Dilger, Robert Jay, ed. American Intergovernmental Relations Today: Perspectives and Controversies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986.
    Elazar, Daniel J.The American Partnership. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962
    Graves, W. Brooke. American Intergovernmental Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development, and Current Status. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964.
    Grodzins, Morton, ed. The American System: A New View of Government in the United States. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1966.
    Riker, William H.The Development of American Federalism. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987.
    Walker, David B.The Rebirth of Federalism: Slouching toward Washington,
    2d ed.
    Chappaqua, N.Y.: Chatham House Publishers, 2000.
    Wright, Deil S.Understanding Intergovernmental Relations,
    3d ed.
    Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1988.
    Zimmerman, Joseph F.Contemporary American Federalism: The Growth of National Power. New York: Praeger, 1992.
    Foreign Aid
    Guess, George M.The Politics of United States Foreign Aid. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
    Meyer, Jeffrey A.Congressional Control of Foreign Assistance.”Yale Journal of International Law13 (winter 1988): 69–110.
    Obey, David R., and CarolLancaster. “Funding Foreign Aid.”Foreign Policy71 (summer 1988): 141–155.
    Payaslian, Simon. U.S. Foreign Economic and Military Aid: The Reagan and Bush Administrations. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.
    Ruttan, Vernon W.United States Development Assistance Policy: The Domestic Politics of Foreign Economic Aid. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
    Sewell, John W., and Christine E.Contee. “Foreign Aid and Gramm-Rudman.”Foreign Affairs65 (summer 1986): 1015–1036.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20043199
    Tarnoff, Curt, and Larry Q.Nowels. U.S. Foreign Assistance: The Rationale, the Record, and the Challenges in the Post-Cold War Era. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association, 1994.
    U.S. Agency for International Development. Development and the National Interest: U.S. Economic Assistance into the Twenty-first Century. Washington, D.C.: Agency for International Development, 1989.
    U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Background Materials on Foreign Assistance: Report of the Task Force on Foreign Assistance to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. 101st Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Report of the Task Force on Foreign Assistance to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives. 101st Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Government Ethics
    Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Special Committee on Congressional Ethics. Congress and the Public Trust: Report. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
    Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Special Committee on Congressional Ethics Special Committee on the Federal Conflict of Interest Laws. Conflict of Interest and Federal Service. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960.
    Thompson, Dennis F.Ethics in Congress: From Individual to Institutional Corruption. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1995.
    Gun Control
    Carter, Gregg Lee. The Gun Control Movement. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997.
    Henderson, Harry. Gun Control. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
    Kruschke, Earl R.Gun Control: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1995.
    Patterson, Samuel C., and Keith R.Eakins. “Congress and Gun Control.” In The Changing Politics of Gun Control, edited by John M.Bruce, and ClydeWilcox, 45–73. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
    Spitzer, Robert J., ed. The Politics of Gun Control. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House Publishers, 1998.
    Utter, Glenn H.Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 2000.
    Health and Medicine
    Anderson, Odin W.Health Services as a Growth Enterprise in the United States since 1875,
    2d ed.
    Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, 1990.
    Cooper, Richard M., ed. Food and Drug Law. Washington, D.C.: Food and Drug Law Institute, 1991.
    Feldstein, Paul J.Health Policy Issues: An Economic Perspective on Health Reform,
    3d ed.
    Chicago: Health Administration Press, 2002.
    Fox, Daniel M.Health Policies, Health Politics: The British and American Experience, 1911–1965. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.
    Litman, Theodor J., and Leonard S.Robins, eds. Health Politics and Policy,
    3d ed.
    Albany, N.Y.: Delmar Publishers, 1997.
    Mann, Thomas E., and Norman J.Ornstein. Intensive Care: How Congress Shapes Health Policy. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution Press, 1995.
    Marmor, Theodore R.The Politics of Medicare,
    2d ed.
    New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2000.
    Shonick, William. Government and Health Services: Government's Role in the Development of U.S. Health Services, 1930–1980. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.
    Strickland, Stephen P.Politics, Science, and Dread Disease: A Short History of United States Medical Research Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.
