Illustrated Great Decisions of the Supreme Court

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Tony Mauro

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  • Authority of Law

    by sculptor James Earle Fraser, sits on the right side of the Supreme Court's front stairway.

    Source: Lois Long, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    To Bob Dubill and Peter Watson

    My mentors and friends

    About the Editor

    Editor's note: In the “Decision” sections of this book the present tense is used to describe the ruling of the Court, but it does not always follow that the decision remains valid. Manyof the decisions have been subsequently modified or over turned, as is explained in the “Impact” sections. In the “Excerpts” sections, the original wording of each opinion is retained.

    Cases Arranged Alphabetically

    Cases are followed in parentheses by the name of the section in which they appear.

    Preface

    A case argued in early 2000 before the Supreme Court concerned whether Colorado had gone too far in enacting a law that restricted the ability of protesters to demonstrate outside abortion clinics. When Justice Antonin Scalia wondered aloud whether a similar law could have been written to restrict laborunion picketing, a government lawyer made the mistake of asserting that labor disputes, unlike abortion protests, had not caused violence in Colorado.

    Chief Justice William Rehnquist reacted angrily to the assertion. There had been violence in Colorado labor disputes, he countered. “Read Moyer v. Peabody,” Rehnquist told the lawyer. The case Rehnquist cited was a minor one decided in 1909, but it was nonetheless revealing in that Rehnquist, in correcting a lawyer's misstatement of history, admonished her to read a Supreme Court decision, not a history book. The opinion, written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., would tell the lawyer all she needed to know.

    Supreme Court decisions, in addition to resolving disputes, also tell stories. They are snapshots of U.S. history, each one capturing a situation that has a background, a set of facts, and a sifting of legal theories and precedents current at the time. Once issued, they cast a shadow forward, establishing principles and standards that are incorporated or elaborated on when the Court next decides a case in that field of law.

    Illustrated Great Decisions of the Supreme Court, second edition, contains a series of those snapshots, presenting 108 of the pivotal, far-reaching decisions of the Supreme Court. Through them, a reader can view the broad sweep of U.S. history or simply focus on the factual background, decision, highlights, and impact of a single case.

    The book is meant as an introduction to the work of the Supreme Court, though not a cursory one. Supreme Court justices often criticize those who write about the Court for focusing only on the outcome of the case—which side won or which side lost. The entries in this book go beyond the outcome, detailing how the Court reached its decisions as well as what went before and what came after. Like other political institutions, the Supreme Court often changes its perspective. Because much depends on who is sitting on the bench and the cases that come before it, decisions are sometimes revisited. The case descriptions in this book inform the reader about the latest interpretations of some of the Court's oldest cases.

    In the twenty-five years that I have covered the Supreme Court as a journalist, I have often gone back to read these decisions in isolation, but I have sometimes wondered about the context in which they were written and what happened in their aftermath. This book, I hope, will provide some of that context in addition to the detail of what the Court actually said in some of its more important and interesting decisions.

    Supreme Court scholars will quickly notice that not all the hoary decisions that lawyers must learn about are included here. The selection of cases is weighted toward the modern era, with an emphasis on civil rights and First Amendment cases that might be of particular interest to students and the general public. Bob Jones University v. United States (1983) and New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) probably would not be on any list of the top Supreme Court cases, but the issues they raise—official searches of student belongings at school and tax-exempt status for a university that discriminates against minorities—can trigger thought-provoking debate about basic constitutional issues. Chandler v. Florida (1981), which opened the door to widespread camera coverage of the courts, may not be a landmark case, but as demonstrated by the O.J. Simpson trial, it relates to an issue that is still hotly disputed: whether the presence of cameras distorts the judicial process to the point where a defendant's right to a fair trial is damaged. Loving v. Virginia (1967), which struck down laws against interracial marriage, may not be in the pantheon of top civil rights decisions, but its still-current subject matter—and its ironically apt title—make it worthy of discussion. Likewise, United States v. The Schooner Amistad (1841) is not usually counted as a pivotal civil rights decision, but the 1997 movie about the case, in which the late justice Harry Blackmun appeared in a cameo role, justified its inclusion in the book.

    Also heavily represented in these pages are other cases in which Jehovah's Witnesses, gays, racists, pornographers, as well as Japanese Americans and other minorities sought to vindicate fundamental rights. These, too, make for compelling stories that reveal much about tolerance and intolerance in U.S. life. Buck v. Bell (1927), for example, is given full treatment here because it evokes a dark period when those with disabilities were treated as outcasts. The Cherokee Cases (1831 and 1832) are included because they similarly reveal how the Supreme Court played a role in shaping the nation's policies, in this case toward Native Americans.

    Society's treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses has produced nearly two dozen Supreme Court decisions, several of which are included in this volume. Justice Harlan Fiske Stone once stated that Jehovah's Witnesses “ought to have an endowment in view of the aid which they give in solving the legal problems of civil liberties.” Many of those legal issues persist to this day, which is why they are covered here.

    I have also tried to include most of the cases that are essential building blocks for any comprehensive study of the Supreme Court. Marbury v. Madison (1803), Ex parte Milligan (1866), Humphrey's Executor v. United States (1935), Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952), and Baker v. Carr (1962) are all here. Other lesser-known corners of the law are treated in several entries. Environmental law, based mainly on statutory rather than constitutional provisions, has produced few landmark decisions, but one, Sierra Club v. Morton (1972) is included because it illuminates the entire field of environmental law. Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. (1926) was similarly included, to cover the modern constitutional view of zoning, part of everyday municipal life across the United States.

    The twenty new cases presented in this second edition cover more than a dozen areas of law, but establishment of religion decisions figure prominently. Cases on copyright and the right to trial by jury, two areas not addressed in the first edition, have also been added.

    A few words about the organization of the book: In the first edition, the cases were arranged alphabetically, but in this edition they are grouped by twenty-four subject areas—each opening with a brief introduction—to enable the reader to see the progression of the Court's jurisprudence on a range of issues, such as freedom of the press or the commerce power. For ease of reference, an alphabetical listing of the cases is also provided after the main table of contents. In addition, the volume contains useful reference material, including the U.S. Constitution, justices’ biographies, a succession chart of Supreme Court seats, a thumbnail sketch of the Court's history, and a glossary of common legal terms. The many illustrations throughout the book bring the cases to life.

    In writing this book, I am indebted to many people who assisted and inspired me. The late Bernard Schwartz, the prolific historian of the Supreme Court, told me not long before he died that I ought to write a book, and I am sorry he is not alive to see that I acted on his advice. Schwartz showed that it is possible to take an investigative approach to writing about the Supreme Court without slighting its status as a majestic and admirable institution.

    Others who helped me in the selection and research, as well as in other aspects of the book, include, in alphabetical order, Kathleen Arberg, Tom Baker, Martin Belsky, David Burns, Ron Collins, Joseph Conn, Bruce Fein, Victor Gaberman, David Garrow, David Hudson, Kenneth Jost, Lisa Keen, Edward Lazarus, Joyce Murdoch, Shawn Francis Peters, David Pride, Bruce Sanford, John Stanton, the Stepp family, Tiffany Villager, and J. Harvie Wilkinson III. Among the books I found most helpful were several written or edited by Joan Biskupic and Elder Witt, Warren Burger, John Garraty, Kermit Hall, Peter Irons, Richard Kluger, Edward Lazarus, Jethro Lieberman, Sandra Day O'Connor, David Rabban, William Rehnquist, Cass Sunstein, Bernard Schwartz, Mark Tushnet, Melvin I. Urofsky, and Bob Woodward and Scott Armstrong.

    I also could not have written this book without the patience and understanding of my colleagues first at USA Today and, more recently, at Legal Times and American Lawyer Media. They encouraged me to write and tolerated my prolonged absences from work. Thanks go to Rich Barbieri, Bob Dubill, Ed Foster-Simeon, Fred Gaskins, Linda Mathews, Jim Oliphant, Aric Press, and Eva Rodriguez.

    At CQ Press, I was very lucky to have patient, careful, and knowledgeable editors: January Layman-Wood, Doug Golden-berg-Hart, Molly Lohman, and Gwenda Larsen. Most of all, I want to thank the three women I love and cherish in my life, all of whom helped me immeasurably: my mother, Josephine Mauro, whose keen librarian's eye caught errors and imprecision in early drafts; my wife, Kathy Cullinan; and my daughter, Emily Mauro.

  • Constitution of the United States

    We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

    Article I

    Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

    Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

    No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

    [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.]1 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

    When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

    The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

    Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]2 for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

    Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.]3

    No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

    The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

    The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

    The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

    Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

    Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

    The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall [be on the first Monday in December],4 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

    Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

    Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

    Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

    Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

    Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

    No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

    Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

    Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

    Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

    Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

    • To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

    • To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

    • To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

    • To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

    • To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

    • To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

    • To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

    • To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

    • To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

    • To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

    • To provide and maintain a Navy;

    • To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

    • To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

    • To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

    • To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; — And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

    Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

    The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

    No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

    No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.5

    No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

    No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

    No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

    No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

    Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

    No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

    No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

    Article II

    Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

    Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

    [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]6

    The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

    No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

    In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,7 the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

    The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

    Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:— “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

    Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

    He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

    The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

    Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

    Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

    Article III

    Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

    Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction — to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to Controversies between two or more States; — between a State and Citizens of another State; — between Citizens of different States; — between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.8

    In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

    The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

    Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

    The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

    Article IV

    Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

    Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

    A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

    [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.]9

    Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

    The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

    Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

    Article V

    The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided [that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and]10 that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

    Article VI

    All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

    This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

    The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

    Article VII

    The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

    Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. IN WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

    GeorgeWashington, President and deputy from Virginia.

    [The language of the original Constitution, not including the Amendments, was adopted by a convention of the states on September 17, 1787, and was subsequently ratified by the states on the following dates: Delaware, December 7, 1787; Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787; New Jersey, December 18, 1787; Georgia, January 2, 1788; Connecticut, January 9, 1788; Massachusetts, February 6, 1788; Maryland, April 28, 1788; South Carolina, May 23, 1788; New Hampshire, June 21, 1788.

    Ratification was completed on June 21, 1788.

    The Constitution subsequently was ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788; New York, July 26, 1788; North Carolina, November 21, 1789; Rhode Island, May 29, 1790; and Vermont, January 10, 1791.]

    Amendments
    Amendment I

    (First ten amendments ratified December 15, 1791)

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

    Amendment II

    A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

    Amendment III

    No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

    Amendment IV

    The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

    Amendment V

    No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

    Amendment VI

    In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

    Amendment VII

    In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

    Amendment VIII

    Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    Amendment IX

    The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    Amendment X

    The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

    Amendment XI (Ratified February 7, 1795)

    The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

    Amendment XII (Ratified June 15, 1804)

    The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.—]11 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

    Amendment XIII (Ratified December 6, 1865)

    Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

    Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868)

    Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,12 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

    Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

    Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

    Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

    Amendment XV (Ratified February 3, 1870)

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XVI (Ratified February 3, 1913)

    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    Amendment XVII (Ratified April 8, 1913)

    The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

    When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

    This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

    Amendment XVIII (Ratified January 16, 1919)

    Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

    Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.]13

    Amendment XIX (Ratified August 18, 1920)

    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XX (Ratified January 23, 1933)

    Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

    Section 3.14 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

    Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

    Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

    Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

    Amendment XXI (Ratified December 5, 1933)

    Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

    Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

    Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

    Amendment XXII (Ratified February 27, 1951)

    Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

    Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

    Amendment XXIII (Ratified March 29, 1961)

    Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

    A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXIV (Ratified January 23, 1964)

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXV (Ratified February 10, 1967)

    Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

    Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

    Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

    Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

    Amendment XXVI (Ratified July 1, 1971)

    Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

    Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Amendment XXVII (Ratified May 7, 1992)

    No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

    Source: U.S. Congress, House, Committee on the Judiciary, The Constitution of the United States of America, as Amended, 100th Cong., 1st sess., 1987, H Doc 10094.
    Notes

    1. The part in brackets was changed by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    2. The part in brackets was changed by the first paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

    3. The part in brackets was changed by the second paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

    4. The part in brackets was changed by the second paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment.

    5. The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to tax incomes.

    6. The material in brackets was superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

    7. This provision was affected by the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

    8. These clauses were affected by the Eleventh Amendment.

    9. This paragraph was superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment.

    10. Obsolete.

    11. The part in brackets was superseded by Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

    12. See the Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments.

    13. This amendment was repealed by Section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment.

    14. See the Twenty-fifth Amendment.

    The Justices

    Baldwin, Henry

    Birth:January 14, 1780, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Education:Hopkins Grammar School, 1793; Yale College, 1797, LLD., 1830; attended the law lectures of Judge Tapping Reeve; clerked for Alexander James Dallas.
    Official Positions:U.S. representative; chairman, Committee on Domestic Manufactures.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Andrew Jackson January 4, 1830, to replace Bushrod Washington, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 6, 1830, by a 41–2 vote; took judicial oath January 18, 1830; served until April 21, 1844; replaced by Robert C. Grier, nominated by President James K. Polk.
    Family:married Marianna Norton, 1802; died 1803; one son; married Sally Ellicott, 1805.
    Death:April 21, 1844, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Barbour, Philip P.

    Birth:May 25, 1783, Orange County, Virginia.
    Education:read law on his own; attended one session at College of William and Mary, 1801.
    Official Positions:member, Virginia House of Delegates from Orange County, 1812–1814; U.S. representative, 1814–1825, 1827–1830; Speaker of the House, 1821–1823; state judge, General Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, 1825–1827; president, Virginia Constitutional Convention, 1829–1830; U.S. district judge, Court of Eastern Virginia, 1830–1836.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Andrew Jackson February 28, 1835, to replace Gabriel Duvall, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate March 15, 1836, by a 30–11 vote; took judicial oath May 12, 1836; served until February 25, 1841; replaced by Peter V. Daniel, nominated by President Martin Van Buren.
    Family:married Frances Todd Johnson, 1804; seven children.
    Death:February 25, 1841, Washington, D.C.

    Black, Hugo L.

    Birth:February 27, 1886, Harlan, Alabama.
    Education:Birmingham Medical School, 1903–1904; University of Alabama Law School, LLB., 1906.
    Official Positions:police court judge, Birmingham, 1910–1911; county solicitor, Jefferson County, Alabama, 1914–1917; U.S. senator, 1927–1937.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt August 12, 1937, to replace Willis Van Devanter, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate August 17, 1937, by a 63–16 vote; took judicial oath August 19, 1937; retired September 17, 1971; replaced by Lewis F. Powell Jr., nominated by President Richard Nixon.
    Family:married Josephine Foster, February 1921; died 1951; two sons, one daughter; married Elizabeth Seay DeMerritte, September 11, 1957.
    Death:September 25, 1971, Washington, D.C.

    Blackmun, Harry A.

    Birth:November 12, 1908, Nashville, Illinois.
    Education:Harvard College, B.A., summa cum laude, 1929; Harvard Law School, LLB., 1932.
    Official Positions:clerk, Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, 1932–1933; judge, Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, 1959–1970.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Richard Nixon April 14, 1970, to replace Abe Fortas, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate May 12, 1970, by a 94–0 vote; took judicial oath June 9, 1970; retired August 3, 1994; replaced by Stephen G. Breyer, nominated by President Bill Clinton.
    Family:married Dorothy E. Clark, June 21, 1941; three daughters.
    Death:March 4, 1999, Arlington, Virginia.

    Blair, John, Jr.

