Historic Documents of 2010

Books

Edited by: CQ Press

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Thematic Table of Contents

    American Life

    Health Care Reform Signed Into Law (March 21 and 23, 2010)

    Arizona Passes Nation's Toughest Immigration Law (April 23 and July 6, 2010)

    “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” Repealed (May 27, September 21, and November 30, 2010)

    Proposed Islamic Center Sparks Controversy (August 3 and 13, 2010)

    FBI Report on Crime in the United States (September 13, 2010)

    U.S. Poverty Level Hits 15-Year High (September 16, 2010)

    U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 American Community Survey and Census Data (December 14 and 21, 2010)

    Business, the Economy, and Labor

    President Obama Establishes the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (February 18 and December 1, 2010)

    Federal Hiring Incentives Bill Signed (February 22 and 24, and March 18, 2010)

    Federal Court Rules in Net Neutrality Case (April 6, 2010)

    Senate Debates Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Legislation (April 22 and July 21, 2010)

    Greek Financial Crisis (May 2, 2010)

    Changes in the Publishing Industry (July 19 and 22, 2010)

    China Surpasses Japan to Become the World's Second Largest Economy (July 30, 2010)

    Housing Market Hits 15-Year Low (August 24, September 23, October 25, November 23, and December 22, 2010)

    Europeans Protest Austerity Measures and EU Monetary Policy (October 21, 26, and 29, 2010)

    EU and IMF Help Stabilize Ireland's Banking System (November 28 and 29, 2010)

    European Union Begins Google Antitrust Investigation (November 30, 2010)

    Energy, Environment, Science, Technology, and Transportation

    Asian Carp Invade the Great Lakes (January 5, February 8, and December 16, 2010)

    Earthquakes Devastate Haiti and Chile (January 15 and 17, February 27, and June 2010)

    Volcanic Ash Spreads across Europe (April 20, 2010)

    Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill (April 27 and 30, 2010)

    First U.S. Offshore Wind Farm Approved (April 28 and October 6, 2010)

    Wildfires Impact Russia (July 30 and August 2, 2010)

    United Nations Announces Rinderpest Virus Eradication (October 14, 2010)

    Health and Social Services

    Health Care Reform Signed Into Law (March 21 and 23, 2010)

    National Cancer Institute on the Link between CT Scans and Lung Cancer Deaths (November 4 and 26, 2010)

    Child Nutrition Bill Signed into Law (December 1, 2, and 13, 2010)

    9/11 First Responder Health Bill Signed Into Law (December 20 and 22, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Africa

    South Africa Assesses the Success of the 2010 FIFA World Cup (July 14, 2010)

    Violence in Somali Increases (August 24 and December 22, 2010)

    UN Releases Report on War Crimes in the Congo (October 1, 2010)

    Guinea Election Sparks Delays and Violence (October 8 and 25, November 9 and 19, and December 3, 2010)

    Violence Increases after Election in Côte d'Ivoire (December 5 and 23, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Asia

    South Korean Naval Vessel Sunk by Torpedo (March 27 and May 20, 2010)

    Political Crisis in Thailand (May 4, 6, and 23, 2010)

    U.S. Secretary of State Tours Asia (May 25, 2010)

    China Surpasses Japan to Become the World's Second Largest Economy (July 30, 2010)

    Floods Devastate Pakistan (August 26 and 27, 2010)

    Chinese Dissident Awarded Nobel Peace Prize (October 9 and December 7, 10, and 11, 2010)

    Pro-Democracy Leader Aung San Suu Kyi Released (November 13, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Europe

    Polish President and Top Politicians Killed in Plane Crash (April 18 and August 6, 2010)

    Volcanic Ash Spreads Across Europe (April 20, 2010)

    Greek Financial Crisis (May 2, 2010)

    Power Shift in the United Kingdom (May 12 and 20, 2010)

    France Impose Ban on Face Veils and Deports Roma Gypsies (September 29 and October 7 and 19, 2010)

    Toxic Sludge Blankets Hungarian Villages (October 5, 6, 7, and 9, 2010)

    Europeans Protest Austerity Measures and EU Monetary Policy (October 21, 26, and 29, 2010)

    EU and IMF Help Stabilize Ireland's Banking System (November 28 and 29, 2010)

