• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Acclaimed by researchers, students, and general readers, this informative, lively, and easy-to-use volume fills the public need for information about key recent and historical cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Now significantly updated, this new edition includes all the new major cases-over twenty five in total-handed down by the Court since the first edition was published in 2000. The new entries include many high-profile cases that have stirred public controversy, including: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000), granting the right to exclude homosexuals from leadership positions in the Boy Scouts; Bush v. Gore (2000), ceasing ballot recounts in the 2000 presidential election; PGA Tour v. Martin (2001), obliging the PGA to accommodate a disabled golfer; Lawrence v. Texas (2003), stating that a law criminalizing same-sex sodomy violates due process; Gratz/Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), stating that an affirmative action program to achieve diversity in universities may or may not violate the equal protection clause, depending on how it's implemented. In each of the over 100 cases summarized, author Tony Mauro succinctly describes the decision, provides background and facts of the case, the vote and highlights of the decision with verbatim excerpts, and, in conclusion, discusses the long-term impact of the decision on United States citizens and U.S. society. Topic search aids let readers easily trace the evolution and impact of rulings in particular issue areas. Added features also enhance the volume, including many new portraits, political cartoons, and drawings, a comprehensive bibliography and an easy-to-access case/subject index. A perfect starting point for research on Supreme Court decisions, this newly updated volume is an essential addition to every public, high school, and college library.

Lemon v. Kurtzman
Lemon v. Kurtzman

Decided June 28, 1971

403 U.S. 602

http://laws.findlaw.com/US/403/602.html

Decision

Government programs and laws that aid religious institutions must be evaluated using a three-part test to determine if they violate the First Amendment's ban on government establishment of religion. To be found constitutional, the program's purpose must be secular (nonreligious), its primary effect must not be to advance or inhibit religion, and it must not create excessive entanglement or involvement of government with religion. Under that standard, the Court struck down Pennsylvania and Rhode Island programs that supplemented the salaries of parochial school teachers with public funds.

Background

On the question of school-sponsored prayer in public schools, the Warren Court had made its views clear in a series of decisions. The Court said that laws that required prayer ...

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