    Birth:1732, Williamsburg, Virginia.
    Education:graduated with honors from College of William and Mary, 1754; studied law at Middle Temple, London, 1755–1756.
    Official Positions:member, Virginia House of Burgesses, 1766–1770; clerk, Virginia Governor's Council, 1770–1775; delegate, Virginia Constitutional Convention, 1776; member, Virginia Governor's Council, 1776; judge, Virginia General Court, 1777–1778; chief justice, 1779; judge, first Virginia Court of Appeals, 1780–1789; delegate, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; judge, Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, 1789.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington September 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate September 26, 1789, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 2, 1790; resigned January 27, 1796; replaced by Samuel Chase, nominated by President Washington.
    Family:married Jean Blair, December 26, 1756; died 1792.
    Death:August 31, 1800, Williamsburg, Virginia.

    Blatchford, Samuel

    Birth:March 9, 1820, New York City.
    Education:Columbia College, A.B., 1837.
    Official Positions:judge, Southern District of New York, 1867–1872; judge, Second Circuit of New York, 1872–1882.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Chester Arthur March 13, 1882, to replace Ward Hunt, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate March 27, 1882, by a voice vote; took judicial oath April 3, 1882; served until July 7, 1893; replaced by Edward D. White, nominated by President Grover Cleveland.
    Family:married Caroline Appleton, December 17, 1844.
    Death:July 7, 1893, Newport, Rhode Island.

    Bradley, Joseph P.

    Birth:March 14, 1813, Berne, New York.
    Education:Rutgers University, graduated 1836.
    Official Positions:none.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ulysses S. Grant February 7, 1870, succeeding James Wayne, who died in 1867 and whose seat remained vacant by act of Congress until 1870; confirmed by the Senate March 21, 1870, by a 46–9 vote; took judicial oath March 23, 1870; served until January 22, 1892; replaced by George Shiras Jr., nominated by President Benjamin Harrison.
    Family:married Mary Hornblower in 1844; seven children.
    Death:January 22, 1892, Washington, D.C.

    Brandeis, Louis D.

    Birth:November 13, 1856, Louisville, Kentucky.
    Education:Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1877.
    Official Positions:“people's attorney,” Public Franchise League and Massachusetts State Board of Trade, 1897–1911; counsel, New England Policyholders’ Protective Committee, 1905; special counsel, wage and hour cases in California, Illinois, Ohio, and Oregon, 1907–1914; counsel, Ballinger-Pinchot investigation, 1910; chairman, arbitration board, New York garment workers’ labor disputes, 1910–1916.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Woodrow Wilson January 28, 1916, to replace Joseph R. Lamar, who had died; confirmed by the Senate June 1, 1916, by a 47–22 vote; took judicial oath June 15, 1916; retired February 13, 1939; replaced by William O. Douglas, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:married Alice Goldmark, March 23, 1891; two daughters.
    Death:October 5, 1941, Washington, D.C.

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    Birth: April 25, 1906, Newark, New Jersey.

    Education: University of Pennsylvania, B.S., 1928; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1931.

    Official Positions: judge, New Jersey Superior Court, 1949–1950; judge, appellate division, New Jersey Superior Court, 1950–1952; associate judge, New Jersey Supreme Court, 1952–1956.

    Supreme Court Service: recess appointment as associate justice by President Dwight D. Eisenhower October 16, 1956, to replace Sherman Minton, who had resigned; nominated as associate justice by President Eisenhower January 14, 1957; confirmed by the Senate March 19, 1957 by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 16, 1956; retired July 20, 1990; replaced by David H. Souter, nominated by President George Bush.

    Family: married Marjorie Leonard, May 5, 1928, died 1982; two sons, one daughter; married Mary Fowler, March 9, 1983.

    Death: July 24, 1997, Arlington, Virginia.

    Brewer, David J.

    Birth:June 20, 1837, Smyrna, Asia Minor.
    Education:Wesleyan University, 1852–1853; Yale University, A.B., 1856; Albany Law School, LL.B., 1858.
    Official Positions:commissioner, U.S. Circuit Court, Leavenworth, Kansas, 1861–1862; judge of probate and criminal courts, Leavenworth County, 1863–1864; judge, First District of Kansas, 1865–1869; Leavenworth city attorney, 1869–1870; justice, Kansas Supreme Court, 1870–1884; judge, Eighth Federal Circuit, 1884–1889; president, Venezuela-British Guiana Border Commission, 1895.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Benjamin Harrison December 4, 1889, to replace Stanley Matthews, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 18, 1889, by a 53–11 vote; took judicial oath January 6, 1890; served until March 28, 1910; replaced by Charles Evans Hughes, nominated by President William Howard Taft.
    Family:married Louise R. Landon, October 3, 1861; died 1898; married Emma Miner Mott, June 5, 1901.
    Death:March 28, 1910, Washington, D.C.

    Breyer, Stephen G.

    Birth:August 15, 1938, San Francisco, California.
    Education:Stanford University, A.B., 1959; Oxford University, B.A., 1961; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1964.
    Official Positions:Law clerk to Justice Arthur J. Goldberg, 1964–1965; assistant to assistant attorney general, Antitrust Division, U.S. Justice Department, 1965–1967; assistant special prosecutor, Watergate Special Prosecution Force, 1973; special counsel, Senate Judiciary Committee, 1974–1975; chief counsel, Senate Judiciary Committee, 1979–1980; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, 1980–1994.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Bill Clinton May 13, 1994, to replace Harry A. Blackmun, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate July 29, 1994, by an 87–9 vote; took judicial oath August 3, 1994.
    Family:married Joanna Hare, 1967; two daughters, one son.

    Brown, Henry B.

    Birth:March 2, 1836, South Lee, Massachusetts.
    Education:Yale University, A.B., 1856; studied briefly at Yale Law School and Harvard Law School.
    Official Positions:U.S. deputy marshal for Detroit, 1861; assistant U.S. attorney, 1863–1868; circuit judge, Wayne County, Michigan, 1868; federal judge, Eastern District of Michigan, 1875–1890.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Benjamin Harrison December 23, 1890, to replace Samuel Miller, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 29, 1890, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 5, 1891; retired May 28, 1906; replaced by William H. Moody, nominated by President Theodore Roosevelt.
    Family:married Caroline Pitts, July 1864; died 1901; married Josephine E. Tyler, June 25, 1904.
    Death:September 4, 1913, Bronxville, New York.

    Burger, Warren E.

    Birth:September 17, 1907, St. Paul, Minnesota.
    Education:attended the University of Minnesota, 1925–1927; St. Paul College of Law (now William Mitchell College of Law), LL.B., magna cum laude, 1931.
    Official Positions:assistant U.S. attorney general, Civil Division, Justice Department, 1953–1956; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 1956–1969.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Richard Nixon May 21, 1969, to replace Chief Justice Earl Warren, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate June 9, 1969, by a 74–3 vote; took judicial oath June 23, 1969; retired September 26, 1986; replaced as chief justice by William H. Rehnquist, named by President Ronald Reagan.
    Family:married Elvera Stromberg, November 8, 1933; one son, one daughter.
    Death:June 25, 1995, Washington, D.C.

    Burton, Harold H.

    Birth:June 22, 1888, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts.
    Education:Bowdoin College, A.B., 1909; Harvard University, LL.B., 1912.
    Official Positions:member, Ohio House of Representatives, 1929; director of law, Cleveland, 1929–1932; acting mayor of Cleveland, November 9, 1931–February 20, 1932; mayor of Cleveland, 1935–1940; U.S. senator, 1941–1945.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Harry S. Truman September 19, 1945, to replace Owen J. Roberts, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate September 19, 1945, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 1, 1945; retired October 13, 1958; replaced by Potter Stewart, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    Family:married Selma Florence Smith, June 15, 1912; two daughters, two sons.
    Death:October 28, 1964, Washington, D.C.

    Butler, Pierce

    Birth:March 17, 1866, Pine Bend, Minnesota.
    Education:Carleton College, A.B., B.S., 1887.
    Official Positions:assistant county attorney, Ramsey County, Minnesota, 1891–1893; county attorney, 1893–1897.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Warren G. Harding November 23, 1922, to replace William R. Day, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 21, 1922, by a 61–8 vote; took judicial oath January 2, 1923; served until November 16, 1939; replaced by Frank Murphy, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:married Annie M. Cronin, August 25, 1891; eight children.
    Death:November 16, 1939, Washington, D.C.

    Byrnes, James F.

    Birth:May 2, 1879, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Education:St. Patrick's Parochial School (never graduated); studied law privately; admitted to the bar in 1903.
    Official Positions:court reporter, Second Circuit of South Carolina, 1900–1908; solicitor, Second Circuit of South Carolina, 1908–1910; U.S. representative, 1911–1925; U.S. senator, 1931–1941; director, Office of Economic Stabilization, 1942–1943; director, Office of War Mobilization, 1943–1945; secretary of state, 1945–1947; governor of South Carolina, 1951–1955.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt June 12, 1941, to replace James McReynolds, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate June 12, 1941, by a voice vote; took judicial oath July 8, 1942; resigned October 3, 1942; replaced by Wiley B. Rutledge, appointed by President Roosevelt.
    Family:Married Maude Perkins Busch, May 2, 1906.
    Death:April 9, 1972, Columbia, South Carolina.

    Campbell, John A.

    Birth:June 24, 1811, Washington, Georgia.
    Education:Franklin College (now the University of Georgia), graduated with first honors, 1825; attended U.S. Military Academy at West Point, 1825–1828.
    Official Positions:Alabama state representative, sessions of 1837 and 1843; assistant secretary of war, Confederate States of America, 1862–1865.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin Pierce March 21, 1853, to replace Justice John McKinley, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 25, 1853, by a voice vote; took judicial oath April 11, 1853; resigned April 30, 1861; replaced by David Davis, nominated by President Abraham Lincoln.
    Family:married Anna Esther Goldthwaite in the early 1830s; four daughters, one son.
    Death:March 12, 1889, Baltimore, Maryland.

    Cardozo, Benjamin N.

    Birth:May 24, 1870, New York City.
    Education:Columbia University, A.B., 1889; A.M., 1891; Columbia Law School, 1891, no degree.
    Official Positions:justice, New York Supreme Court, 1913; judge, New York State Court of Appeals, 1913–1932; chief judge, 1926–1932.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Herbert Hoover February 15, 1932, to replace Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., who had retired; confirmed by the Senate February 24, 1932, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 14, 1932; served until July 9, 1938; replaced by Felix Frankfurter, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:unmarried.
    Death:July 9, 1938, Port Chester, New York.

    Catron, John

    Birth: ca. 1786, Pennsylvania or Virginia.

    Education:self-educated.
    Official Positions:judge, Tennessee Supreme Court of Errors and Appeals, 1824–1831; first chief justice of Tennessee, 1831–1834.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Andrew Jackson March 3, 1837, to fill a newly created seat; confirmed by the Senate March 8, 1837, by a 28–15 vote; took judicial oath May 1, 1837; served until May 30, 1865; seat abolished by Congress.
    Family:married Matilda Childress.
    Death:May 30, 1865, Nashville, Tennessee.

    Chase, Salmon P.

    Birth:January 13, 1808, Cornish, New Hampshire.
    Education:Dartmouth College, 1826.
    Official Positions:U.S. senator, 1849–1855, 1861; governor of Ohio, 1856–1860; secretary of the Treasury, 1861–1864.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Abraham Lincoln December 6, 1864, to replace Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 6, 1864, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 15, 1864; served until May 7, 1873; replaced by Morrison R. Waite, appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant.
    Family:married Katherine Jane Garniss, March 4, 1834; died December 1, 1835; married Eliza Ann Smith, September 26, 1839; died September 29, 1845; one daughter; married Sara Belle Dunlop Ludlow, November 6, 1846; died January 13, 1852; one daughter.
    Death:May 7, 1873, New York City.

    Chase, Samuel

    Birth:April 17, 1741, Somerset County, Maryland.
    Education:tutored by father; studied law in Annapolis law office; admitted to bar in 1761.
    Official Positions:member, Maryland General Assembly, 1764–1784; delegate, Continental Congress, 1774–1778, 1784–1785; member, Maryland Committee of Correspondence, 1774; member, Maryland Convention and Council of Safety, 1775; judge, Baltimore Criminal Court, 1788–1796; chief judge, General Court of Maryland, 1791–1796.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington January 26, 1796, to replace John Blair, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate January 27, 1796, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 4, 1796; served until June 19, 1811; replaced by Gabriel Duvall, nominated by President James Madison.
    Family:married Anne Baldwin May 21, 1762; seven children, three of whom died in infancy; married Hannah Kitty Giles, March 3, 1784; two daughters.
    Death:June 19, 1811, Baltimore, Maryland.

    Clark, Tom C.

    Birth:September 23, 1899, Dallas, Texas.
    Education:Virginia Military Institute, 1917–1918; University of Texas, A.B., 1921; LL.B., 1922.
    Official Positions:assistant district attorney, Dallas County, 1927–1932; special assistant, Justice Department, 1937–1943; assistant U.S. attorney general, 1943–1945; U.S. attorney general, 1945–1949; director, Federal Judicial Center, 1968–1970; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, various circuits, by secial arrangement, 1967–1977.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Harry S. Truman August 2, 1949, to replace Frank Murphy, who had died; confirmed by the Senate August 18, 1949, by a 73–8 vote; took judicial oath August 24, 1949; retired June 12, 1967; replaced by Thurgood Marshall, nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
    Family:Married Mary Jane Ramsey, November 8, 1924; one daughter, two sons.
    Death:June 13, 1977, New York City.

    Clarke, John H.

    Birth:September 18, 1857, Lisbon, Ohio.
    Education:Western Reserve University, A.B., 1877, A.M., 1880.
    Official Positions:federal judge, U.S. District Court for Northern District of Ohio, 1914–1916.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Woodrow Wilson July 14, 1916, to replace Charles Evans Hughes, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate July 24, 1916, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 9, 1916; resigned September 18, 1922; replaced by George Sutherland, nominated by President Warren G. Harding.
    Family:unmarried.
    Death:March 22, 1945, San Diego, California.

    Clifford, Nathan

    Birth:August 18, 1803, Rumney, New Hampshire.
    Education:Haverhill Academy; studied law in office of Josiah Quincy in Rumney; admitted to New Hampshire bar, 1827.
    Official Positions:Maine state representative, 1830–1834; attorney general of Maine, 1834–1838; U.S. representative, 1839–1843; U.S. attorney general, 1846–1848; minister to Mexico, 1848–1849.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James Buchanan December 9, 1857, to replace Benjamin R. Curtis, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate January 12, 1858, by a 26–23 vote; took judicial oath January 21, 1858; served until July 25, 1881; replaced by Horace Gray, nominated by President Chester A. Arthur.
    Family:married Hannah Ayer, ca. 1828; six children.
    Death:July 25, 1881, Cornish, Maine.

    Curtis, Benjamin R.

    Birth:November 4, 1809, Watertown, Massachusetts.
    Education:Harvard University, graduated in 1829 with highest honors; Harvard Law School, graduated in 1832.
    Official Positions:Massachusetts state representative, 1849–1851.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Millard Fillmore December 11, 1851, to replace Justice Levi Woodbury, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 20, 1851, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 10, 1851; resigned September 30, 1857; replaced by Nathan Clifford, nominated by President James Buchanan.
    Family:married Eliza Maria Woodward, 1833; died 1844; five children; married Anna Wroe Curtis, 1846; died 1860; three children; married Maria Malleville Allen, 1861; four children.
    Death:September 15, 1874, Newport, Rhode Island.

    Cushing, William

    Birth:March 1, 1732, Scituate, Massachusetts.
    Education:graduated from Harvard, 1751, honorary LL.D., 1785; honorary A.M., Yale, 1753; studied law under Jeremiah Gridley; admitted to the bar in 1755.
    Official Positions:judge, probate court for Lincoln County, Massachusetts (now Maine), 1760–1761; judge, Superior Court of Massachusetts Bay province, 1772–1777; chief justice, Superior Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1777–1780, Supreme Judicial Court, 1780–1789; member, Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, 1779; vice president, Massachusetts Convention, which ratified U.S. Constitution, 1788; delegate to electoral college, 1788.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington September 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate September 26, 1789, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 2, 1790; served until September 13, 1810; replaced by Joseph Story, nominated by President James Madison.
    Family:married Hannah Phillips, 1774.
    Death:September 13, 1810, Scituate, Massachusetts.