    Temin, Peter. Taking Your Medicine: Drug Regulation in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    Housing, Subsidized Housing, and Housing Finance
    Fish, Gertrude Sipperly, ed. The Story of Housing. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
    Hays, R. Allen. The Federal Government and Urban Housing: Ideology and Change in Public Policy,
    2d ed.
    Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1995.
    Mitchell, J. Paul, ed. Federal Housing Policy and Programs. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research, 1985.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking and Financial Services. Subcommittee on Housing and Community Opportunity. Basic Laws on Housing and Community Development: Revised through December 31, 1998 (End of the 105th Congress). 106th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 106–1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Subcommittee on Housing and Community Development. A Chronology of Housing Legislation and Selected Executive Actions, 1892–1992. 103d Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 103–2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
    U.S. House Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Subcommittee on Housing and Community DevelopmentHousing-A Reader. 98th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 98–5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs. Congress and American Housing 1892–1967. 90th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
    Immigration Policy
    Bernard, William S.Immigration: History of U.S. Policy.” In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, edited by StephanThernstrom, AnnOrlov, and OscarHandlin, 486–495. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1980.
    Cose, Ellis. A Nation of Strangers: Prejudice, Politics, and the Populating of America. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1992.
    Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M.Reimers. Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration,
    4th ed.
    New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
    Fitzgerald, Keith. The Face of the Nation: Immigration, the State, and the National Identity. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
    Hutchinson, E. P.Legislative History of American Immigration Policy, 1798–1965. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.
    Jones, Maldwyn Allen. American Immigration,
    2d ed.
    Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
    LeMay, Michael, and ElliottRobert Barkan, eds. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Laws and Issues: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. History of the Immigration and Naturalizaton Service. 96th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the JudiciaryThe Immigration and Naturalization Systems of the United States. 81st Cong., 2d sess. S. Rept. 1515. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.
    Indian Policy
    Bee, Robert L.The Politics of American Indian Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Publishing Company, 1982.
    Cohen, Felix S.Felix S. Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law, edited by RennardStrickland. Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Bobbs-Merrill, 1982.
    Davis, Mary B., ed. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.
    Harmon, George Dewey. Sixty Years of Indian Affairs: Political, Economic, and Diplomatic, 1789–1850. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1941.
    Henriksson, Markku. The Indian on Capitol Hill: Indian Legislation and the United States Congress, 1862–1907. Helsinki: Societas Historica Finlandiae, 1988
    Hoxie, Frederick E.A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 2001
    Kappler, Charles J., comp. and ed. Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. 7 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1903.
    Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. 2 vols. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
    Schmeckebier, Laurence F.The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1927.
    Stuart, Paul. The Indian Office: Growth and Development of the American Institution, 1865–1900. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1979.
    Taylor, Theodore W.The Bureau of Indian Affairs. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.
    Tyler, S. Lyman. A History of Indian Policy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1973.
    Intelligence Policy
    Fain, Tyrus G., with Katharine C.Plant, and RossMilloy, eds. The Intelligence Community: History, Organization, and Issues. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1977.
    Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. The CIA and American Democracy,
    3d ed.
    New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.
    Johnson, Loch K.A Season of Inquiry: Congress and Intelligence. Chicago: Dorsey Press, 1988.
    Koh, Harold Hongju. The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power after the Iran-Contra Affair. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
    Lowenthal, Mark M.Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy,
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.
    Smist, Frank J., Jr.Congress Oversees the United States Intelligence Community, 1947–1994,
    2d ed.
    Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.
    U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Legislative Oversight of Intelligence Activities: The U.S. Experience. 103d Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 103–88. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
    Watson, Bruce W., Susan M.Watson, and Gerald W.Hopple, eds. United States Intelligence: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990.
    Internal Improvements
    Albjerg, Victor J.Federal Policy toward Internal Improvements, 1789–1861.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1927.
    Albjerg, Victor J.Internal Improvements without a Policy (1789–1860).”Indiana Magazine of History28 (September 1932): 168–179.
    Goodrich, Carter. Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
    Harrison, Joseph H., Jr.The Internal Improvement Issue in the Politics of the Union, 1783–1825.” Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1954.
