- Subject index
Acclaimed by researchers, students, and general readers, this informative, lively, and easy-to-use volume fills the public need for information about key recent and historical cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Now significantly updated, this new edition includes all the new major cases-over twenty five in total-handed down by the Court since the first edition was published in 2000. The new entries include many high-profile cases that have stirred public controversy, including: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000), granting the right to exclude homosexuals from leadership positions in the Boy Scouts; Bush v. Gore (2000), ceasing ballot recounts in the 2000 presidential election; PGA Tour v. Martin (2001), obliging the PGA to accommodate a disabled golfer; Lawrence v. Texas (2003), stating that a law criminalizing same-sex sodomy violates due process; Gratz/Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), stating that an affirmative action program to achieve diversity in universities may or may not violate the equal protection clause, depending on how it's implemented. In each of the over 100 cases summarized, author Tony Mauro succinctly describes the decision, provides background and facts of the case, the vote and highlights of the decision with verbatim excerpts, and, in conclusion, discusses the long-term impact of the decision on United States citizens and U.S. society. Topic search aids let readers easily trace the evolution and impact of rulings in particular issue areas. Added features also enhance the volume, including many new portraits, political cartoons, and drawings, a comprehensive bibliography and an easy-to-access case/subject index. A perfect starting point for research on Supreme Court decisions, this newly updated volume is an essential addition to every public, high school, and college library.
Roper v. Simmons
Decided March 1, 2005
The Eighth Amendment's prohibition against “cruel and unusual punishment” is violated when someone younger than eighteen at the time of his or her crime is executed. Capital punishment should be reserved for the worst offenders; juveniles, because of their immaturity and lack of judgment, cannot be placed in that category.
One day when seventeen-year-old Christopher Simmons was a junior in high school, he announced to his friends that he wanted to kill somebody. Accompanied by a friend on the night of September 8, 1993, Simmons did just that. They broke into the suburban St. Louis home of Shirley Crook and tied her up with duct tape. They took her to a nearby state park, reinforced the tape ...