    Daniel, Peter V.

    Birth:April 24, 1784, Stafford County, Virginia.
    Education:privately tutored; attended Princeton University, 1802–1803.
    Official Positions:member, Virginia House of Delegates, 1809–1812; Virginia Privy Council, 1812–1835; lieutenant governor of Virginia, 1818–1835; U.S. district judge, Eastern District of Virginia, 1836–1841.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Martin Van Buren February 26, 1841, to replace Justice Philip Barbour, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 2, 1841, by a 22–5 vote; took judicial oath January 10, 1842; served until May 31, 1860; replaced by Samuel F. Miller, nominated by President Abraham Lincoln.
    Family:married Lucy Randolph, 1809; died 1847; married Elizabeth Harris, 1853; two children.
    Death:May 31, 1860, Richmond, Virginia.

    Davis, David

    Birth:March 9, 1815, Cecil County, Maryland.
    Education:graduated from Kenyon College, 1832; Yale Law School, 1835.
    Official Positions:Illinois state representative, 1845–1847; member, Illinois Constitutional Convention, 1847; Illinois state circuit judge, 1848–1862; U.S. senator, 1877–1883.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Abraham Lincoln December 1, 1862, to replace John A. Campbell, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate December 8, 1862, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 10, 1862; resigned March 4, 1877; replaced by John Marshall Harlan, nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
    Family:married Sarah Walker, October 30, 1838; died 1879; one son (two children died in infancy); married Adeline Burr, March 14, 1883; two daughters.
    Death:June 26, 1886, Bloomington, Illinois.

    Day, William R.

    Birth:April 17, 1849, Ravenna, Ohio.
    Education:University of Michigan, A.B., 1870; University of Michigan Law School, 1871–1872.
    Official Positions:judge, Court of Common Pleas, Canton, Ohio, 1886; first assistant U.S. secretary of state, 1897–1898; U.S. secretary of state, 1898; member, United States delegation, Paris Peace Conference, 1898–1899; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, 1899–1903; umpire, Mixed Claims Commission, 1922–1923.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Theodore Roosevelt February 19, 1903, to replace George Shiras Jr., who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate February 23, 1903, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 2, 1903; resigned November 13, 1922; replaced by Pierce Butler, nominated by President Warren G. Harding.
    Family:married Mary Elizabeth Schaefer, 1875; four sons.
    Death:July 9, 1923, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

    Douglas, William O.

    Birth:October 16, 1898, Maine, Minnesota.
    Education:Whitman College, B.A., 1920; Columbia Law School, LL.B., 1925.
    Official Positions:member, Securities and Exchange Commission, 1936–1939; chairman, 1937–1939.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt March 20, 1939, to replace Louis D. Brandeis, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate April 4, 1939, by a 62–4 vote; took judicial oath April 17, 1939; retired November 12, 1975; replaced by John Paul Stevens, nominated by President Gerald R. Ford.
    Family:married Mildred Riddle, August 16, 1923; divorced 1953; one son, one daughter; married Mercedes Hester Davison, December 14, 1954; divorced 1963; married Joan Martin, August 1963; divorced 1966; married Cathleen Ann Heffernan, July 1966.
    Death:January 19, 1980, Washington D.C.

    Duvall, Gabriel

    Birth:December 6, 1752, Prince George's County, Maryland.
    Education:classical preparatory schooling; studied law.
    Official Positions:clerk, Maryland Convention, 1775–1777; clerk, Maryland House of Delegates, 1777–1787; member, Maryland State Council, 1782–1785; member, Maryland House of Delegates, 1787–1794; U.S. representative, 1794–1796; chief justice, General Court of Maryland, 1796–1802; presidential elector, 1796, 1800; first comptroller of the Treasury, 1802–1811.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James Madison November 15, 1811, to replace Samuel Chase, who had died; confirmed by the Senate November 18, 1811, by a voice vote; took judicial oath November 23, 1811; resigned January 14, 1835; replaced by Philip Barbour, nominated by President Andrew Jackson.
    Family:married Mary Brice, July 24, 1787; died March 24, 1790; one son; married Jane Gibbon, May 5, 1795; died April 1834.
    Death:March 6, 1844, Prince George's County, Maryland.

    Ellsworth, Oliver

    Birth:April 29, 1745, Windsor, Connecticut.
    Education:A.B., Princeton, 1766; honorary LL.D., Yale (1790), Princeton (1790), Dartmouth (1797).
    Official Positions:member, Connecticut General Assembly, 1773–1776; state's attorney, Hartford County, 1777–1785; delegate to Continental Congress, 1777–1784; member, Connecticut Council of Safety, 1779; member, Governor's Council, 1780–1785, 1801–1807; judge, Connecticut Superior Court, 1785–1789; delegate, Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. senator, 1789–1796; commissioner to France, 1799–1800.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President George Washington March 3, 1796, to replace John Jay, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate March 4, 1796, by a 21–1 vote; took judicial oath March 8, 1796; resigned September 30, 1800; replaced by John Marshall, nominated by President John Adams.
    Family:married Abigail Wolcott, 1771; four sons, three daughters survived infancy.
    Death:November 26, 1807, Windsor, Connecticut.

    Field, Stephen J.

    Birth: November 4, 1816, Haddam, Connecticut.

    Education: graduated from Williams College, 1837, class valedictorian; studied law in private firms; admitted to the bar in 1841.

    Official Positions: Alcalde of Marysville, 1850; California state representative, 1850–1851; justice, California Supreme Court, 1857–1863.

    Supreme Court Service: nominated associate justice by President Abraham Lincoln March 6, 1863, for a newly created seat; confirmed by the Senate March 10, 1863, by a voice vote; took judicial oath May 20, 1863; retired December 1, 1897; replaced by Joseph McKenna, nominated by President William McKinley.

    Family: married Sue Virginia Swearingen, June 2, 1859.

    Death: April 9, 1899, in Washington, D.C.

    Fortas, Abe

    Birth:June 19, 1910, Memphis, Tennessee.
    Education:Southwestern College, A.B., 1930; Yale Law School, LL.B., 1933.
    Official Positions:assistant director, corporate reorganization study, Securities and Exchange Commission, 1934–1937; assistant director, Public Utilities Division, Securities and Exchange Commission, 1938–1939; general counsel, Public Works Administration, 1939–1940, and counsel to the Bituminous Coal Division, 1939–1941; director, Division of Power, Department of the Interior, 1941–1942; undersecretary of the interior, 1942–1946.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Lyndon B. Johnson July 28, 1965, to replace Arthur J. Goldberg, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate August 11, 1965, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 4, 1965; resigned May 14, 1969; replaced by Harry A. Blackmun, nominated by President Richard Nixon.
    Family:married Carolyn Eugenia Agger, July 9, 1935.
    Death:April 5, 1982, in Washington, D.C.

    Frankfurter, Felix

    Birth:November 15, 1882, Vienna, Austria.
    Education:College of the City of New York, A.B., 1902; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1906.
    Official Positions:assistant U.S. attorney, Southern District of New York, 1906–1909; law officer, Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department, 1910–1914; assistant to the secretary of war, 1917; secretary and counsel, President's Mediation Commission, 1917; assistant to the secretary of labor, 1917–1918; chairman, War Labor Policies Board, 1918.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt January 5, 1939, to replace Benjamin Cardozo, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 17, 1939, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 30, 1939; retired August 28, 1962; replaced by Arthur Goldberg, nominated by President John F. Kennedy.
    Family:married Marion A. Denman, December 20, 1919.
    Death:February 22, 1965, Washington, D.C.

    Fuller, Melville W.

    Birth:February 11, 1833, Augusta, Maine.
    Education:Bowdoin College, A.B., 1853; studied at Harvard Law School and read law, 1853–1855.
    Official Positions:member, Illinois House of Representatives, 1863–1864; member, Venezuela-British Guiana Border Commission, 1899; member, Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague, 1900–1910.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Grover Cleveland April 30, 1888, to replace Morrison R. Waite, who had died; confirmed by the Senate July 20, 1888, by a 41–20 vote; took judicial oath October 8, 1888; served until July 4, 1910; replaced as chief justice by Edward D. White, nominated by President William Howard Taft.
    Family:married Calista Ophelia Reynolds, June 28, 1858; died 1864; two daughters; married Mary Ellen Coolbaugh, May 30, 1866; eight children, seven of whom survived childhood.
    Death:July 4, 1910, Sorrento, Maine.

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    Birth:March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, New York.
    Education:Cornell University, B.A., 1954; attended Harvard University Law School, 1956–1958; graduated from Columbia Law School, J.D., 1959.
    Official Positions:judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 1980–1993.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Bill Clinton June 22, 1993, to replace Byron R. White, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate August 3, 1993, by a 96–3 vote; took judicial oath August 10, 1993.
    Family:married Martin D. Ginsburg, 1954; one daughter, one son.

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    Birth:August 8, 1908, Chicago, Illinois.
    Education:Northwestern University, B.S.L., 1929; J.D., summa cum laude, 1930.
    Official Positions:secretary of labor, 1961–1962; U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, 1965–1968.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John F. Kennedy August 29, 1962, to replace Felix Frankfurter, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate September 25, 1962, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 1, 1962; resigned July 25, 1965; replaced by Abe Fortas, nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
    Family:married Dorothy Kurgans, July 18, 1931; one daughter, one son.
    Death:January 19, 1990, Washington, D.C.

    Gray, Horace

    Birth:March 24, 1828, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Education:Harvard College, A.B., 1845; Harvard Law School, 1849.
    Official Positions:reporter, Massachusetts Supreme Court, 1854–1864; associate justice, 1864–1873; chief justice, 1873–1881.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Chester A. Arthur December 19, 1881, to replace Nathan Clifford, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 20, 1881, by a 51–5 vote; took judicial oath January 9, 1882; served until September 15, 1902; replaced by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., nominated by President Theodore Roosevelt.
    Family:married Jane Matthews, June 4, 1889.
    Death:September 15, 1902, Nahant, Massachusetts.

    Grier, Robert C.

    Birth:March 5, 1794, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.
    Education:Dickinson College, graduated 1812.
    Official Positions:president judge, District Court of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 1833–1846.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James K. Polk August 3, 1846, to replace Justice Henry Baldwin, who had died; confirmed by the Senate August 4, 1846, by a voice vote; took judicial oath August 10, 1846; retired January 31, 1870; replaced by William Strong, nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant.
    Family:married Isabella Rose, 1829.
    Death:September 25, 1870, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Harlan, John M.

    Birth:May 20, 1899, Chicago, Illinois.
    Education:Princeton University, B.A., 1920; Rhodes scholar, Oxford University, Balliol College, B.A. in jurisprudence, 1923; New York Law School, LL.B., 1924.
    Official Positions:assistant U.S. attorney, Southern District of New York, 1925–1927; special assistant attorney general, New York, 1928–1930; chief counsel, New York State Crime Commission, 1951–1953; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, 1954–1955.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Dwight D. Eisenhower November 8, 1954, to replace Robert Jackson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 16, 1955, by a 71–11 vote; took judicial oath March 28, 1955; retired September 23, 1971; replaced by William H. Rehnquist, nominated by President Richard Nixon.
    Family:married Ethel Andrews, November 10, 1928; one daughter.
    Death:December 29, 1971, Washington D.C.

    Harlan, John Marshall

    Birth:June 1, 1833, Boyle County, Kentucky.
    Education:Centre College, A.B., 1850; studied law at Transylvania University, 1851–1853.
    Official Positions:adjutant general of Kentucky, 1851; judge, Franklin County, 1858; state attorney general, 1863–1867; member, Louisiana Reconstruction Commission, 1877; member, Bering Sea Tribunal of Arbitration, 1893.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Rutherford B. Hayes October 17, 1877, to replace David Davis, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate November 29, 1877, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 10, 1877; served until October 14, 1911; replaced by Mahlon Pitney, nominated by President William Howard Taft.
    Family:married Malvina F. Shanklin, December 23, 1856; six children.
    Death:October 14, 1911, Washington, D.C.

    Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.

    Birth:March 8, 1841, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Education:Harvard College, A.B., 1861; LL.B., 1866.
    Official Positions:associate justice, Massachusetts Supreme Court, 1882–1899; chief justice, 1899–1902.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Theodore Roosevelt December 2, 1902, to replace Horace Gray, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 4, 1902, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 8, 1902; retired January 12, 1932; replaced by Benjamin N. Cardozo, nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
    Family:married Fanny Bowdich Dixwell, June 17, 1872.
    Death:March 6, 1935, Washington, D.C.

    Hughes, Charles Evans

    Birth:April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, New York.
    Education:Madison College (now Colgate University), 1876–1878; Brown University, A.B., 1881, A.M., 1884; Columbia Law School, LL.B., 1884.
    Official Positions:special counsel, New York state investigating commissions, 1905–1906; governor of New York, 1907–1910; U.S. secretary of state, 1921–1925; U.S. delegate, Washington Armament Conference, 1921; U.S. member, Permanent Court of Arbitration, 1926–1930; judge, Permanent Court of International Justice, 1928–1930.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William Howard Taft April 25, 1910, to replace David J. Brewer, who had died; confirmed by the Senate May 2, 1910, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 10, 1910; resigned June 10, 1916, to become Republican presidential candidate; replaced by John H. Clarke, nominated by President Woodrow Wilson; nominated chief justice February 3, 1930, by President Herbert Hoover, to replace Chief Justice Taft, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate February 13, 1930, by a 52–26 vote; took judicial oath February 24, 1930; retired July 1, 1941; replaced by Harlan F. Stone, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:married Antoinette Carter, December 5, 1888; one son, three daughters.
    Death:August 27, 1948, Osterville, Massachusetts.

    Hunt, Ward

    Birth:June 14, 1810, Utica, New York.
    Education:graduated with honors from Union College, 1828; attended Tapping Reeve law school.
    Official Positions:member, New York Assembly, 1839; mayor of Utica, 1844; member, New York Court of Appeals, 1866–1869; New York State commissioner of appeals, 1869–1873.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ulysses S. Grant December 3, 1872, to replace Samuel Nelson, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 11, 1872, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 9, 1873; retired January 27, 1882; replaced by Samuel Blatchford, nominated by President Chester A. Arthur.
    Family:married Mary Ann Savage, 1837; died 1845; three children; married Marie Taylor, 1853.
    Death:March 24, 1886, Washington, D.C.

    Iredell, James

    Birth:October 5, 1751, Lewes, England.
    Education:educated in England; read law under Samuel Johnston of North Carolina; licensed to practice, 1770–1771.
    Official Positions:comptroller of customs, Edenton, North Carolina, 1768–1774; collector of customs, Port of North Carolina, 1774–1776; judge, Superior Court of North Carolina, 1778; attorney general, North Carolina, 1779–1781; member, North Carolina Council of State, 1787; delegate, North Carolina convention for ratification of federal Constitution, 1788.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington February 8, 1790; confirmed by the Senate February 10, 1790, by a voice vote; took judicial oath May 12, 1790; served until October 20, 1799; replaced by Alfred Moore, nominated by President John Adams.
    Family:married Hannah Johnston, July 18, 1773; two daughters, one son.
    Death:October 20, 1799, Edenton, North Carolina.

    Jackson, Howell E.

