A Practical Introduction to Homeland Security and Emergency Management: From Home to Abroad

Books

Bruce Oliver Newsome & Jack A. Jarmon

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    Preface

    Until September 11, 2001, the structure and strategy of U.S. national security essentially conformed to a design legislated in 1947. The trauma of the attacks on New York, Washington, DC, and Pennsylvania, on September 11, 2001 (9/11), shook the security establishment and the American people to their core. The 9/11 Commission unearthed findings that were the worst of fears to some, revelations to others. Among them was the following observation: “As presently configured, the national security institutions of the U.S. are still the institutions constructed to win the Cold War” (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 2004, p. 399). The commission recommended a quicker, more imaginative, and more agile government if the U.S. wanted to respond better to new threats.

    The government had already started the largest reorganization of the security community since 1947. The founding of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2002 created a new cabinet-level department. Policymakers reasoned that the new cabinet department would improve information and intelligence sharing, enhance national preparedness and resiliency, and, at the same time, reduce bureaucratic overlap. The reorganization of personnel, material resources, and authorities brought together organizations—from departments as disparate as Agriculture and the Treasury—under a single department.

    Meanwhile, the conflict arena continued to change. It involves asymmetric and nonasymmetric armed conflict, economic warfare, and climate disruptions. Poverty, migration trends, organized crime, terrorism, regional conflicts, disruptive technologies, and overuse and overreliance on an aging infrastructure all have impacted U.S. homeland security. Homeland security requires an all-hazards strategy.

    Furthermore, the context is global. Despite U.S. material superiority in so many areas, the hyperconnectivity of today’s world has reduced the United States’ capacity to act unilaterally or to solve homeland insecurity purely from within U.S. borders.

    This textbook is aimed at undergraduate, postgraduate, and professional students of homeland security, emergency management, counterterrorism, border security and immigration, cybersecurity, natural hazards, and related domains.

    It offers a practical introduction to the concepts, structures, politics, laws, hazards, threats, and practices of homeland security and emergency management everywhere, while focusing mainly on the United States.

    Moreover, it attempts to present the concept of homeland security as an evolving experience rather than simply an arm within the machinery of government. It is a profession and a conception that requires some forming from the ground up as well as from the top down.

    Practical

    This is a conceptual and practical textbook, not a theoretical work. It is focused on the knowledge and skills that will allow the reader to understand how homeland security and emergency management are practiced and should be practiced.

    To illustrate key points, the authors use cases and vignettes about how different authorities practice and interact. This book will examine the relevant concepts, the structural authorities and responsibilities that policymakers struggle with and within which practitioners must work, the processes that practitioners and professionals choose between or are obliged to use, the actual activities, and the end states and outputs of these activities.

    Multiple Domains

    In this book, we will cover the full spectrum of homeland security from counterterrorism through border security and infrastructure security to emergency management.

    Homeland security was traditionally part of national security, domestic security, or even international security but now incorporates older professions, such as emergency management, border control, immigration and customs, law enforcement, and counterterrorism. Consequently, homeland security crosses many domains and disciplines. It is, in fact, still contested as the situations and contexts change.

    Traditionally more courses were taught with the title “national security” or “international security” than with the title “homeland security.” Homeland security has been defined in legal, structural, and practical terms mostly by the U.S. government. It was justified largely as a response to the international terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Since then, according to Google Ngram, use of the term homeland security has risen from relative obscurity to surpass use of national security. However, national security is still an important concept, capturing the military end of security as well as much of national intelligence and counterintelligence.

    In popular understanding, homeland security is usually equated with counterterrorism, but counterterrorism was always a minor part of departmentalized homeland security. (Counterterrorism is conducted mostly by the intelligence agencies, the Department of Defense, the Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], and the law enforcement authorities at state and lower levels, each of which lies outside of DHS.) Most of DHS’s subdepartments and activities manage border security, immigration, tariffs and customs, maritime security within American waters, the security of infrastructure, natural risks, and emergencies in general. The trend in American homeland security has been away from counterterrorism to all-hazards management—a concept already normative in Canada and Europe.

    International

    Most books about homeland security concern only U.S. homeland security. However, U.S. homeland security is international. Therefore, this book draws attention to both the internationalization of United States, homeland security and the relevance of homeland security outside the United States, such as the Canadian focus on public safety, the European focus on local security, the Asian focus on internal security, and increasing international focus everywhere on emergency management at home.

    Furthermore, without the cooperation of foreign states there is no homeland security. DHS deploys personnel at U.S. embassies and as liaison officers with foreign-partner authorities, as does the FBI, Department of Commerce, and the military—even the New York City Police Department has approximately 26 offices abroad.

    Similarly, container security benefits from the collaboration of the foreign community—private and public. The U.S. Container Security Initiative requires diplomatic maneuvering to allow U.S. customs agents to reside and oversee the program at foreign ports. These programs do not work in isolation; they need international cooperation across many agencies of foreign governments. Container security covers not just border security but also maritime, air, and ground transport.