    Hill, Forest Garrett. Roads, Rails and Waterways: The Army Engineers and Early Transportation. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
    Jackson, W. Turrentine. Wagon Roads West: A Study of Federal Road Surveys and Construction in the Trans-Mississippi West, 1846–1869. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press1965.
    Larson, John Lauritz. “‘Bind the Republic Together’: The National Union and the Struggle for Internal Improvements.”Journal of American History74 (September 1987): 363–387.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1900027
    Rae, John Bell. “Federal Land Grants in Aid of Canals.”Journal of Economic History4 (November 1944): 167–177.
    Internal Security
    Carr, Robert K.The House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1945–1950. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1952.
    Goodman, Walter. The Committee: The Extraordinary Career of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1968.
    Herman, Arthur. Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. New York: Free Press, 2000.
    Irons, Peter. Justice at War. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1993.
    Latham, Earl. The Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966.
    Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents,
    2d ed.
    Boston: Bedford St. Martin's, 2001.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. Administration of the Internal Security Act of 1950. Prepared by A.Warren Littman. 94th Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security LawsInternal Security Manual, Revised to July 1973: Provisions of Federal Statutes, Executive Orders, and Congressional Resolutions Relating to the Internal Security of the United States. 2 vols. 93d Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.
    Judiciary and Judicial Review
    Biskupic, Joan, and ElderWitt. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court,
    3d ed.
    2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.
    Carp, Robert A., and RonaldStidham. The Federal Courts,
    4th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.
    Marcus, Maeva, ed. Origins of the Federal Judiciary: Essays on the Judiciary Act of 1789. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    Posner, Richard A.The Federal Courts: Challenge and Reform. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Ritz, Wilfred J.Rewriting the History of the Judiciary Act of 1789. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.
    Surrency, Erwin C.History of the Federal Courts,
    2d ed.
    Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 2002.
    Wheeler, Russell R., and CynthiaHarrison. Creating the Federal Judicial System,
    2d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Federal Judicial Center, 1994.
    Labor
    Ashford, Nicholas Askounes. Crisis in the Workplace: Occupational Disease and Injury, A Report to the Ford Foundation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976.
    Commons, John R., and John B.Andrews. Principles of Labor Legislation,
    2d ed.
    Holmes Beach, Fla.: Gaunt Inc., 2001.
    Derber, Milton, and EdwinYoung, ed. Labor and the New Deal. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957.
    Forbath, William E.Law and the Shaping of the American Labor Movement. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991.
    Gregory, Charles O., and Harold A.Katz. Labor and the Law,
    3d ed.
    New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1979.
    Moss, David A.Socializing Security: Progressive-Era Economists and the Origins of American Social Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Nordlund, Willis J.The Quest for a Living Wage: The History of the Federal Minimum Wage Program. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.
    Rehmus, Charles M.Evolution of Legislation Affecting Collective Bargaining in the Railroad and Airline Industries.” In The Railway Labor Act at Fifty: Collective Bargaining in the Railroad and Airline Industries, edited by BenjaminVaaron, Beatrice M.Brugoon, Donald E.Cullen, Dana E.Eischen, Mark L.Kahn, Charles M.Rehmus, and JacobSeidenberg, 1–22. Washington, D.C.: National Mediation Board, 1977.
    Lobbying
    Mulhollan, Daniel P.An Overview of Lobbying by Organizations.” In U.S. Congress. Commission on the Operation of the Senate. Senators, Offices, Ethics, and Pressures, 157–192. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
    Ornstein, Norman J., and ShirleyElder. Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Policymaking. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1978.
    Schriftgiesser, Karl. The Lobbyists: The Art and Business of Influencing Lawmakers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.
    Susman, Thomas M., ed. “Introduction to Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act.”Chap. 1 in The Lobbying Manual: A Compliance Guide for Lawyers and Lobbyists. Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, 1993.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations. Congress and Pressure Groups: Lobbying in a Modern Democracy. 99th Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 99–161. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.
    Narcotics and Other Dangerous Drugs
    Belenko, Steven R., ed. Drugs and Drug Policy in America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.
    Greenberg, Martin Alan. Prohibition Enforcement: Charting a New Mission. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1999.