    Birth:April 8, 1832, Paris, Tennessee.
    Education:West Tennessee College, A.B., 1850; University of Virginia, 1851–1852; Cumberland University, 1856.
    Official Positions:custodian of sequestered property for Confederate states, 1861–1865; judge, Court of Arbitration for Western Tennessee, 1875–1879; state legislature, 1880; U.S. senator, 1881–1886; judge, Sixth Federal Circuit Court, 1886–1891, U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, 1891–1893.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Benjamin Harrison February 2, 1893, to replace Lucius Q. C. Lamar, who had died; confirmed by the Senate February 18, 1893, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 4, 1893; served until August 8, 1895; replaced by Rufus W. Peckham, nominated by President Grover Cleveland.
    Family:married Sophia Malloy in 1859; died 1873; six children, two died in infancy; married Mary E. Harding in April 1874; three children.
    Death:August 8, 1895, Nashville, Tennessee.

    Jackson, Robert H.

    Birth:February 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pennsylvania.
    Education:Local schools in Frewsburg, New York; Albany Law School, 1912.
    Official Positions:general counsel, Bureau of Internal Revenue, 1934–1936; assistant U.S. attorney general, 1936–1938; U.S. solicitor general, 1938–1939; U.S. attorney general, 1940–1941; chief U.S. prosecutor, Nuremberg war crimes trial, 1945–1946.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associated justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt June 12, 1941, to replace Harlan F. Stone, who was promoted to chief justice; confirmed by the Senate July 7, 1941, by a voice vote; took judicial oath July 11, 1941; served until October 9, 1954; replaced by John M. Harlan, nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    Family:married Irene Alice Gerhardt, April 24, 1916; one daughter, one son.
    Death:October 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.

    Jay, John

    Birth:December 12, 1745, New York City.
    Education:privately tutored; attended boarding school; graduated from King's College (later Columbia University), 1764; clerked in law office of Benjamin Kissam; admitted to the bar in 1768.
    Official Positions:secretary, Royal Boundary Commission, 1773; member, New York Committee of 51, 1774; delegate, Continental Congress, 1774, 1775, 1777, president, 1778–1779; delegate, New York provincial congress, 1776–1777; chief justice, New York State, 1777–1778; minister to Spain, 1779; secretary of foreign affairs, 1784–1789; envoy to Great Britain, 1794–1795; governor, New York, 1795–1801.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President George Washington September 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate September 26, 1789, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 9, 1789; resigned June 29, 1795; replaced by Oliver Ellsworth, nominated by President Washington.
    Family:married Sarah Van Brugh Livingston, April 28, 1774; died 1802; five daughters, two sons.
    Death:May 17, 1829, Bedford, New York.

    Johnson, Thomas

    Birth:November 4, 1732, Calvert County, Maryland.
    Education:educated at home; studied law under Stephen Bordley; admitted to the bar, 1760.
    Official Positions:delegate, Maryland Provincial Assembly, 1762; delegate, Annapolis Convention of 1774; member, Continental Congress, 1774–1777; delegate, first constitutional convention of Maryland, 1776; first governor of Maryland, 1777–1779; member, Maryland House of Delegates, 1780, 1786, 1787; member, Maryland convention for ratification of the federal Constitution, 1788; chief judge, general court of Maryland, 1790–1791; member, board of commissioners of the Federal City, 1791–1794.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington November 1, 1791, to replace John Rutledge, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate November 7, 1791, by a voice vote; took judicial oath August 6, 1792; resigned February 1, 1793; replaced by William Paterson, nominated by President Washington.
    Family:married Ann Jennings, February 16, 1766; died 1794; three sons, five daughters, one of whom died in infancy.
    Death:October 26, 1819, Frederick, Maryland.

    Johnson, William

    Birth:December 27, 1771, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Education:graduated from Princeton, 1790; studied law under Charles Cotesworth Pinckney; admitted to bar in 1793.
    Official Positions:member, South Carolina House of Representatives, 1794–1798; Speaker, 1798; judge, Court of Common Pleas, 1799–1804.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Thomas Jefferson March 22, 1804, to replace Alfred Moore, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate March 24, 1804, by a voice vote; took judicial oath May 7, 1804; served until August 4, 1834; replaced by James M. Wayne, nominated by President Andrew Jackson.
    Family:married Sarah Bennett, March 20, 1794; eight children, six of whom died in childhood; two adopted children.
    Death:August 4, 1834, Brooklyn, New York.

    Kennedy, Anthony M.

    Birth:July 23, 1936, Sacramento, California.
    Education:Stanford University, A.B., 1958; London School of Economics, 1957–1958; Harvard Law School, J.D., 1961.
    Official Positions:judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 1976–1988.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ronald Reagan November 30, 1987, to replace Lewis F. Powell Jr., who had retired; confirmed by the Senate February 3, 1988, by a 97–0 vote; took judicial oath February 18, 1988.
    Family:married Mary Davis, 1963; three children.

    Lamar, Joseph R.

    Birth:October 14, 1857, Elbert County, Georgia.
    Education:University of Georgia, 1874–1875; Bethany College, A.B., 1877; Washington and Lee University, 1877.
    Official Positions:member, Georgia legislature, 1886–1889; commissioner to codify Georgia laws, 1893; associate justice, Georgia Supreme Court, 1903–1905; member, mediation conference, Niagara Falls, Canada, 1914.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William Howard Taft December 12, 1910, to replace William Henry Moody, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 15, 1910, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 3, 1911; served until January 2, 1916; replaced by Louis D. Brandeis, nominated by President Woodrow Wilson.
    Family:married Clarinda Huntington Pendleton, January 30, 1879; two sons, one daughter.
    Death:January 2, 1916, Washington, D.C.

    Lamar, Lucius Q. C.

    Birth:September 17, 1825, Eatonton, Georgia.
    Education:Emory College, A.B., 1845.
    Official Positions:member, Georgia House of Representatives, 1853; U.S. representative, 1857–1860, 1873–1877; U.S. senator, 1877–1885; secretary of interior, 1885–1888.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Grover Cleveland December 6, 1887, to replace William Woods, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 16, 1888, by a 32–28 vote; took judicial oath January 18, 1888; served until January 23, 1893; replaced by Howell E. Jackson, nominated by President Benjamin Harrison.
    Family:married Virginia Longstreet, July 15, 1847; died 1884; one son, three daughters; married Henrietta Dean Holt, January 5, 1887.
    Death:January 23, 1893, Macon, Georgia.

    Livingston, Henry Brockholst

    Birth:November 25, 1757, New York City.
    Education:graduated from College of New Jersey (Princeton), 1774; honorary LL.D., Harvard (1810), Princeton; studied law under Peter Yates; admitted to bar in 1783.
    Official Positions:member, New York Assembly, Twelfth, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth sessions; judge, New York State Supreme Court, 1802–1807.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Thomas Jefferson December 13, 1806, to replace William Paterson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 17, 1806, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 20, 1807; served until March 18, 1823; replaced by Smith Thompson, nominated by President James Monroe.
    Family:married Catharine Keteltas, five children; married Ann Ludlow, three children; married Catharine Kortright, three children.
    Death:March 18, 1823, Washington, D.C.

    Lurton, Horace H.

    Birth:February 26, 1844, Newport, Kentucky.
    Education:Douglas University (University of Chicago), 1860; Cumberland Law School, L.B., 1867.
    Official Positions:chancellor in equity, 1875–1878; judge, Tennessee Supreme Court, 1886–1893; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, 1893–1909.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William Howard Taft December 13, 1909, to replace Rufus W. Peckham, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 20, 1909, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 3, 1910; served until July 12, 1914; replaced by James C. McReynolds, nominated by President Woodrow Wilson.
    Family:married Mary Francis Owen, September 1867; three sons, two daughters.
    Death:July 12, 1914, Atlantic City, New Jersey.

    McKenna, Joseph

    Birth:August 10, 1843, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Education:Benicia Collegiate Institute, graduated in 1864; admitted to the bar in 1865.
    Official Positions:district attorney, Solano County, California, 1866–1870; member, California Assembly, 1875–1876; U.S. representative, 1885–1892; judge, U.S. Ninth Judicial Circuit, 1892–1897; U.S. attorney general, 1897.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William McKinley December 16, 1897, to replace Stephen J. Field, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate January 21, 1898, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 26, 1898; retired January 5, 1925; replaced by Harlan F. Stone, nominated by President Calvin Coolidge.
    Family:married Amanda Frances Bornemann, June 10, 1869; three daughters, one son.
    Death:November 21, 1926, Washington, D.C.

    McKinley, John

    Birth:May 1, 1780, Culpeper County, Virginia.
    Education:read law on his own; admitted to the bar in 1800.
    Official Positions:Alabama state representative, sessions of 1820, 1831, and 1836; U.S. senator, 1826–1831 and 1837; U.S. representative, 1833–1835.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Martin Van Buren September 18, 1837, for a newly created Supreme Court seat; confirmed by the Senate September 25, 1837, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 9, 1838; served until July 19, 1852; replaced by John A. Campbell, nominated by President Franklin Pierce.
    Family:married Juliana Bryan; married Elizabeth Armistead.
    Death:July 19, 1852, Louisville, Kentucky.

    McLean, John

    Birth:March 11, 1785, Morris County, New Jersey.
    Education:attended local school; privately tutored; read law with John S. Gano and Arthur St. Clair Jr.
    Official Positions:examiner, U.S. Land Office, 1811–1812; U.S. representative, 1813–1816, chairman, Committee on Accounts; judge, Ohio Supreme Court, 1816–1822; commissioner, General Land Office, 1822–1823; U.S. postmaster general, 1823–1829.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Andrew Jackson March 7, 1829, to replace Robert Trimble, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 7, 1829, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 11, 1830; served until April 3, 1861; replaced by Noah H. Swayne, nominated by President Abraham Lincoln.
    Family:married Rebecca Edwards, 1807; died 1840; four daughters, three sons; married Sarah Bella Ludlow Garrard, 1843; one son, died at birth.
    Death:April 3, 1861, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    McReynolds, James C.

    Birth:February 3, 1862, Elkton, Kentucky.
    Education:Vanderbilt University, B.S., 1882; University of Virginia, LL.B., 1884.
    Official Positions:assistant U.S. attorney, 1903–1907; U.S. attorney general, 1913–1914.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Woodrow Wilson August 19, 1914, to replace Horace H. Lurton, who had died; confirmed by the Senate August 29, 1914, by a 44–6 vote; took judicial oath October 12, 1914; retired January 31, 1941; replaced by James F. Byrnes, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:unmarried.
    Death:August 24, 1946, in Washington, D.C.

    Marshall, John

    Birth:September 24, 1755, Germantown, Virginia.
    Education:tutored at home; self-taught in law; attended one course of law lectures at College of William and Mary, 1780.
    Official Positions:member, Virginia House of Delegates, 1782–1785, 1787–1790, 1795–1796; member, Executive Council of State, 1782–1784; recorder, Richmond City Hustings Court, 1785–1788; delegate, state convention for ratification of federal Constitution, 1788; minister to France, 1797–1798; U.S. representative, 1799–1800; U.S. secretary of state, 1800–1801; member, Virginia Constitutional Convention, 1829.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President John Adams January 20, 1801, to replace Oliver Ellsworth, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate January 27, 1801, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 4, 1801; served until July 6, 1835; replaced by Roger B. Taney, nominated by President Andrew Jackson.
    Family:Married Mary Willis Ambler, January 3, 1783; died December 25, 1831; ten children.
    Death:July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Marshall, Thurgood

    Birth:July 2, 1908, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Education:Lincoln University, A.B., cum laude, 1930; Howard University Law School, LL.B., 1933.
    Official Positions:judge, Second Circuit Court of Appeals, 1961–1965; U.S. solicitor general, 1965–1967.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Lyndon B. Johnson June 13, 1967, to replace Tom C. Clark, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate August 30, 1967, by a 69–11 vote; took judicial oath October 2, 1967; retired October 1, 1991; replaced by Clarence Thomas, nominated by President George Bush.
    Family:married Vivian Burey, September 4, 1929, died February 1955; married Cecilia Suyat, December 17, 1955; two sons.
    Death:January 24, 1993, Bethesda, Maryland.

    Matthews, Stanley

    Birth:July 21, 1824, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Education:Kenyon College, graduated with honors, 1840.
    Official Positions:assistant prosecuting attorney, Hamilton County, 1845; clerk, Ohio House of Representatives, 1848–1849; judge, Hamilton County Court of Common Pleas, 1851–1853; member, Ohio Senate, 1855–1858; U.S. attorney for southern Ohio, 1858–1861; judge, Superior Court of Cincinnati, 1863–1865; counsel, Hayes-Tilden electoral commission, 1877; U.S. senator, 1877–1879.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Rutherford B. Hayes January 26, 1881, to replace Noah Swayne, who had retired; no action by Senate; renominated by President James A. Garfield March 14, 1881; confirmed by the Senate May 12, 1881, by a 24–23 vote; took judicial oath May 17, 1881; served until March 22, 1889; replaced by David J. Brewer, nominated by President Benjamin Harrison.
    Family:married Mary Ann Black, February 1843; died 1885; eight children; married Mary Theaker, 1887.
    Death:March 22, 1889, Washington, D.C.

    Miller, Samuel F.

    Birth:April 5, 1816, Richmond, Kentucky.
    Education:Transylvania University, M.D., 1838; studied law privately; admitted to the bar in 1847.
    Official Positions:justice of the peace and member of the Knox County, Kentucky, court, an administrative body, in the 1840s.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Abraham Lincoln July 16, 1862, to replace Peter V. Daniel, who had died; confirmed July 16, 1862, by a voice vote; took judicial oath July 21, 1862; served until October 13, 1890; replaced by Henry B. Brown, nominated by President Benjamin Harrison.
    Family:married Lucy Ballinger, November 8, 1842; died 1854; three children; married Elizabeth Winter Reeves, widow of his law partner, 1857; two children.
    Death:October 13, 1890, Washington, D.C.

    Minton, Sherman

    Birth:October 20, 1890, Georgetown, Indiana.
    Education:Indiana University, LL.B., 1915; Yale University, LL.M., 1917.
    Official Positions:public counselor, Public Service Commission, 1933–1934; U.S. senator, 1935–1941; assistant to president, 1941; judge, Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, 1941–1949.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Harry S. Truman September 15, 1949, to replace Wiley B. Rutledge, who had died; confirmed by the Senate October 4, 1949, by a 48–16 vote; took judicial oath October 12, 1949; retired October 15, 1956; replaced by William J. Brennan Jr., nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    Family:married Gertrude Gurtz, August 11, 1917; two sons, one daughter.
    Death:April 9, 1965, in New Albany, Indiana.

    Moody, William H.

    Birth:December 23, 1853, Newbury, Massachusetts.
    Education:Harvard College, A.B., cum laude, 1876; Harvard Law School, 1876–1877; read law with Richard Henry Dana.
    Official Positions:city solicitor, Haverhill, 1888–1890; district attorney, Eastern District of Massachusetts, 1890–1895; U.S. representative, 1895–1902; secretary of the Navy, 1902–1904; U.S. attorney general, 1904–1906.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Theodore Roosevelt December 3, 1906, to replace Henry B. Brown, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 12, 1906, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 17, 1906; retired November 20, 1910; replaced by Joseph R. Lamar, nominated by President William Howard Taft.
    Family:unmarried.
    Death:July 2, 1917, Haverhill, Massachusetts.