    European Union Begins Google Antitrust Investigation (November 30, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Latin America and the Caribbean

    Earthquakes Devastate Haiti and Chile (January 15 and 17, February 27, and June 2010)

    Arizona Passes Nation's Toughest Immigration Law (April 23 and July 6, 2010)

    Violence in Jamaica (May 23 and 25 and June 25, 2010)

    Ecuador in Crisis (September 30, 2010)

    Brazilians Elect First Female President (October 4 and November 1, 2010)

    Thirty-three Chilean Miners Rescued (October 13, 14, and 18, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Middle East

    Iraq Parliamentary Elections (March 7 and 8, 2010)

    Israel Raids Gaza Flotilla (May 31, 2010)

    Last U.S. Combat Troops Leave Iraq (August 19 and 31, 2010)

    Parliamentary Elections Held in Afghanistan (September 16 and December 12, 2010)

    U.S. Officials on Intercepted Package Bombs (October 29, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Russia and Former Soviet Republics

    Moscow Subway Attacked by Suicide Bombers (March 29 and 31, 2010)

    The United States and Russia Agree to New Arms Treaty (April 8, 2010)

    Unrest in Kyrgyzstan (April 8 and 11, and June 15, 2010)

    The United States and Russia Exchange Spies (July 8, 2010)

    Wildfires Impact Russia (July 30, and August 2, 2010)

    International Collaboration on Settlement of Nagorno-Karabakh Region (October 29 and December 1, 2010)

    International Affairs
    Global Issues

    South Africa Assesses the Success of the 2010 FIFA World Cup (July 14, 2010)

    Chinese Dissident Awarded Nobel Peace Prize (October 9 and December 7, 10, and 11, 2010)

    United Nations Announces Rinderpest Virus Eradication (October 14, 2010)

    National Security and Terrorism

    Moscow Subway Attacked by Suicide Bombers (March 29 and 31, 2010)

    Attempted Bombing in Times Square (May 4, 2010)

    Supreme Court Rules on Material Support of Terrorist Organizations (June 21, 2010)

    The United States and Russia Exchange Spies (July 8, 2010)

    Last U.S. Combat Troops Leave Iraq (August 19 and 31, 2010)

    U.S. Officials on Intercepted Package Bombs (October 29, 2010)

    U.S. Department of State Responds to WikiLeaks (November 29 and December 1, 2010)

    Rights, Responsibilities, and Justice

    Supreme Court on Campaign Contributions (January 21, 2010)

    Federal Court Rules in Net Neutrality Case (April 6, 2010)

    Arizona Passes Nation's Toughest Immigration Law (April 23 and July 6, 2010)

    Supreme Court Rules on Life in Prison without Parole for Underage Offenders (May 17, 2010)

    “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” Repealed (May 27, September 21, and November 30, 2010)

    Supreme Court Rules on Miranda Rights (June 1, 2010)

    Supreme Court Rules on Material Support of Terrorist Organizations (June 21, 2010)

    Supreme Court Rules on Second Amendment Rights (June 28, 2010)

    U.S. District Court Overturns California Ban on Gay Marriage (August 4, 2010)

    U.S. Government and Politics

    Supreme Court on Campaign Contributions (January 21, 2010)

    State of the Union Address and Republican Response (January 27, 2010)

    President Obama Establishes the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (February 18 and December 1, 2010)

    Federal Hiring Incentives Bill Signed (February 22 and 24, and March 18, 2010)

    Race to the Top Education Funds Awarded (March 29 and August 24, 2010)

    Elena Kagan Nominated to U.S. Supreme Court (May 10 and June 28, 2010)

    Midterm Primary Elections (May 19 and September 15, 2010)

    U.S. Secretary of State Tours Asia (May 25, 2010)

    Last U.S. Combat Troops Leave Iraq (August 19 and 31, 2010)

    Responses to the 2010 Midterm Elections (November 2 and 3, 2010)

    Child Nutrition Bill Signed into Law (December 1, 2, and 13, 2010)

    U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 American Community Survey and Census Data (December 14 and 21, 2010)

    9/11 First Responder Health Bill Signed Into Law (December 20 and 22, 2010)

    List of Document Sources

    Congress

    Rep. Carolyn B. Maloney. “9/11 Health Bill Passes U.S. House, Will Be Signed by President.” December 22, 2010.