    Inciardi, James A., ed. Handbook of Drug Control in the United States. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
    McWilliams, John C.Through the Past Darkly: The Politics and Policies of America's Drug War.” In Drug Control Policy: Essays in Historical and Comparative Perspective, edited by William O.WalkerIII. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992.
    Morgan, H. Wayne. Drugs in America: A Social History, 1800–1980. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1981.
    Musto, David F.The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control,
    3d ed.
    New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Temin, Peter. Taking Your Medicine: Drug Regulation in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.
    Walker, William O., III. Drug Control in the Americas.
    Rev. ed.
    Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1989.
    National Parks and Forests
    Dilsaver, Lary M., ed. America's National Park System: The Critical Documents. Lanham, Md.: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 1994.
    Frome, Michael. The Forest Service,
    2d ed.
    Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.
    Ise, John. Our National Park Policy: A Critical History. Baltimore, Md.: Published for Resources for the Future by Johns Hopkins Press, 1961.
    Runte, Alfred. National Parks: The American Experience,
    3d ed.
    Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
    Sellars, Richard West. Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
    U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. Forest Service Planning: Accommodating Uses, Producing Outputs, and Sustaining Ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, 1992.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Wilkinson, Charles F., and H.Michael Anderson. Land and Resource Planning in the National Forests. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1987.
    Older Americans
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew. Shades of Gray: Old Age, American Values, and Federal Policies since 1920. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983.
    Estes, Carroll L.The Aging Enterprise. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980.
    Hudson, Robert B.The Aging in Politics: Process and Policy. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1981.
    Koff, Theodore H., and Richard W.Park. Aging Public Policy: Bonding the Generations,
    2d ed.
    Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Company, 1999.
    Pratt, Henry J.The Gray Lobby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
    Torres-Gil, Fernando M.The New Aging: Politics and Change in America. New York: Auburn House, 1992.
    U.S. Social Security Administration. History of the Provisions of Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance, 1935–1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Social Security Administration, 1997.
    Postal Service
    Baxter, Vern K.Labor and Politics in the U.S. Postal Service. New York: Plenum Press, 1994.
    Cullinan, Gerald. The United States Postal Service. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973.
    Fowler, Dorothy Ganfield. Unmailable: Congress and the Post Office. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1977.
    John, Richard R.Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.
    Mayton, William Ty. “The Missions and Methods of the Postal Power.” In Governing the Postal Service, edited by J.Gregory Sidak, 60–113. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1994.
    Presidential Disability, Succession, and Tenure
    Bayh, Birch. One Heartbeat Away: Presidential Disability and Succession. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1968.
    Feerick, John D.The Twenty-fifth Amendment: Its Complete History and Applications,
    2d ed.
    New York: Fordham University Press, 1992.
    Silva, Ruth. Presidential Succession. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1951.
    Stathis, Stephen W.The Twenty-second Amendment: A Practical Remedy or Partisan Maneuver?Constitutional Commentary7 (winter 1990): 61–88.
    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments. Selected Materials on the Twenty-fifth Amendment. 93d Cong., 1st sess. S. Doc. 93–42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.
    Privacy
    Cate, Fred H.Privacy in the Information Age. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997.
    Hanus, Jerome J., and Harold C.Relyea. “A Policy Assessment of the Privacy Act.”American University Law Review25 (spring 1976): 555–593.
    Personal Privacy in an Information Society: The Report of the Privacy Protection Study Commission. Washington, D.C.: Privacy Protection Study Commission, July 1977.
    Regan, Priscilla M.Legislating Privacy: Technology, Social Values, and Public Policy. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Smith, Robert Ellis. Ben Franklin's Web Site: Privacy and Curiosity from Plymouth Rock to the Internet. Providence, R.I.: Privacy Journal, 2000.
    Swire, Peter P., and Robert E.Litan. None of Your Business: World Data Flows, Electronic Commerce, and the European Privacy Directive. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations and U.S. House Committee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Government Information and Individual Rights. Legislative History of the Privacy Act of 1974, S. 3418 (Public Law 93–579): Source Book on Privacy. 94th Cong., 2d sess. Joint Committee Print. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    Westin, Alan F.Privacy and Freedom. New York: Atheneum, 1967.