    Moore, Alfred

    Birth:May 21, 1755, New Hanover County, North Carolina.
    Education:educated in Boston; studied law under his father; received law license, 1775.
    Official Positions:member, North Carolina legislature, 1782, 1792; North Carolina attorney general, 1782–1791; trustee, University of North Carolina, 1789–1807; judge, North Carolina Superior Court, 1799.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John Adams December 6, 1799, to replace James Iredell, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 10, 1799, by a voice vote; took judicial oath April 21, 1800; resigned January 26, 1804; replaced by William Johnson, nominated by President Thomas Jefferson.
    Family:married Susanna Eagles.
    Death:October 15, 1810, Bladen County, North Carolina.

    Murphy, Francis W.

    Birth:April 13, 1890, Sand (now Harbor) Beach, Michigan.
    Education:University of Michigan, A.B., 1912, LL.B., 1914; graduate study, Lincoln's Inn, London, and Trinity College, Dublin.
    Official Positions:chief assistant U.S. attorney, Eastern District of Michigan, 1919–1920; judge, Recorder's Court, Detroit, 1924–1930; mayor of Detroit, 1930–1933; governor general of the Philippines, 1933–1935; U.S. high commissioner to the Philippines, 1935–1936; governor of Michigan, 1937–1939; U.S. attorney general, 1939–1940.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt January 4, 1940, to replace Pierce Butler, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 16, 1940, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 5, 1940; served until July 19, 1949; replaced by Tom C. Clark, nominated by President Harry S. Truman.
    Family:unmarried.
    Death:July 19, 1949, Detroit, Michigan.

    Nelson, Samuel

    Birth:November 11, 1792, Hebron, New York.
    Education:graduated from Middlebury College, 1813.
    Official Positions:postmaster, Cortland, New York, 1820–1823; presidential elector, 1820; judge, Sixth Circuit of New York, 1823–1831; associate justice, New York Supreme Court, 1831–1837; chief justice, New York Supreme Court, 1837–1845; member, Alabama Claims Commission, 1871.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John Tyler February 4, 1845, to replace Justice Smith Thompson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate February 14, 1845, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 27, 1845; retired November 28, 1872; replaced by Ward Hunt, nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant.
    Family:married Pamela Woods, 1819; died 1822; one son; married Catherine Ann Russell, ca. 1825; two daughters, one son.
    Death:December 13, 1873, Cooperstown, New York.

    O'Connor, Sandra Day

    Birth:March 26, 1930, El Paso, Texas.
    Education:Stanford University, B.A., 1950, Stanford University Law School, LL.B., 1952.
    Official Positions:deputy county attorney, San Mateo, California, 1952–1953; assistant attorney general, Arizona, 1965–1969; Arizona state senator, 1969–1975, majority leader, state Senate, 1973–1974; judge, Maricopa County Superior Court, 1975–1979; judge, Arizona Court of Appeals, 1979–1981.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ronald Reagan August 19, 1981 to replace Potter Stewart, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate September 21, 1981, by a 99–0 vote; took judicial oath September 26, 1981; announced retirement July 1, 2005.
    Family:married John O'Connor, 1952; three sons.

    Paterson, William

    Birth:December 24, 1745, County Antrim, Ireland.
    Education:graduated from College of New Jersey (Princeton), 1763; M.A., 1766; studied law under Richard Stockton; admitted to the bar, 1769.
    Official Positions:member, New Jersey Provincial Congress, 1775–1776; delegate, New Jersey State Constitutional Convention, 1776; New Jersey attorney general, 1776–1783; delegate, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. senator, 1789–1790; governor, New Jersey, 1790–1793.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington March 4, 1793, to replace Thomas Johnson, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate March 4, 1793, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 11, 1793; served until September 9, 1806; replaced by Henry B. Livingston, nominated by President Thomas Jefferson.
    Family:married Cornelia Bell, February 9, 1779; died 1783; three children; married Euphemia White, 1785.
    Death:September 9, 1806, Albany, New York.

    Peckham, Rufus W.

    Birth:November 8, 1838, Albany, New York.
    Education:Albany Boys’ Academy; studied privately in Philadelphia.
    Official Positions:district attorney, Albany County, 1869–1872; corporation counsel, City of Albany, 1881–1883; judge, New York Supreme Court, 1883–1886; judge, New York Court of Appeals, 1886–1895.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Grover Cleveland December 3, 1895, to replace Howell E. Jackson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 8, 1895, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 6, 1896; served until October 24, 1909; replaced by Horace H. Lurton, nominated by President William Howard Taft.
    Family:married Harriette M. Arnold, November 14, 1866; two sons.
    Death:October 24, 1909, Altamont, New York.

    Pitney, Mahlon

    Birth:February 5, 1858, Morristown, New Jersey.
    Education:College of New Jersey (Princeton), A.B., 1879; A.M., 1882.
    Official Positions:U.S. representative, 1895–1899; New Jersey State senator, 1899–1901; president, New Jersey Senate, 1901; associate justice, New Jersey Supreme Court, 1901–1908; chancellor of New Jersey, 1908–1912.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William Howard Taft February 19, 1912, to replace John Marshall Harlan, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 13, 1912, by a 50–26 vote; took judicial oath March 18, 1912; retired December 31, 1922; replaced by Edward T. Sanford, nominated by President Warren G. Harding.
    Family:married Florence T. Shelton, November 14, 1891; two sons, one daughter.
    Death:December 9, 1924, Washington, D.C.

    Powell, Lewis F., Jr.

    Birth:September 19, 1907, Suffolk, Virginia.
    Education:Washington and Lee University, B.S., 1929; Washington and Lee University Law School, LL.B., 1931; Harvard Law School, LL.M., 1932.
    Official Positions:president of the Richmond School Board, 1952–1961; member, 1961–1969, and president, 1968–1969, Virginia State Board of Education; president of the American Bar Association, 1964–1965; president, American College of Trial Lawyers, 1968–1969.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Richard Nixon October 22, 1971, to replace Hugo L. Black, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 6, 1971, by an 89–1 vote; took judicial oath January 6, 1972; retired June 26, 1987; replaced by Anthony Kennedy, nominated by President Ronald Reagan.
    Family:married Josephine M. Rucker, May 2, 1936; three daughters, one son.
    Death:August 25, 1998, Richmond, Virginia.

    Reed, Stanley F.

    Birth:December 31, 1884, Minerva, Kentucky.
    Education:Kentucky Wesleyan University, A.B., 1902; Yale University, A.B., 1906; legal studies, University of Virginia and Columbia University (no degree); graduate studies, University of Paris, 1909–1910.
    Official Positions:representative, Kentucky General Assembly, 1912–1916; general counsel, Federal Farm Board, 1929–1932; general counsel, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932–1935; special assistant to attorney general, 1935; solicitor general, 1935–1938.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt January 15, 1938, to replace George Sutherland, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate January 25, 1938, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 31, 1938; retired February 25, 1957; replaced by Charles E. Whittaker, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    Family:married Winifred Elgin, May 11, 1908; two sons.
    Death:April 2, 1980, New York City.

    Rehnquist, William

    Birth:October 1, 1924, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
    Education:Stanford University, B.A., 1948, M.A., 1948; Harvard University, M.A., 1950; Stanford University Law School, LL.B., 1952.
    Official Positions:law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson, 1952–1953; assistant U.S. attorney general, Office of Legal Counsel, 1969–1971.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Richard Nixon October 21, 1971, to replace John M. Harlan, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 10, 1971, by a 68–26 vote; took judicial oath January 7, 1972; nominated chief justice by President Ronald Reagan June 20, 1986; confirmed by the Senate 65–33, September 17, 1986; took judicial oath September 26, 1986; replaced as associate justice by Antonin Scalia; served until September 3, 2005; replaced by John G. Roberts Jr., nominated by President George W. Bush.
    Family:married Natalie Cornell, August 29, 1953; died October 17, 1991; one son, two daughters.
    Death:September 3, 2005, Arlington, Virginia.

    Roberts, John G., Jr.

    Birth:January 27, 1955, Buffalo, New York.
    Education:Harvard University, B.A., 1976; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1979.
    Official Positions:law clerk to Justice William H. Rehnquist, 1980–1981; special assistant to Attorney General, William French Smith, U.S. Justice Department, 1981–1982; associate counsel to President Ronald Reagan, 1982–1986; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 2003–2005.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George W. Bush July 19, 2005, to replace Sandra Day O'Connor, who announced her retirement on July 1, 2005; elevated to chief justice nominee upon death of Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist September 3, 2005; confirmed as chief justice by the Senate September 29, 2005, by a 78–22 vote; took judicial oath September 29, 2005.
    Family:married Jane Marie Sullivan, 1996; one daughter, one son.

    Roberts, Owen J.

    Birth:May 2, 1875, Germantown, Pennsylvania.
    Education:University of Pennsylvania, A.B. with honors, 1895; LL.B. cum laude, 1898.
    Official Positions:assistant district attorney, 1903–1906; special deputy attorney general, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 1918; special U.S. attorney, 1924–1930; umpire, Mixed Claims Commission, 1932; chairman, Pearl Harbor Inquiry Board, 1941–1942.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Herbert Hoover May 9, 1930, to replace Edward T. Sanford, who had died; confirmed by the Senate May 20, 1930, by a voice vote; took judicial oath June 2, 1930; resigned July 31, 1945; replaced by Harold H. Burton, nominated by President Harry S. Truman.
    Family:married Elizabeth Caldwell Rogers, 1904; one daughter.
    Death:May 17, 1955, West Vincent Township, Pennsylvania.

    Rutledge, John

    Birth:September 1739, Charleston, South Carolina.
    Education:privately tutored; studied law at the Middle Temple in England; called to the English bar February 9, 1760.
    Official Positions:member, South Carolina Commons House of Assembly, 1761–1776; South Carolina attorney general pro item, 1764–1765; delegate, Stamp Act Congress, 1765; member, Continental Congress, 1774–1776, 1782–1783; president, South Carolina General Assembly, 1776–1778; governor, South Carolina, 1779–1782; judge of the Court of Chancery of South Carolina, 1784–1791; chief, South Carolina delegation to the Constitutional Convention, 1787; member, South Carolina convention to ratify U.S. Constitution, 1788; chief justice, South Carolina Supreme Court, 1791–1795; member, South Carolina Assembly, 1798–1799.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington September 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate September 26, 1789, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 15, 1790; resigned March 5, 1791; replaced by Thomas Johnson, nominated by President Washington. Later sworn in by virtue of recess appointment as chief justice August 12, 1795; appointment not confirmed, and service terminated December 15, 1795.
    Family:married Elizabeth Grimke, May 1, 1763; died 1792; ten children.
    Death:July 18, 1800, Charleston, South Carolina.

    Rutledge, Wiley B.

    Birth:July 20, 1894, Cloverport, Kentucky.
    Education:University of Wisconsin, A.B., 1914; University of Colorado, LL.B., 1922.
    Official Positions:judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 1939–1943.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt January 11, 1943, to replace James F. Byrnes, who had resigned; confirmed by the Senate February 8, 1943, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 15, 1943; served until September 10, 1949; replaced by Sherman Minton, nominated by President Harry S. Truman.
    Family:married Annabel Person, August 28, 1917; two daughters, one son.
    Death:September 10, 1949, York, Maine.

    Sanford, Edward T.

    Birth:July 23, 1865, Knoxville, Tennessee.
    Education:University of Tennessee, B.A. and Ph.B., 1883; Harvard, B.A., 1884, M.A., 1889; Harvard Law School, LL.B., 1889.
    Official Positions:special assistant to the U.S. attorney general, 1906–1907; assistant U.S. attorney general, 1907–1908; federal judge, U.S. District Court for the Middle and Eastern Districts of Tennessee, 1908–1923.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Warren G. Harding January 24, 1923, to replace Mahlon Pitney, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate January 29, 1923, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 19, 1923; served until March 8, 1930; replaced by Owen J. Roberts, nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
    Family:married Lutie Mallory Woodruff, January 6, 1891; two daughters.
    Death:March 8, 1930, Washington, D.C.

    Scalia, Antonin

    Birth:March 11, 1936, Trenton, New Jersey.
    Education:Georgetown University, A.B., summa cum laude, 1957; Harvard Law School, LL.B., magna cum laude, 1960.
    Official Positions:general counsel, White House Office of Telecommunications Policy, 1971–1972; chairman, Administrative Conference of the United States, 1972–1974; assistant attorney general, Office of Legal Counsel, 1974–1977; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 1982–1986.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ronald Reagan June 24, 1986, to replace William H. Rehnquist, who had been promoted to chief justice; confirmed by the Senate September 17, 1986, by a 98–0 vote; took judicial oath September 26, 1986.
    Family:married Maureen McCarthy, 1960; nine children.

    Shiras, George, Jr.

    Birth:January 26, 1832, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Education:Ohio University, 1849–1851; Yale University, B.A., 1853, honorary LL.D., 1883; studied law at Yale and privately; admitted to the bar in 1855.
    Official Positions:none.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Benjamin Harrison July 19, 1892, to replace Joseph P. Bradley, who had died; confirmed by the Senate July 26, 1892, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 10, 1892; retired February 23, 1903; replaced by William R. Day, nominated by President Theodore Roosevelt.
    Family:married Lillie E. Kennedy, December 31, 1857; two sons.
    Death:August 2, 1924, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Souter, David H.

    Birth:September 17, 1939, Melrose, Massachusetts.
    Education:Harvard College, B.A., 1961; Oxford University (Rhodes Scholar), 1961–1963; Harvard University Law School, LL.B., 1966.
    Official Positions:assistant attorney general, New Hampshire, 1968–1971; deputy attorney general, New Hampshire, 1971–1976; attorney general, New Hampshire, 1976–1978; associate justice, New Hampshire Superior Court, 1978–1983; associate justice, New Hampshire Supreme Court, 1983–1990; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, 1990.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Bush July 23, 1990, to replace William J. Brennan Jr., who had retired; confirmed by the Senate October 2, 1990, by a 90–9 vote; took judicial oath October 9, 1990.
    Family:Unmarried.

    Stevens, John Paul

    Birth:April 20, 1920, Chicago, Illinois.
    Education:University of Chicago, B.A., 1941; Northwestern University School of Law, J.D., magna cum laude, 1947.
    Official Positions:law clerk to Justice Wiley B. Rutledge, 1947–1948; associate counsel, Subcommittee on the Study of Monopoly Power, House Judiciary Committee, 1951; member, U.S. Attorney General's National Committee to Study the Antitrust Laws, 1953–1955; judge, Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, 1970–1975.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Gerald R. Ford November 28, 1975, to replace William O. Douglas, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 17, 1975, by a 98–0 vote; took judicial oath December 19, 1975.
    Family:married Elizabeth Jane Sheeren, 1942, divorced 1979; one son, three daughters; married Maryan Mulholland Simon, 1980.

    Stewart, Potter

    Birth:January 23, 1915, Jackson, Michigan.
    Education:Yale College, B.A., cum laude, 1937; Yale Law School, LL.B., cum laude, 1941; fellow, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1937–1938.
    Official Positions:member, Cincinnati, Ohio, city council, 1950–1953; vice mayor of Cincinnati, 1952–1953; judge, Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, 1954–1958.
    Supreme Court Service:received recess appointment as associate justice by President Dwight D. Eisenhower October 14, 1958, to replace Harold H. Burton, who had retired; nominated associate justice by President Eisenhower January 17, 1959; confirmed by the Senate May 5, 1959, by a 70–17 vote; took judicial oath October 14, 1958; retired July 3, 1981; replaced by Sandra Day O'Connor, nominated by President Ronald Reagan.
    Family:married Mary Ann Bertles, April 24, 1943; two sons, one daughter.
    Death:December 7, 1985, Hanover, New Hampshire.