    Cybersecurity is similarly international. US-CERT (Computer Emergency Readiness Team) is the operational arm of the National Cyber Security Division at DHS. Around the world, more than 250 organizations use the term CERT or the like. US-CERT acts independently of these organizations yet maintains relationships for information-sharing and coordination purposes.

    Other international examples of homeland security or emergency management will be addressed throughout the book as well as threats with important national sources, such as Chinese cyber threats.

    Chapter Structure

    In each chapter, you should expect

    • Learning objectives and outcomes
    • An opening vignette
    • Boxed case studies on current issues and controversies relevant to the chapter
    • A final case study—a final main issue/case study or lessons learned from distinguished practitioners
    • A chapter summary
    • A list of key terms
    • Questions and exercises—discussion questions and exercises that ask students to go back to the case studies to think critically about the material included

    Each chapter provides insight from noted experts who not only excel in their subject but whose contribution to the field is historic.

    Homeland security is a complex issue and subject to unprecedented pressures from diverse legacies and new events. Additionally, responding to the new order of world affairs has and will continue to be a process of trial, reorientation, missteps, and lapses. The aim of the authors and publisher of this work is that readers will gain a stronger grasp of the issues and skills relating to homeland security in a way that not only helps them to practice homeland security today but stimulates thought for the future as well.

    Instructor Resources

    study.sagepub.com/newsome

    A password-protected instructor companion site supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

    • Test banks that provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess the students’ progress and understanding
    • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint¯ slides offering complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
    • A set of all the graphics from the text, including all of the maps, tables, and figures, in PowerPoint,.pdf, and.jpg formats for class presentations

    Acknowledgments

    The authors thank Jerry Westby of SAGE for suggesting this title and Melanie Birdsall for managing the project to completion.

    The authors thank Jared Leighton for copy editing.

    The authors thank our many peers and interns who advised us, commented on drafts, collected data, or researched case studies for this book, particularly (in alphabetical order):

    • Tyler Andrews of Public Safety Canada
    • Jennifer D. Catlin of Bournemouth University
    • Connie Cheung of Public Safety Canada
    • Maire Cogdell of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Lawrence Conway of Public Safety Canada
    • Harrison Corbett of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Craig Dermody of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Robert Evans of Booz Allen Hamilton
    • Regan Forer of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Andrew Stephen Grant of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Emilie Hannezo of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Ashleigh Catherine Luschei of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Aditya Ranganathan of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Sean Rooney of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
    • Larry Smarr of the University of California, San Diego
    • William James Stewart of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Eve Sweetser of the University of California, Berkeley
    • Forman Williams of the University of California, San Diego
    • Vivan Zhu of the University of California, Berkeley

    The authors thank the esteemed practitioners and academics who wrote the final chapter case studies for this book.

    • Adm. Thad Allen (Ret.), Booz Allen Hamilton
    • Christian Beckner, George Washington University
    • Jessica Block, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
    • Michael Dinning, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
    • Stephen Flynn, Northeastern University
    • Jeffrey K. Harp, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    • Melissa E. Hathaway, Hathaway Global Strategies LLC
    • Tom Kean, former Governor of New Jersey
    • Bob Kerrey, former Governor of Nebraska and U.S. Senator
    • Rey Koslowski, State University of New York, Albany
    • Sam Nunn, former U.S. Senator from Georgia
    • Jeffrey C. Price, Metropolitan State University of Denver
    • Bansari Saha, ICF International
    • Michael D. Tanner, Cato Institute
    • Sally Thompson, University of California, Berkeley
    • U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Publisher’s Acknowledgments

    SAGE gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Peter Allen, ICDC College Online Campus
    • Ryan Baggett, Eastern Kentucky University
    • Erick Kleinsmith, Lockheed Martin Center for Security Analysis
    • Jason K. Levy, PhD, Virginia Commonwealth University

    About The Authors

    Bruce Oliver Newsome, PhD, is an assistant teaching professor in international and area studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Previously he consulted to the Department of Homeland Security while employed by the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. He earned his undergraduate degree with honors in war studies from King’s College London, a master’s degree in political science from the University of Pennsylvania, and a PhD in international and strategic studies from the University of Reading.

    Jack A. Jarmon has taught international relations at the University of Pennsylvania, the John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations at Seton Hall University, and Rutgers University, where he was also associate director of the Command, Control and Interoperability Center for Advanced Data Analysis, a Center of Excellence of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Division. He was USAID technical advisor for the Russian government in the mid-1990s working for the Russian Privatization Committee and with such organizations as the U.S. Russia Investment Fund, European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, and various money center banks. His private-sector career includes global consultant firms, technology companies, and financial institutions. He was a manager with Arthur Andersen in Moscow and director of strategic alliances at Nortel Networks, Brampton, Ontario. Dr. Jarmon studied Soviet and Russian affairs at Fordham University and the Harriman Institute at Columbia University. He is fluent in Russian and holds a doctorate degree in global affairs from Rutgers.

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