    Public Lands
    America 200: The Legacy of Our Lands.
    Special bicentennial ed.
    Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1976.
    Cawley, R. McGreggor. Federal Land, Western Anger: The Sagebrush Rebellion and Environmental Politics. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1993.
    Foss, Phillip O.Politics and Grass: The Administration of Grazing on the Public Domain. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 1960.
    Gates, Paul W.History of Public Land Law Development. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
    Hibbard, Benjamin Horace. A History of the Public Land Policies. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965.
    Oberly, James W.Sixty Million Acres: American Veterans and the Public Lands before the Civil War. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1990.
    Robbins, Roy M.Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776–1936. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1942.
    Rohrbough, Malcolm J.The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789–1837. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
    Stegner, Wallace. Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1954.
    Utley, Robert M., and BarryMackintosh. The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1988.
    Wilkinson, Charles F.Crossing the Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1992.
    Public Works
    Armstrong, Ellis L., Michael C.Robinson, and Suellen M.Hoy, eds. History of Public Works in the United States, 1776–1976. Chicago: American Public Works Association, 1976.
    Hill, Forest G.Roads, Rails and Waterways: The Army Engineers and Early Transportation. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.
    Hoy, Suellen M., and Michael C.Robinson, comp. Public Works History in the United States: A Guide to the Literature. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1982.
    Maass, Arthur. Congress and the Common Good. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
    Maass, ArthurMuddy Waters: The Army Engineers and the Nation's Rivers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1951.
    Pross, Edward L.History of Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Bills, 1866–1933.” Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1938.
    U.S. Federal Highway Administration. America's Highways, 1776–1976: A History of the Federal-Aid Program. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1977.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. History of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–45. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
    Regulation and Deregulation
    Cushman, Robert T.The Independent Regulatory Commissions. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
    Derthick, Martha, and Paul J.Quirk. The Politics of Deregulation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1985.
    Funk, William F., Jeffrey S.Lubbers, and CharlesPouJr., eds. Federal Administrative Procedure Sourcebook,
    3d ed.
    Chicago: American Bar Association, Section of Administrative and Regulatory Practice, 2000.
    Koch, Charles H., Jr.Administrative Law and Practice,
    2d ed.
    3 vols. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 1997.
    Lubbers, Jeffrey S.A Guide to Federal Agency Rulemaking,
    3d ed.
    Chicago: American Bar Association, 1998.
    Meier, Kenneth J.E., ThomasGarman, and Lael R.Keiser. Regulation and Consumer Protection: Politics, Bureaucracy and Economics,
    3d ed.
    Houston, Texas: Dame Publications, 1998.
    Vietor, Richard H.K.Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994.
    Weidenbaum, Murray L.Business, Government, and the Public,
    3rd ed.
    Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986.
    Religion
    Ahlstrom, Sydney E.A Religious History of the American People. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Image Books, 1975.
    Benson, Peter L., and Dorothy L.Williams. Religion on Capitol Hill: Myths and Realities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    Edel, Wilbur. Defenders of the Faith: Religion and Politics from the Pilgrim Fathers to Ronald Reagan. New York: Praeger, 1987.
    Fowler, Robert Booth, Allen D.Hertzke, and Laura R.Olson. Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices,
    2d ed.
    Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
    Reichley, A. James. Religion in American Public Life. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1985.
    Stokes, Anson Phelps. Church and State in the United States. 3 vols. New York: Harper and Row, 1950.
    Woods, James E., Jr., and DerekDavis, eds. The Role of Religion in the Making of Public Policy. Waco, Texas: Baylor University, J. M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, 1991.
    Science and Technology
    Barke, Richard. Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 1986.
    Del Sesto, Steven L.Science, Politics, and Controversy: Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States, 1946–1974. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1979.
    Dupree, A. Hunter. Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.
    Kleinman, Daniel Lee. Politics on the Endless Frontier: Postwar Research Policy in the United States. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.
    National Academy of Sciences. Committee on Science and Public Policy. Federal Support of Basic Research in Institutions of Higher Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1964.
    Penick, James L., Jr., Carroll W.PursellJr., Morgan B.Sherwood, and Donald C.Swain. The Politics of American Science, 1939 to the Present.