    Stone, Harlan Fiske

    Birth:October 11, 1872, Chesterfield, New Hampshire.
    Education:Amherst College, A.B., 1894, M.A., 1897, LL.D., 1913; Columbia University, LL.B., 1898.
    Official Positions:U.S. attorney general, 1924–1925.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Calvin Coolidge January 5, 1925, to replace Joseph McKenna, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate February 5, 1925, by a 71–6 vote; took judicial oath March 2, 1925; nominated chief justice by President Franklin D. Roosevelt June 12, 1941, to replace Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate June 27, 1941, by a voice vote; took judicial oath July 3, 1941; served until April 22, 1946; replaced by Fred M. Vinson, nominated by President Harry S. Truman.
    Family:married Agnes Harvey, September 7, 1899; two sons.
    Death:April 22, 1946, Washington, D.C.

    Story, Joseph

    Birth:September 18, 1779, Marblehead, Massachusetts.
    Education:attended Marblehead Academy; graduated from Harvard, 1798; LL.D., 1821; read law under Samuel Sewall and Samuel Putnam; admitted to bar, 1801.
    Official Positions:member, Massachusetts legislature, 1805–1808; Speaker of the House, 1811; U.S. representative, 1808–1809; delegate, Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, 1820.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James Madison November 15, 1811, to replace William Cushing, who had died; confirmed by the Senate November 18, 1811, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 3, 1812; served until September 10, 1845; replaced by Levi Woodbury, nominated by President James K. Polk.
    Family:married Mary Lynde Oliver, December 9, 1804; died June 1805; married Sarah Waldo Wetmore, August 27, 1808; seven children.
    Death:September 10, 1845, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    Strong, William

    Birth:May 6, 1808, Somers, Connecticut.
    Education:Yale College, A.B., 1828; M.A., 1831.
    Official Positions:U.S. representative, 1847–1851; Pennsylvania Supreme Court justice, 1857–1868.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Ulysses S. Grant February 7, 1870, to replace Robert C. Grier, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate February 18, 1870, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 14, 1870; retired December 14, 1880; replaced by William B. Woods, nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
    Family:married Priscilla Lee Mallery, November 28, 1836; died 1844; two daughters, one son; married Rachel Davis Bull, a widow, November 22, 1849; two daughters, two sons.
    Death:August 19, 1895, Lake Minnewaska, New York.

    Sutherland, George

    Birth:March 25, 1862, Buckinghamshire, England.
    Education:Brigham Young (University) Academy, 1879–1881; University of Michigan Law School, 1882.
    Official Positions:Utah state senator, 1896–1900; U.S. representative, 1901–1903; U.S. senator, 1905–1917; chairman, advisory committee to the Washington Conference for the Limitation of Naval Armaments, 1921; U.S. counsel, Norway–United States arbitration, The Hague, 1921–1922.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Warren G. Harding September 5, 1922, to replace Justice John H. Clarke, who had resigned; took judicial oath October 2, 1922; confirmed by the Senate September 5, 1922, by a voice vote; retired January 17, 1938; replaced by Stanley F. Reed, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:married Rosamund Lee, June 18, 1883; two daughters, one son.
    Death:July 18, 1942, Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

    Swayne, Noah Haynes

    Birth:December 7, 1804, Frederick County, Virginia.
    Education:studied law privately; admitted to the bar in Warrenton, Virginia, in 1823.
    Official Positions:Coshocton County (Ohio) prosecuting attorney, 1826–1829; Ohio state representative, 1830 and 1836; U.S. attorney for Ohio, 1830–1841; Columbus city councilman, 1834.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Abraham Lincoln January 21, 1862, to replace John McLean, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 24, 1862, by a 38–1 vote; took judicial oath January 27, 1862; retired January 24, 1881; replaced by Stanley Matthews, nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes and renominated by President James A. Garfield.
    Family:married Sarah Ann Wager, 1832; four sons, one daughter.
    Death:June 8, 1884, New York City.

    Taft, William Howard

    Birth:September 15, 1857, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Education:Yale University, A.B., class salutatorian, 1878; Cincinnati Law School, LL.B., 1880.
    Official Positions:assistant prosecuting attorney, Hamilton County, Ohio, 1881–1883; assistant county solicitor, Hamilton County, 1885–1887; judge, Ohio Superior Court, 1887–1890; U.S. solicitor general, 1890–1891; judge, U.S. District Court for the Sixth Circuit, 1892–1900; chairman, Philippine Commission, 1900–1901; governor general of the Philippines, 1901–1904; secretary of war, 1904–1908; president of the United States, 1909–1913; joint chairman, National War Labor Board, 1918–1919.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Warren G. Harding June 30, 1921, to replace Chief Justice Edward D. White, who had died; confirmed by the Senate June 30, 1921, by a voice vote; took judicial oath July 11, 1921; retired February 3, 1930; replaced by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, nominated by President Herbert Hoover.
    Family:married Helen Herron, June 19, 1886; two sons, one daughter.
    Death:March 8, 1930, in Washington, D.C.

    Taney, Roger Brooke

    Birth:March 17, 1777, Calvert County, Maryland.
    Education:graduated from Dickinson College in Pennsylvania, 1795, honorary LL.D.; read law in office of Judge Jeremiah Chase in Annapolis.
    Official Positions:member, Maryland House of Delegates, 1799–1800; Maryland state senator, 1816–1821; Maryland attorney general, 1827–1831; chairman, Jackson Central Committee for Maryland, 1827–1828; U.S. attorney general, 1831–1833; acting secretary of war, 1831; U.S. secretary of the Treasury, 1833–1834 (appointment rejected by Senate).
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Andrew Jackson December 28, 1835, to replace John Marshall, who had died; confirmed by the Senate on March 15, 1836, by a 29–15 vote; took judicial oath March 28, 1836; served until October 12, 1864; replaced by Salmon P. Chase, nominated by President Abraham Lincoln.
    Family:married Anne Phoebe Carlton Key, January 7, 1806; died 1855; six daughters; one son died in infancy.
    Death:October 12, 1864, Washington, D.C.

    Thomas, Clarence

    Birth:June 23, 1948, Pin Point, Georgia.
    Education:Immaculate Conception Seminary, 1967–1968; Holy Cross College, B.A., 1971; Yale University Law School, J.D., 1974.
    Official Positions:assistant attorney general, Missouri, 1974–1977; assistant secretary of education for civil rights, 1981–1982; chairman, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1982–1990; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 1990–1991.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Bush July 1, 1991, to replace Thurgood Marshall, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate October 15, 1991, by a 52–48 vote; took judicial oath October 23, 1991.
    Family:married Kathy Grace Ambush, 1971; one son; divorced 1984; married Virginia Lamp, 1987.

    Thompson, Smith

    Birth:January 17, 1768, Dutchess County, New York.
    Education:graduated from Princeton, 1788; read law under James Kent; admitted to the bar, 1792; honorary law doctorates from Yale, 1824; Princeton, 1824; and Harvard, 1835.
    Official Positions:member, New York state legislature, 1800; member, New York Constitutional Convention, 1801; associate justice, New York Supreme Court, 1802–1814; appointed to New York State Board of Regents, 1813; chief justice, New York Supreme Court, 1814–1818; secretary of the Navy, 1819–1823.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James Monroe December 8, 1823, to replace Brockholst Livingston, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 19, 1823, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 10, 1823; served until December 18, 1843; replaced by Samuel Nelson, nominated by President John Tyler.
    Family:married Sarah Livingston, 1794; died September 22, 1833; two sons, two daughters; married Eliza Livingston; two daughters, one son.
    Death:December 18, 1843, Poughkeepsie, New York.

    Todd, Thomas

    Birth:January 23, 1765, King and Queen County, Virginia.
    Education:graduated from Liberty Hall (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington, Virginia, 1783; read law under Harry Innes; admitted to bar in 1788.
    Official Positions:clerk, federal district for Kentucky, 1792–1801; clerk, Kentucky House of Representatives, 1792–1801; clerk, Kentucky Court of Appeals (Supreme Court), 1799–1801; judge, Kentucky Court of Appeals, 1801–1806; chief justice, 1806–1807.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Thomas Jefferson February 28, 1807, to fill a newly created seat; confirmed by the Senate March 3, 1807, by a voice vote; took judicial oath May 4, 1807; served until February 7, 1826; replaced by Robert Trimble, nominated by President John Quincy Adams.
    Family:married Elizabeth Harris, 1788; died 1811; five children; married Lucy Payne, 1812; three children.
    Death:February 7, 1826, Frankfort, Kentucky.

    Trimble, Robert

    Birth:November 17, 1776, Berkeley County, Virginia.
    Education:Bourbon Academy; Kentucky Academy; read law under George Nicholas and James Brown; admitted to the bar in 1803.
    Official Positions:Kentucky state representative, 1802; judge, Kentucky Court of Appeals, 1807–1809; U.S. district attorney for Kentucky, 1813–1817; U.S. district judge, 1817–1826.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John Quincy Adams April 11, 1826, to replace Thomas Todd, who had died; confirmed by the Senate May 9, 1826, by a 27–5 vote; took judicial oath June 16, 1826; served until August 25, 1828; replaced by John McLean, nominated by President Andrew Jackson.
    Family:married Nancy Timberlake, August 18, 1803; at least ten children.
    Death:August 25, 1828, Paris, Kentucky.

    Van Devanter, Willis

    Birth:April 17, 1859, Marion, Indiana.
    Education:Indiana Asbury University, A.B., 1878; University of Cincinnati Law School, LL.B., 1881.
    Official Positions:city attorney, Cheyenne, 1887–1888; member, Wyoming territorial legislature, 1888; chief justice, Wyoming Territory Supreme Court, 1889–1890; assistant attorney general, Department of the Interior, 1897–1903; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, 1903–1910.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President William Howard Taft December 12, 1910, to replace Edward D. White, who became chief justice; confirmed by the Senate December 15, 1910, by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 3, 1911; retired June 2, 1937; replaced by Hugo L. Black, nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    Family:married Dellice Burhans, October 10, 1883; two sons.
    Death:February 8, 1941, Washington, D.C.

    Vinson, Frederick Moore

    Birth:January 22, 1890, Louisa, Kentucky.
    Education:Kentucky Normal College, 1908; Centre College, A.B., 1909; LL.B., 1911.
    Official Positions:commonwealth attorney, Thirty-second Judicial District of Kentucky, 1921–1924; U.S. representative, 1924–1929, 1931–1938; judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, 1938–1943; director, Office of Economic Stabilization, 1943–1945; administrator, Federal Loan Agency, 1945; director, Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion, 1945; secretary of the Treasury, 1945–1946.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Harry S. Truman June 6, 1946, to replace Chief Justice Harlan F. Stone, who had died; confirmed by the Senate June 20, 1946, by a voice vote; took judicial oath June 24, 1946; served until September 8, 1953; replaced by Earl Warren, nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    Family:married Roberta Dixson, January 24, 1923; two sons.
    Death:September 8, 1953, Washington, D.C.

    Waite, Morrison R.

    Birth:November 27, 1816, Lyme, Connecticut.
    Education:graduated from Yale College, 1837.
    Official Positions:Ohio state representative, 1850–1852; representative to the Geneva Arbitration, 1871; president of the Ohio Constitutional Convention, 1873–1874.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Ulysses S. Grant January 19, 1874, to replace Salmon P. Chase, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 21, 1874, by a 63–0 vote; took judicial oath March 4, 1874; served until March 23, 1888; replaced by Melville W. Fuller, nominated by President Grover Cleveland.
    Family:married his second cousin, Amelia C. Warner, September 21, 1840; five children.
    Death:March 23, 1888, Washington, D.C.

    Warren, Earl

    Birth:March 19, 1891, Los Angeles, California.
    Education:University of California, B.L., 1912; J.D., 1914.
    Official Positions:deputy city attorney, Oakland, California, 1919–1920; deputy district attorney, Alameda County, 1920–1925; district attorney, Alameda County, 1925–1939; California attorney general, 1939–1943; governor, 1943–1953.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated chief justice by President Dwight D. Eisenhower September 30, 1953, to replace Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate March 1, 1954, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 5, 1953; retired June 23, 1969; replaced by Warren E. Burger, nominated by President Richard Nixon.
    Family:married Nina P. Meyers, October 14, 1925; three sons, three daughters.
    Death:July 9, 1974, Washington, D.C.

    Washington, Bushrod

    Birth:June 5, 1762, Westmoreland County, Virginia.
    Education:privately tutored; graduated from the College of William and Mary, 1778; read law under James Wilson; member, Virginia bar; honorary LL.D. degrees from Harvard, Princeton, and University of Pennsylvania.
    Official Positions:member, Virginia House of Delegates, 1787; member, Virginia convention to ratify U.S. Constitution, 1788.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John Adams December 19, 1798, to replace James Wilson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 20, 1798, by a voice vote; took judicial oath February 4, 1799; served until November 26, 1829; replaced by Henry Baldwin, nominated by President Andrew Jackson.
    Family:married Julia Ann Blackburn, 1785.
    Death:November 26, 1829, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Wayne, James M.

    Birth:1790, Savannah, Georgia.
    Education:College of New Jersey (Princeton University), 1808, honorary LL.B., 1849; read law under three lawyers including Judge Charles Chauncey of New Haven; admitted to the bar January 1811.
    Official Positions:member, Georgia House of Representatives, 1815–1816; mayor, Savannah, 1817–1819; judge, Savannah Court of Common Pleas, 1820–1822; Georgia Superior Court, 1822–1828; U.S. representative, 1829–1835; chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Andrew Jackson January 7, 1835, to replace William Johnson, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 9, 1835 by a voice vote; took judicial oath January 14, 1835; served until July 5, 1867; replaced by Joseph Bradley, nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant.
    Family:married Mary Johnson Campbell, 1813; three children.
    Death:July 5, 1867, Washington, D.C.

    White, Byron R.

    Birth:June 8, 1917, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Education:University of Colorado, B.A., 1938; Rhodes Scholar, Oxford University, 1939; Yale Law School, LL.B., magna cum laude, 1946.
    Official Positions:law clerk to Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, 1946–1947; deputy U.S. attorney general, 1961–1962.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President John F. Kennedy March 30, 1962, to replace Charles E. Whittaker, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate April 11, 1962, by a voice vote; took judicial oath April 16, 1962; retired June 28, 1993; replaced by Ruth Bader Ginsburg, nominated by President Bill Clinton.
    Family:married Marion Stearns, 1946; one son, one daughter.
    Death:April 15, 2002, Denver, Colorado.

    White, Edward D.

    Birth:November 3, 1845, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana.
    Education:Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland, 1856; Georgetown College (University), Washington, D.C., 1857–1861; studied law at University of Louisiana (Tulane) and with Edward Bermudez; admitted to the bar in 1868.
    Official Positions:Louisiana state senator, 1874; associate justice, Louisiana Supreme Court, 1878–1880; U.S. senator, 1891–1894.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Grover Cleveland February 19, 1894, to replace Samuel Blatchford, who had died; confirmed by the Senate February 19, 1894, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 12, 1894. Nominated chief justice by President William Howard Taft December 12, 1910, to replace Melville Fuller, who had died; confirmed by the Senate December 12, 1910, by a voice vote; took judicial oath December 19, 1910; served until May 19, 1921; replaced as chief justice by former president Taft, appointed by President Warren G. Harding.
    Family:married Virginia Montgomery Kent, November 1894.
    Death:May 19, 1921, in Washington, D.C.

    Whittaker, Charles E.

    Birth:February 22, 1901, Troy, Kansas.
    Education:University of Kansas City Law School, LL.B., 1924.
    Official Positions:judge, U.S. District Court for Western District of Missouri, 1954–1956; judge, Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, 1956–1957.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Dwight D. Eisenhower March 2, 1957, to replace Stanley Reed, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate March 19, 1957, by a voice vote; took judicial oath March 25, 1957; retired March 31, 1962; replaced by Byron R. White, nominated by President John F. Kennedy.
    Family:married Winifred R. Pugh, July 7, 1928; three sons.
    Death:November 26, 1973, Kansas City, Missouri.