    Rev. ed.
    Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972.
    U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology. A History of Science Policy in the United States, 1940–1985. 99th Cong., 2d sess. Committee Print. Serial R. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.
    Slavery
    Alexander, Thomas B.Sectional Stress and Party Strength: A Study of Roll-Call Voting Patterns in the United States House of Representatives, 1836–1860. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University, 1967.
    Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A.MossJr.From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans,
    8th ed.
    Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
    Freehling, William W.The Road to Disunion. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to Conflict: The Crisis and Compromise of 1850. Lexington, Ky: University of Kentucky Press, 1964.
    Knupfer, Peter B.The Union as It Is: Constitutional Unionism and Sectional Compromise, 1787–1861. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
    Miller, William Lee. Arguing about Slavery: The Great Battle in the United States Congress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
    Potter, David M.The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1976
    Small Business
    Anglund, Sandra M.Small Business Policy and the American Creed. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
    Aoyama, Yuko, and Michael B.Teitz. Small Business Policy in Japan and the United States: A Comparative Analysis of Objectives and Outcomes. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of International Studies, International and Area Studies, 1996.
    Bean, Jonathan J.Beyond the Broker State: Federal Policies toward Small Business, 1936–1961. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
    Blackford, Mansel G.A History of Small Business in America,
    2d ed.
    Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
    Parris, Addison W.The Small Business Administration. New York: F. A. Praeger, 1968.
    Phillips, Joseph Dexter. Little Business in the American Economy. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1958.
    Social Security
    Achenbaum, W. Andrew. Social Security: Visions and Revisions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
    Altmeyer, Arthur J.The Formative Years of Social Security. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
    Coll, Blanche D.Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929–1979. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.
    Derthick, Martha. Policymaking for Social Security. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1979.
    Lubove, Roy. The Struggle for Social Security, 1900–1935,
    2d ed.
    Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986.
    Nash, Gerald D., Noel H.Pugach, and Richard F.Tomasson, eds. Social Security: The First Half-Century. Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.
    Schieber, Sylvester J., and John B.Shoven. The Real Deal: The History and Future of Social Security. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Select Committee on Aging. Fifty Years of Social Security: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. 99th Cong., 1st sess. S. Print 99–70. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.
    Witte, Edwin Emil. The Development of the Social Security Act: A Memorandum on the History of the Committee on Economic Security and Drafting and Legislative History of the Social Security Act. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962.
    Social Welfare and Poverty
    Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present.
    Rev. ed.
    Boston: South End Press, 1996.
    Amenta, Edwin. Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
    Axinn, June, and HermanLevin. Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need,
    5th ed.
    White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 2001.
    Day, Phyllis J.A New History of Social Welfare,
    4th ed.
    Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002.
    Gordon, Linda. Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890–1935. New York: Free Press, 1994.
    Quadagno, Jill S.The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.
    Weir, Margaret, AnnShola Orloff, and ThedaSkocpol, eds. The Politics of Social Policy in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Statehood
    The Concept of Statehood within the American Federal System: A Report for the Alaska Statehood Commission. Prepared by Birch, Horton, Bittner, and Monroe, PC for the Alaska Statehood Commission. Fairbanks, Alaska, April 15, 1981.
    Dávila-Colón, Luis R.Equal Citizenship, Self-Determination, and the U.S. Statehood Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis.”Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law13 (spring 1981): 315–374.
    Grupo de Investigadores Puertorriquenos. Breakthrough from Colonialism: An Interdisciplinary Study of Statehood. 2 vols. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1984.
    U.S. Congress. Senate. Organic Acts for the United States. 56th Cong. 1st sess. S. Doc. 148. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1900.
    Taxation
    Blakey, Roy G., and Gladys C.Blakey. The Federal Income Tax. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1940.
    Cordes, Joseph J., Robert D.Ebel, and Jane G.Gravelle, eds. The Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1999.
    Doris, Lillian, ed. The American Way in Taxation: Internal Revenue, 1862–1963. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1963.
    IRS Historical Fact Book: A Chronology, 1646–1992. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, 1993.
    Kimmel, Lewis H.Federal Budget and Fiscal Policy, 1789–1958. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1959.