    Wilson, James

    Birth:September 14, 1742, Caskardy, Scotland.
    Education:attended University of St. Andrews (Scotland); read law in office of John Dickinson; admitted to the bar in 1767; honorary M.A., College of Philadelphia, 1776; honorary LL.D., 1790.
    Official Positions:delegate, first Provincial Convention at Philadelphia, 1774; delegate, Continental Congress, 1775–1777, 1783, 1785–1787; delegate, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; delegate, Pennsylvania convention to ratify U.S. Constitution, 1787.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President George Washington September 24, 1789; confirmed by the Senate September 26, 1789, by a voice vote; took judicial oath October 5, 1789; served until August 21, 1798; replaced by Bushrod Washington, nominated by President John Adams.
    Family:married Rachel Bird, November 5, 1771; died 1786; six children; married Hannah Gray, September 19, 1793; one son died in infancy.
    Death:August 21, 1798, Edenton, North Carolina.

    Woodbury, Levi

    Birth:December 22, 1789, Francestown, New Hampshire.
    Education:Dartmouth College, graduated with honors, 1809; Tapping Reeve Law School, ca. 1810.
    Official Positions:clerk, New Hampshire Senate, 1816; associate justice, New Hampshire Superior Court, 1817–1823; governor, New Hampshire, 1823–1824; Speaker, New Hampshire House, 1825; U.S. senator, 1825–1831, 1841–1845; secretary of the Navy, 1831–1834; secretary of the Treasury, 1834–1841.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President James K. Polk December 23, 1845, to replace Justice Joseph Story, who had died; confirmed by the Senate January 3, 1846, by voice vote; took judicial oath September 23, 1845; served until September 4, 1851; replaced by Benjamin R. Curtis, nominated by President Millard Fillmore.
    Family:married Elizabeth Williams Clapp, June 1819; four daughters, one son.
    Death:September 4, 1851, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

    Woods, William B.

    Birth:August 3, 1824, Newark, Ohio.
    Education:attended Western Reserve College for three years; graduated from Yale University, 1845.
    Official Positions:mayor of Newark, Ohio, 1856; Ohio state representative, 1858–1862, Speaker in 1858–1860 and minority leader in 1860–1862; chancellor, middle chancery district of Alabama, 1868–1869; U.S. circuit judge for the Fifth Circuit, 1869–1880.
    Supreme Court Service:nominated associate justice by President Rutherford B. Hayes December 15, 1880, to replace William Strong, who had retired; confirmed by the Senate December 21, 1880, by a 39–8 vote; took judicial oath January 5, 1881; served until May 14, 1887; replaced by Lucius Q. C. Lamar, nominated by President Grover Cleveland.
    Family:married Anne E. Warner, June 21, 1855; one son, one daughter.
    Death:May 14, 1887, Washington, D.C.
    Source: Adapted from Joan Biskupic and Elder Witt,
    Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court, 3rd ed. (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997), 855–962. Updated by the author.

    Succession Chart of Supreme Court Seats

    Thumbnail Sketch of the Supreme Court's History

    Source: Adapted from Lee Epstein and Thomas G. Walker, Constitutional Law for a Changing America: Rights, Liberties, and Justice, 5th ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004).

    Online Sources of Decisions

    By using the Internet, one can read the full text of Supreme Court decisions and listen to oral arguments from historic cases. The following sites are some of the best.

    U.S. Supreme Court Web Site

    http://supremecourtus.gov

    The U.S. Supreme Court's Web site opened April 17, 2000. Opinions are available the day they are handed down, although the Cornell University or FindLaw sites are often quicker. In addition to opinions, the site contains useful docket information as well as basic information about the Court and its operations: rules, argument calendars, bar admission forms, visitors’ guides, and a small number of photographs and historical materials.

    Cornell Legal Information Institute

    http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/index.html

    Although several Internet sites provide Supreme Court opinions, the Cornell Legal Information Institute is a popular choice because it is so easy to use.

    Cornell offers the full text of all Supreme Court decisions from May 1990 to the present. Decisions are posted the same day the Court releases them and can be accessed by using the name of the first party, the name of the second party, keyword, date, or other variables.

    The site also provides nearly 600 historic Supreme Court decisions dating back to the Court's beginnings on such topics as school prayer, abortion, administrative law, copyright, patent law, and trademarks. Cases can be accessed by topic, party name, or opinion author.

    The site also has the full text of the Supreme Court Rules, the Court calendar for the current term, the schedule of oral arguments, biographical data about current and former justices, and a glossary of legal terms.

    Liibulletin

    Send an email message to listserv@listserv.law.cornell.edu

    The liibulletin is a free mailing list that alerts subscribers when new Supreme Court decisions are placed on the Internet. The list provides syllabi of new decisions, in addition to instructions about how to obtain the full text. Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute operates the site.

    To subscribe, send an email message to listserv@listserv.law.cornell.edu and leave the subject line blank. In the message area type: subscribe liibulletin firstname lastname, where firstname and lastname are replaced by your first and last names.

    Oyez Oyez Oyez: A U.S. Supreme Court Database

    http://oyez.org

    This site offers recordings of oral arguments from about 1,000 Supreme Court cases. The site is operated by Northwestern University, and the recordings are digitized from tapes in the National Archives.

    Listening to the cases requires RealAudio software. Oyez offers a link to another Internet site where the software can be downloaded for free. A recent addition to the site is a growing number of Podcasts of arguments.

    The database can be searched by title, citation, subject, and date. For each case, the site provides recordings of oral arguments and text listing the facts of the case, the constitutional question involved, and the Court's conclusion.

    Oyez also provides brief biographies of all current and former justices and a virtual tour of the Supreme Court building.

    FindLaw

    http://findlaw.com/casecode/supreme.html

    This site provides the full text of all Supreme Court decisions from 1893 to the present. The database can be browsed by year and U.S. Reports volume number, and it also can be searched by citation, case title, and keywords. The decisions are in HTML format, and many have hyperlinks to citations from previous decisions.

    The site also offers the full text of the U.S. Constitution, with annotations by the Congressional Research Service, and links to cited Supreme Court cases. FindLaw, a legal publisher, operates the site.

    FedWorld/FLITE Supreme Court Decisions

    http://fedworld.gov/supcourt/index.htm

    FedWorld's database contains the full text of all Supreme Court decisions issued between 1937 and 1975. The database was originally compiled by the U.S. Air Force and has been placed online by the National Technical Information Service.

    The more than 7,000 decisions are from volumes 300 to 422 of U.S. Reports. They can be searched by case name and keyword. The decisions are provided in ASCII text format.

    Sources: Bruce Maxwell, How to Access the Federal Government on the Internet: Washington Online, 4th ed. (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999); Kenneth Jost, ed. The Supreme Court A to Z, 3rd ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003), 545–546. Updated by the author.

    How to Read a Court Citation

    The official version of each Supreme Court decision and opinion is contained in a series of volumes entitled United States Reports, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Although there are several unofficial compilations of Court opinions, including United States Law Week, published by the Bureau of National Affairs; Supreme Court Reporter, published by West Publishing Company; and United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition, published by Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Company, it is the official record that is generally cited. An unofficial version or the official slip opinion might be cited if a decision has not yet been officially reported.

    A citation to a case includes, in order, the name of the parties to the case, the volume of United States Reports in which the decision appears, the page in the volume on which the opinion begins, the page from which any quoted material is taken, and the year of the decision.

    For example, Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 482 (1965) means that the Supreme Court decision in the case of Griswold against the state of Connecticut can be found in volume 381 of United States Reports beginning on page 479. The number 482 refers to the page where the specific quotation in question can be found. The date is the year the opinion was issued.

    All of the cases in this book use the official U.S. cite, even though early cases were cited in a different way. Until 1875 the official reports of the Court were published under the names of the Court reporters, and it is their names, or abbreviated versions, that appear in cites for those years; U.S. volume numbers have been assigned to them retroactively. A citation such as Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137 (1803) means that the opinion in the case of Marbury against Madison is in the first volume of reporter Cranch beginning on page 137. (Between 1875 and 1883 a Court reporter named William T. Otto compiled the decisions and opinions; his name appears on the volumes for those years as well as the United States Reports volume number, but Otto is seldom cited.)

    The titles of the volumes to 1875, the full names of the reporters, and the corresponding United States Reports volumes are:

    1–4 Dall.Dallas1–4 U.S.
    1–9 Cranch or Cr.Cranch5–13 U.S.
    1–12 Wheat.Wheaton14–25 U.S.
    1–16 Pet.Peters26–41 U.S.
    1–24 How.Howard42–65 U.S.
    1–2 BlackBlack66–67 U.S.
    1–23 Wall.Wallace68–90 U.S.
    Source: Adapted from Kenneth Jost, ed., The Supreme Court A to Z, 3rd ed. (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003), 534.

    Glossary of Common Legal Terms

    Accessory.In criminal law, a person not present at the commission of an offense who commands, advises, instigates, or conceals the offense.
    Acquittal.Discharge of a person from a charge of guilt. A person is acquitted when a jury returns a verdict of not guilty. A person may also be acquitted when a judge determines that there is insufficient evidence to convict him or that a violation of due process precludes a fair trial.
    Adjudicate.To determine finally by the exercise of judicial authority to decide a case.
    Affidavit.A voluntary written statement of facts or charges affirmed under oath.
    A fortiori.With stronger force, with more reason.
    Amicus curiae.A friend of the court, a person not a party to litigation, who volunteers or is invited by the court to give his views on a case.
    Appeal.To take a case to a higher court for review. Generally, a party losing in a trial court may appeal once to an appellate court as a matter of right. If he loses in the appellate court, appeal to a higher court is within the discretion of the higher court. Most appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court are within the Court's discretion. However, when the highest court in a state rules that a U.S. statute is unconstitutional or upholds a state statute against the claim that it is unconstitutional, appeal to the Supreme Court is a matter of right.
    Appellant.The party that appeals a lower court decision to a higher court.
    Appellee.One who has an interest in upholding the decision of a lower court and is compelled to respond when the case is appealed to a higher court by the appellant.
    Arraignment.The formal process of charging a person with a crime, reading him the charge, asking whether he pleads guilty or not guilty, and entering his plea.
    Attainder, Bill of.A legislative act pronouncing a particular individual guilty of a crime without trial or conviction and imposing a sentence upon him.
    Bail.The security, usually money, given as assurance of a prisoner's due appearance at a designated time and place (as in court) to procure in the interim his release from jail.
    Bailiff.A minor officer of a court usually serving as an usher or a messenger.
    Brief.A document prepared by counsel to serve as the basis for an argument in court, setting out the facts of and the legal arguments in support of his case.
    Burden of proof.The need or duty of affirmatively proving a fact or facts that are disputed.
    Case Law.The law as defined by previously decided cases, distinct from statutes and other sources of law.
    Cause.A case, suit, litigation, or action, civil or criminal.
    Certiorari, Writ of.A writ issued from the Supreme Court, at its discretion, to order a lower court to prepare the record of a case and send it to the Supreme Court for review.
    Civil law.Body of law dealing with the private rights of individuals, as distinguished from criminal law.
    Class action.A lawsuit brought by one person or group on behalf of all persons similarly situated.
    Code.A collection of laws, arranged systematically.
    Comity.Courtesy, respect; usually used in the legal sense to refer to the proper relationship between state and federal courts.
    Common law.Collection of principles and rules of action, particularly from unwritten English law, that derive their authority from longstanding usage and custom or from courts recognizing and enforcing these customs. Sometimes used synonymously with case law.
    Consent decree.A court-sanctioned agreement settling a legal dispute and entered into by the consent of the parties.
    Contempt (civil and criminal).Civil contempt consists in the failure to do something that the party is ordered by the court to do for the benefit of another party. Criminal contempt occurs when a person willfully exhibits disrespect for the court or obstructs the administration of justice.
    Conviction.Final judgment or sentence that the defendant is guilty as charged.
    Criminal law.That branch of law which deals with the enforcement of laws and the punishment of persons who, by breaking laws, commit crimes.
    Declaratory judgment.A court pronouncement declaring a legal right or interpretation but not ordering a specific action.
    De facto.In fact, in reality.
    Defendant.In a civil action, the party denying or defending itself against charges brought by a plaintiff. In a criminal action, the person indicted for commission of an offense.
    De jure.As a result of law, as a result of official action.
    Deposition.Oral testimony from a witness taken out of court in response to written or oral questions, committed to writing, and intended to be used in the preparation of a case.
    Dicta.See Obiter dictum.
    Dismissal.Order disposing of a case without a trial.
    Docket.See Trial docket.
    Due process.Fair and regular procedure. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments guarantee persons that they will not be deprived of life, liberty, or property by the government until fair and usual procedures have been followed.
    Error, Writ of.A writ issued from an appeals court to a lower court requiring it to send to the appeals court the record of a case in which it has entered a final judgment and which the appeals court will now review for error.
    Ex parte.Only from, or on, one side. Application to a court for some ruling or action on behalf of only one party.
    Ex post facto.After the fact; an ex post facto law makes an action a crime after it has already been committed, or otherwise changes the legal consequences of some past action.
    Ex rel.Upon information from; usually used to describe legal proceedings begun by an official in the name of the state, but at the instigation of, and with information from, a private individual interested in the matter.
    Grand jury.Group of twelve to twenty-three persons impaneled to hear in private evidence presented by the state against persons accused of crime and to issue indictments when a majority of the jurors find probable cause to believe that the accused has committed a crime. Called a “grand” jury because it comprises a greater number of persons than a “petit” jury.
    Grand jury report.A public report released by a grand jury after an investigation into activities of public officials that fall short of criminal actions. Grand jury reports are often called “presentments.”
    Guilty.A word used by a defendant in entering a plea or by a jury in returning a verdict, indicating that the defendant is legally responsible as charged for a crime or other wrongdoing.
    Habeas corpus.Literally, “you have the body;” a writ issued to inquire whether a person is lawfully imprisoned or detained. The writ demands that the persons holding the prisoner justify his detention or release him.
    Immunity.A grant of exemption from prosecution in return for evidence or testimony.
    In camera.“In chambers.” Refers to court hearings in private without spectators.
    In forma pauperis.In the manner of a pauper, without liability for court costs.
    In personam.Done or directed against a particular person.
    In re.In the affair of, concerning. Frequent title of judicial proceedings in which there are no adversaries, but rather where the matter itself—as a bankrupt estate—requires judicial action.
    In rem.Done or directed against the thing, not the person.
    Indictment.A formal written statement based on evidence presented by the prosecutor from a grand jury decided by a majority vote, charging one or more persons with specified offenses.
    Information.A written set of accusations, similar to an indictment, but filed directly by a prosecutor.
    Injunction.A court order prohibiting the person to whom it is directed from performing a particular act.
    Interlocutory decree.A provisional decision of the court that temporarily settles an intervening matter before completion of a legal action.
    Judgment.Official decision of a court based on the rights and claims of the parties to a case that was submitted for determination.
    Jurisdiction.The power of a court to hear a case in question, which exists when the proper parties are present, and when the point to be decided is within the issues authorized to be handled by the particular court.
    Juries.See Grand jury and Petit jury.
    Magistrate.A judicial officer having jurisdiction to try minor criminal cases and conduct preliminary examinations of persons charged with serious crimes.
    Mandamus.“We command.” An order issued from a superior court directing a lower court or other authority to perform a particular act.
    Moot.Unsettled, undecided. A moot question is also one that is no longer material; a moot case is one that has become hypothetical.
    Motion.Written or oral application to a court or a judge to obtain a rule or an order.
    Nolo contendere.“I will not contest it.” A plea entered by a defendant at the discretion of the judge with the same legal effect as a plea of guilty, but it may not be cited in other proceedings as an admission of guilt.
    Obiter dictum.Statement by a judge or justice expressing an opinion and included with, but not essential to, an opinion resolving a case before the court. Dicta are not necessarily binding in future cases.
    Parole.A conditional release from imprisonment under conditions that if the prisoner abides by the law and other restrictions that may be placed upon him, he will not have to serve the remainder of his sentence. But if he does not abide by specified rules, he will be returned to prison.
    Per curiam.“By the court.” An unsigned opinion of the court or an opinion written by the whole court.
    Petit jury.A trial jury, originally a panel of twelve persons who tried to reach a unanimous verdict on questions of fact in criminal and civil proceedings. Since 1970 the Supreme Court has upheld the legality of state juries with fewer than twelve persons. Because these small juries comprise fewer persons than “grand” juries, they are called “petit” juries.
    Petitioner.One who files a petition with a court seeking action or relief, including a plaintiff or an appellant. But a petitioner is also a person who files for other court action where charges are not necessarily made; for example, a party may petition the court for an order requiring another person or party to produce documents. The opposite party is called the respondent. When a writ of certiorari is granted by the Supreme Court, the parties to the case are called petitioner and respondent in contrast to the appellant and appellee terms used in an appeal.
    Plaintiff.A party who brings a civil action or sues to obtain a remedy for injury to his rights. The party against whom action is brought is termed the defendant.
    Plea Bargaining.Negotiations between prosecutors and the defendant aimed at exchanging a plea of guilty from the defendant for concessions by the prosecutors, such as reduction of charges or a request for leniency.
    Pleas.See Guilty and Nolo contendere.
    Presentment.See Grand jury report.
    Prima facie.At first sight; referring to a fact or other evidence presumably sufficient to establish a defense or a claim unless otherwise contradicted.
    Probation.Process under which a person convicted of an offense, usually a first offense, receives a suspended sentence and is given his freedom, usually under the guardianship of a probation officer.
    Quash.To overthrow, annul, or vacate; as to quash a subpoena.
    Recognizance.An obligation entered into before a court or magistrate requiring the performance of a specified act — usually to appear in court at a later date. It is an alternative to bail for pretrial release.
    Remand.To send back. In the event of a decision being remanded, it is sent back by a higher court to the court from which it came for further action.
    Respondent.One who is compelled to answer the claims or questions posed in court by a petitioner. A defendant and an appellee may be called respondents, but the term also includes those parties who answer in court during actions in which charges are not necessarily brought or in which the Supreme Court has granted a writ of certiorari.
    Seriatim.Separately, individually, one by one.
    Stare decisis.“Let the decision stand.” The principle of adherence to settled cases, the doctrine that principles of law established in earlier judicial decisions should be accepted as authoritative in similar subsequent cases.
    Statute.A written law enacted by a legislature. A collection of statutes for a particular governmental division is called a code.
    Stay.To halt or suspend further judicial proceedings.
    Subpoena.An order to present one's self before a grand jury, court, or legislative hearing.
    Subpoena duces tecum.An order to produce specified documents or papers.
    Tort.An injury or wrong to the person or property of another.
    Transactional immunity.Protects a witness from prosecution for any offense mentioned in or related to his testimony, regardless of independent evidence against him.
    Trial docket.A calendar prepared by the clerks of the court listing the cases set to be tried.
    Use immunity.Protects a witness against the use of his own testimony against him in prosecution.
    Vacate.To make void, annul, or rescind.
    Writ.A written court order commanding the designated recipient to perform or not perform acts specified in the order.