    Pechman, Joseph A.Federal Tax Policy,
    5th ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1987.
    Stanley, Robert. Dimensions of Law in the Service of Order: Origins of the Federal Income Tax, 1861–1913. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
    Verdier, James M.The President, Congress, and Tax Reform: Patterns Over Three Decades.”The Annals499 (September 1988): 114–123.
    Willan, Robert M.Income Taxes: Concise History and Primer. Baton Rouge, La.: Claitor's Publishing Division, 1994.
    Witte, John F.The Politics and Development of the Federal Income Tax. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.
    Territories and Possessions
    Laughlin, Stanley K., Jr.The Law of United States Territories and Affiliated Jurisdictions. Rochester, N.Y.: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing, 1995.
    Leibowitz, Arnold H.Defining Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United States Territorial Relations. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989.
    Pomeroy, Earl S.The Territories and the United States, 1861–1890: Studies in Colonial Administration. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press1969.
    Pratt, Julius W.America's Colonial Experiment: How the United States Gained, Governed, and in Part Gave Away a Colonial Empire. New York: Prentice Hall, 1950.
    Stuart, Peter C.Isles of Empire: The United States and Its Overseas Possessions. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. History of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, as of the 100th Congress, 1816–1988. 100th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 100–46. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Trade and Tariffs
    Aaronson, Susan Ariel. Trade and the American Dream: A Social History of Postwar Trade Policy. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1996.
    Destler, I. M.American Trade Politics,
    3d ed.
    Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics; New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1995.
    Dobson, John M.Two Centuries of Tariffs: The Background and Emergence of the U.S. International Trade Commission. Washington, D.C.: U.S. International Trade Commission, December 1976.
    Eckes, Alfred E., Jr.Opening America's Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy since 1776. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Pastor, Robert A.Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy, 1929–1976. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980.
    Ratner, Sidney. The Tariff in American History. New York: Van Nostrand, 1972.
    Taussig, F. W.The Tariff History of the United States,
    8th ed.
    New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1936.
    Transportation
    Goodrich, Carter. Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
    Haney, Lewis H.A Congressional History of Railways in the United States, 2 vols. Madison, Wis.: Democratic Printing Company, State Printer, 1910.
    Kane, Robert M., and Allan D.Vose. Air Transportation,
    14th ed.
    Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2003.
    Lawrence, Samuel A.United States Merchant Shipping Policies and Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1966.
    Locklin, D. Philip. Economics of Transportation,
    7th ed.
    Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1972.
    Rose, Mark H.Interstate: Express Highway Politics, 1939–1989.
    Rev. ed.
    Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1990.
    Smerk, George M. The Federal Role in Urban Mass Transportation. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1991.
    U.S. Department of Transportation. Office of Environmental Affairs. A Nation in Motion: Historic American Transportation Sites. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
    U.S. Federal Highway Administration. America's Highways, 1776–1976: A History of the Federal-Aid Program. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1977.
    U.S. Office of Federal Coordinator of Transportation. Public Aids to Transportation. 4 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1938–40.
    Witnah, Donald R.U.S. Department of Transportation: A Reference History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.
    Treaties
    Axelrod, Alan. American Treaties and Alliances. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2000.
    Bevans, Charles I., Comp. Treaties and Other Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949. 13 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1968–1976.
    Dangerfield, Royden J.In Defense of the Senate: A Study in Treaty Making. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1933.
    Fleming, Denna Frank. The Treaty Veto of the American Senate. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1930.
    Glennon, Michael J.The Senate Role in Treaty Ratification.”American Journal of International Law77 (April 1983): 257–280.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2200853
    Hayden, Joseph Ralston. The Senate and Treaties, 1789–1817: The Development of the Treaty-Making Functions of the United States Senate during Their Formative Period. New York: Macmillan, 1920.
    Holt, W. Stull. Treaties Defeated by the Senate: A Study of the Struggle between President and Senate Over the Conduct of Foreign Relations. Union, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange, 1999.
    U.S. Department of State. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952.
    U.S. Department of State. Office of Legal Adviser. Treaties in Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on January 1, 1999. Department of State Publication 9434. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.
    U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate. 106th Cong., 2d sess. S. Print 106–7. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.
    Urban Policy
    Cleaveland, Frederic N., Royce Hanson, M., KentJennings, John E.Moore, JudithHeimlich Parris, and Randall B.Ripley. Congress and Urban Problems: A Casebook on the Legislative Process. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1969.
    Fox, Kenneth. Metropolitan America: Urban Life and Urban Policy in the United States, 1940–1980. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
    Gelfand MarkI.A Nation of Cities: The Federal Government and Urban America, 1933–1965. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
    Judd, Dennis R., and ToddSwanstrom. City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy,
    3d ed.
    New York: Longman, 2002.
    Kaplan, Marshall, and FranklinJames, eds. The Future of National Urban Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.
    Kleinberg, Benjamin. Urban America in Transformation: Perspectives on Urban Policy and Development. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1995.
    Martin, Roscoe C.The Cities and the Federal System. New York: Atherton Press, 1965.
    Peterson, Paul E.City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
    Teaford, Jon C.The Twentieth-Century American City,
    2d ed.
    Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
    Veterans
    Dearing, Mary. Veterans in Politics: The Story of the G.A.R.. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1952.
    Dillingham, William Pyrle. Federal Aid to Veterans, 1917–1941. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Press, 1952.
    Glasson, William Henry. History of Military Pension Legislation in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1900.
    Levitan, Sar A., and Karen A.Cleary. Old Wars Remain Unfinished: The Veteran Benefits System. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
    Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.
    U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The Veterans Benefits Administration: An Organizational History, 1776–1994. Washington, D.C.: Veterans Benefits Administration, 1995.
    U.S. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs. The Provision of Federal Benefits for Veterans: An Historical Analysis of Major Veterans' Legislation, 1862–1954. 84th Cong., 1st sess. House Committee Print 171. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955.
    Voting and Suffrage
    Chute, Marchette. The First Liberty: A History of the Right to Vote in America, 1619–1850. New York: Dutton, 1969.
    Flexner, Eleanor, and EllenFitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States.
    Enl. ed.
    Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Foster, Lorn S., ed. The Voting Rights Act: Consequences and Implications. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985.
    Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
    Peirce, Neal R., and Lawrence D.Longley. “The Right to Vote in America.”Chap. 5 in The People's President: The Electoral College in American History and the Direct Vote Alternative.
    Rev. ed.
    New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968.
    Porter, Kirk H.A History of Suffrage in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1918.
    Rogers, Donald W., and ChristineScriabine, eds. Voting and the Spirit of American Democracy: Essays on the History of Voting and Voting Rights in America. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
    Women's Issues and Rights
    Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. Encyclopedia of Women's History in America,
    2d ed.
    New York: Facts on File, 2000.
    Davis, Flora. Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960.
    Rev. ed.
    Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
    Flexner, Eleanor, and EllenFitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
    Freeman, Jo. The Politics of Women's Liberation: A Case Study of an Emerging Social Movement and Its Relation to the Policy Process. New York: McKay, 1975.
    Gelb, Joyce, and MarianLief Palley. Women and Public Policies: Reassessing Gender Politics. Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
    Harrison, Cynthia. On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues, 1945–1968. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1988.
    Hartmann, Susan M.From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
    McGlen, Nancy E., and KarenO'Connor. Women, Politics, and American Society,
    3d ed.
    New York: Longman, 2001.
    The Continental Congress
    Boatner, Mark May, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution.
    Bicentennial ed.
    [rev. and expanded]. New York: D. McKay Co., 1974.
    Burnett, Edmund Cody. The Continental Congress. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975, c1941.
    Ford, Worthington Chauncey, Roscoe R.Hill, eds. Journals of the Continental Congress: 1774–1789, 34 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904-1936.
    Henderson, H., JamesHenderson. Party Politics in the Continental Congress. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
    Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1953.
    Jillson, Calvin, and Rick K.Wilson. Congressional Dynamics: Structure, Coordination, and Choice in the First American Congress, 1774–1789. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994.
    Montross, Lynn. The Reluctant Rebels: The Story of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970.
    Rakove, Jack N.The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, c1979.
    Sanders, Jennings B.Evolution of Executive Departments of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina press, 1935.

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