    Selected Bibliography

    Abraham, Henry J., and Barbara A.Perry. Freedom and the Court: Civil Rights and Liberties in the United States.
    8th ed.
    Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003.
    Abrams, Floyd. Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York: Viking, 2005.
    Amar, Akhil Reed, and AlanHirsch. For the People: What the Constitution Really Says about Your Rights. New York: Free Press, 1998.
    Baker, Thomas E.The Most Wonderful Work: Our Constitution Interpreted. St. Paul: West Publishing, 1996.
    Ball, Howard. Bakke Case: Race, Education, and Affirmative Action. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
    Ball, Howard. A Defiant Life: Thurgood Marshall and the Persistence of Racism in America. New York: Crown Publishers, 1999.
    Barth, Alan. Prophets with Honor: Great Dissents and Great Dissenters in the Supreme Court. New York: Viking, 1974.
    Berger, Raoul. Death Penalties: The Supreme Court's Obstacle Course. Lincoln, Neb.: iUniverse, 1999.
    Blasi, Vincent, ed. The Burger Court: The Counter-Revolution That Wasn't. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
    Bloch, Susan Low, and ThomasKrattenmaker. Supreme Court Politics: The Institution and Its Procedures. St. Paul: West Publishing, 1994.
    Bolick, Clint. Voucher Wars: Waging the Legal Battle over School Choice. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 2003.
    Bugliosi, Vincent. No Island of Sanity: Paula Jones v. Bill Clinton: The Supreme Court on Trial. New York: Ballantine Publishing Group, 1998.
    Burger, Warren E.It Is So Ordered: A Constitution Unfolds. New York: William Morrow, 1995.
    Caplan, Lincoln. The Tenth Justice: The Solicitor General and the Rule of Law. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987.
    Choper, Jesse, ed. The Supreme Court and Its Justices.
    2nd ed.
    Chicago: American Bar Association, 2000.
    Clark, Hunter R.Justice Brennan: The Great Conciliator. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1995.
    Clayton, James E.The Making of Justice: The Supreme Court in Action. New York: Dutton, 1964.
    Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. The Supreme Court of the United States: Its Beginnings and Its Justices, 1790–1991. Washington, D.C., 1992.
    Cottrol, Raymond J., Raymond T.Diamond, and LelandB.Ware. Brown v. Board of Education: Caste, Culture, and the Constitution. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003.
    Craig, Barbara Hinkson. Chadha: The Story of an Epic Constitutional Struggle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
    Cray, ed. Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.
    Curtis, Michael Kent. No State Shall Abridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Durham: Duke University Press, 1986.
    Cushman, Clare, and Melvin I.Urofsky. Black, White, and Brown: The Landmark School Desegregation Case in Retrospect. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.
    Davis, Martha F.Brutal Need: Lawyers and the Welfare Rights Movement, 1960–1973. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
    Davis, Sue C.Justice Rehnquist and the Constitution. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.
    Douglas, William O.The Court Years, 1939–1975. New York: Random House, 1980.
    Dreyfuss, Joel, and CharlesLawrenceIII. The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.
    Eisler, Kim Isaac. A Justice for All: William J. Brennan Jr. and the Decisions That Transformed America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.
    Epstein, Lee, and Joseph F.Kobylka. The Supreme Court and Legal Change: Abortion and the Death Penalty. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.
    Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.
    Frank, John P.Marble Palace: The Supreme Court in American Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.
    Fried, Charles. Order and Law: Arguing the Reagan Revolution — A Firsthand Account. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
    Friendly, Fred. Minnesota Rag: The Dramatic Story of the Landmark Supreme Court Case That Gave New Meaning to Freedom of the Press. New York: Random House, 1981.
    Garraty, John A., ed. Quarrels That Have Shaped the Constitution.
    Rev. ed.
    New York: Harper Perennial, 1989.
    Garrow, David J.Liberty and Sexuality: The Right of Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
    Gillman, Howard. The Votes That Counted: How the Court Decided the 2000 Presidential Election. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.
    Goldstein, Robert Justin. Flag Burning and Free Speech: The Case of Texas v. Johnson. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
    Graham, Fred. Happy Talk: Confessions of a TV Newsman. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
    Gunther, Gerald. Learned Hand: The Man and the Judge. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
    Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States.
    2nd ed.
    New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    Hentoff, Nat. The First Freedom: The Tumultuous History of Free Speech in America. New York: Delacorte Press, 1980.
    Hughes, Charles Evans. The Supreme Court of the United States: Its Foundation, Methods, and Achievements: An Interpretation. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Publishing, 1936.
    Hull, N.E.H., and PeterCharles Hoffer. Roe v. Wade: The Abortion Rights Controversy in American History. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001.
    Hutchinson, Dennis J.The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White: A Portrait of Justice Byron R. White. New York: Free Press, 1998.
    Irons, Peter. The Courage of Their Convictions: Sixteen Americans Who Fought Their Way to the Supreme Court. New York: Free Press, 1988.
    Irons, Peter. A People's History of the Supreme Court. New York: Viking, 1999.
    Jeffries, John C., Jr.Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
    Johnson, John W. Griswold v. Connecticut: Birth Control and the Constitutional Right of Privacy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
    Johnson, John W. The Struggle for Student Rights: Tinker v. Des Moines and the 1960s. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
    Johnson, John W., ed. Historic U.S. Cases, 1690–1990: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.
    Jones, Howard. Mutiny on the Amistad. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
    Jost, Kenneth. The Supreme Court A to Z.
    3rd ed.
    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2003.
    Jost, Kenneth., ed. The Supreme Court Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, annual series, 1992–2001.
    Keen, Lisa, and Suzanne B.Goldberg. Strangers to the Law: Gay People on Trial. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.
    Kens, Paul. Lochner v. New York: Economic Regulation on Trial. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
    Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality.
    Rev. ed.
    New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.
    Labbé, Ronald M., and JonathanLurie. Slaughterhouse Cases: Regulation, Reconstruction, and the Fourteenth Amendment. Abridged. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
    Lazarus, Edward P.Closed Chambers. New York: Times Books, 1998.
    Leuchtenberg, William E.The Supreme Court Reborn: The Constitutional Revolution in the Age of Roosevelt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Lewis, Anthony. Gideon's Trumpet. New York: Vintage, 1964.
    Lewis, Anthony. Make No Law: The Sullivan Case and the First Amendment. New York: Random House, 1991.
    Lieberman, Jethro K.A Practical Companion to the Constitution: How the Supreme Court Has Ruled on Issues from Abortion to Zoning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
    McCorvey, Norma. I am Roe: My Life, Roe v. Wade, and Freedom of Choice. New York: Harper Collins, 1994.
    Meisel, Alan. The Right to Die.
    2nd ed.
    New York: Aspen, 1995.
    Monk, Linda R.The Bill of Rights: A User's Guide.
    4th ed.
    Alexandria, Va.: Close Up Publishing, 2004.
    Murdoch, Joyce, and DebPrice. Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians v. The Supreme Court. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
    Murphy, Bruce Allen. Fortas: The Rise and Ruin of a Supreme Court Justice. New York: William Morrow, 1988.
    Nelson, William E. Marbury v. Madison: The Origins and Legacy of Judicial Review. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
    Newman, Roger K.Hugo Black: A Biography. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.
    O'Brien, David M.Storm Center: The Supreme Court in American Politics.
    6th ed.
    New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.
    O'Connor, Sandra Day. The Majesty of the Law: Reflections of a Supreme Court Justice. New York: Random House, 2003.
    Ogletree, Charles J., Jr.All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half-Century of Brown v. Board of Education. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2004.
    Pearson, Drew, and Robert S.Allen. The Nine Old Men. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran, 1936.
    Perry, Barbara A.The Priestly Tribe: The Supreme Court's Image in the American Mind. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1999.
    Perry, H.W., Jr.Deciding to Decide: Agenda Setting in the United States Supreme Court. Reprint. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005.
    Peters, Shawn Francis. Judging Jehovah's Witnesses. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
    Pfeffer, Leo. This Honorable Court: A History of the United States Supreme Court. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965.
    Rabban, David M.Free Speech in Its Forgotten Years. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Radosh, Ronald, and JoyceMilton. The Rosenberg File. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983.
    Rehnquist, William H.All the Laws but One: Civil Liberties in Wartime. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
    Rehnquist, William H.The Supreme Court: How It Was, How It Is. New York: William Morrow, 1987.
    Rosenkranz, E. Joshua, and BernardSchwartz, ed. Reason and Passion: Justice Brennan's Enduring Influence. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
    Rowan, Carl T.Dream Makers, Dream Breakers: The World of Justice Thurgood Marshall. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.
    Rudenstine, David. The Day the Presses Stopped: A History of the Pentagon Papers Case. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
    Salokar, Rebecca Mae. The Solicitor General: The Politics of Law. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.
    Sanford, Bruce W.Don't Shoot the Messenger: How Our Growing Hatred of the Media Threatens Free Speech for All of Us. New York: Free Press, 1999.
    Savage, David G.Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court.
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    Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.
    Savage, David G.Turning Right: The Making of the Rehnquist Supreme Court. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1992.
    Schwartz, Bernard, ed. The Ascent of Pragmatism: The Burger Court in Action. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
    Schwartz, BernardA Book of Legal Lists: The Best and Worst in American Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Schwartz, BernardThe Burger Court: Counter-Revolution or Confirmation?New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
    Schwartz, BernardDecision: How the Supreme Court Decides Cases. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
    Schwartz, BernardA History of the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
    Schwartz, BernardSwann's Way: The School Busing Case and the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    Schwartz, Herman. The Burger Years: Rights and Wrongs in the Supreme Court, 1969–1986. New York: Viking, 1987.
    Simon, James F.The Center Holds: The Power Struggle Inside the Rehnquist Court. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
    Smolla, Rodney A., ed. Free Speech in an Open Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.
    Smolla, Rodney A., A Year in the Life of the Supreme Court. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.
    Starr, Kenneth W.First Among Equals: The Supreme Court in American Life. New York: Warner Books, 2002.
    Sunstein, Cass R.One Case at a Time: Judicial Minimalism on the Supreme Court. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
    Tribe, Laurence H.Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
    Tushnet, Mark V.A Court Divided: The Rehnquist Court and the Future of Constitutional Law. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005.
    Tushnet, Mark V.Making Constitutional Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1961–1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Urofsky, Melvin I.The Continuity of Change: The Supreme Court and Individual Liberties, 1953–1986. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing, 1991.
    Urofsky, Melvin I.Division and Discord: The Supreme Court under Stone and Vinson, 1941–1953. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.
    Urofsky, Melvin I., ed. The Douglas Letters. Bethesda, MD.: Adler and Adler, 1987.
    Urofsky, Melvin I.One Hundred Americans Making Constitutional History. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004.
    Urofsky, Melvin I.Public Debate over Controversial Supreme Court Decisions. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.
    Van Sickel, Robert W.Not a Particularly Different Voice: The Jurisprudence of Sandra Day O'Connor. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1998.
    Warren, Charles. The Supreme Court in United States History. 2 vols.
    Rev. ed.
    Boston: Little, Brown, 1926.
    Warren, Earl. The Memoirs of Earl Warren. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1977.
    Wilkinson, J. HarvieIII. From Brown to Bakke. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
    Wilkinson, J. HarvieIIIOne Nation Indivisible: How Ethnic Separatism Threatens America. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
    Williams, Juan. Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary. New York: Times Books, 1998.
    Woodward, Bob, and ScottArmstrong. The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.
    Yarbrough, Tinsley E.The Rehnquist Court and the Constitution. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Zelden, Charles L.Battle for the Black Ballot: Smith v. Allwright and the Defeat of the Texas All-White Primary. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

    Author Biography

    Tony Mauro has covered the Supreme Court for twenty-five years, first for Gannett News Service and USA Today and then for Legal Times and American Lawyer Media. He is also a contributing author to four books: A Year in the Life of the Supreme Court (1995), Reason and Passion: Justice Brennan's Enduring Influence (1997), The Burger Court (1998), and A Year at the Supreme Court (2004). In 1999 the American Bar Association awarded him a certificate of merit for his Supreme Court coverage, and Washingtonian magazine included him on its list of top fifty journalists in Washington, D.C., in 2001.


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