    Rep. Dennis Kucinich. “Kucinich Requests Support for Ecuadorian Democracy.” September 30, 2010.

    Rep. George Miller. “Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, H7800.

    Rep. John Boehner. “Boehner Remarks at Press Conference with Sen. McConnell & Gov. Barbour.” November 3, 2010.

    Rep. John Boehner. “Senate Amendments to H.R. 3590, Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009, and H.R. 4872, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.” Congressional Record 2010, 156, pt. H1895.

    Rep. John Kline. “Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, H7800.

    Rep. Nancy Pelosi. “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011—Continued.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, H4058.

    Rep. Steny Hoyer. “Senate Amendments to H.R. 3590, Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009, and H.R. 4872, Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.” Congressional Record 2010, 156, pt. H1854-H1856.

    Sen. Barbara Boxer. “Health Care and the Jobs Bill.” Congressional Record 2010, 156 pt. S604-S607.

    Sen. Charles Schumer. “Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act of 2010—Motion to Proceed.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, S8663–8664.

    Sen. Dick Durbin. “Restoring American Financial Stability Act of 2010—Motion to Proceed.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, S2557–S2559.

    Sen. Harry Reid. “Reid Statement on 2010 Midterm Elections.” November 3, 2010.

    Sen. John McCain. “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011—Motion to Proceed.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, S7237–S7238.

    Sen. Judd Gregg. “Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, p. S719.

    Sen. Mitch McConnell. “First Responders Bill.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, S10990.

    Sen. Mitch McConnell. “Restoring American Financial Stability Act of 2010—Motion to Proceed.” Congressional Record 2010, pt. 156, S2553.

    U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. “Opening Statement of Solicitor General Elena Kagan, Nominee for Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.” June 28, 2010.

    Executive Departments, Agencies, and Other Federal Offices

    Embassy of the United States in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. “Statement in Response to Recent Events in Kyrgyzstan.” April 11, 2010.

    Embassy of the United States in Conakry, Guinea. “Press Release by American and French Embassies in Guinea.” October 8, 2010.

    Embassy of the United States in Santiago, Chile. “The United States Assists Chile Earthquake Relief.” June 2010.

    National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. “The Moment of Truth: Report of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform.” December 1, 2010.

    U.S. Census Bureau. “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009.” September 16, 2010.

    U.S. Census Bureau. “U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts—Apportionment Counts Delivered to President.” December 21, 2010.

    U.S. Census Bureau. “U.S. Census Bureau Releases First Set of 5-Year American Community Survey Estimates.” December 14, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Agriculture. “Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Statement on Passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act.” December 2, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Defense. “Report of the Comprehensive Review of the Issues Associated with a Repeal of ‘Don't Ask, Don't Tell.’” November 30, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Education. “Nine States and the District of Columbia Win Second Round Race to the Top Grants.” August 24, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Education. “U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan's Statement on Race to the Top Phase 1 Winners.” March 29, 2010.

    U.S. Department of the Interior. “Salazar and Napolitano Launch Full Investigation of Deepwater Horizon Incident in the Gulf of Mexico.” April 27, 2010.

    U.S. Department of the Interior. “Salazar Launches Full Review of Offshore Drilling Safety Issues during Visit to Oil Spill Command Centers on Gulf Coast.” April 30, 2010.

    U.S. Department of the Interior. “Salazar Signs First U.S. Offshore Commercial Wind Energy Lease with Cape Wind Associates, LLC.” October 6, 2010.

    U.S. Department of the Interior. “Secretary Salazar Announces Approval of Cape Wind Energy Project on Outer Continental Shelf off Massachusetts.” April 28, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Crime in the United States, 2009.” September 13, 2010.

    U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Public Affairs. “Citing Conflict with Federal Law, Department of Justice Challenges Arizona Immigration Law.” July 6, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Background Briefing on U.S.-Russia Relations.” July 8, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Concluding Joint Statements at the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue.” May 25, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Daily Press Briefing.” August 19, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. Office of the Secretary of State. “Earthquake in Chile.” February 27, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Release of Aung San Suu Kyi.” November 13, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Remarks at the Closing of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue.” May 25, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Remarks on WikiLeaks.” November 29, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Statement on Unrest in Kyrgyzstan.” April 8, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.” April 8, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “U.S. Concerned by Unrest in Kyrgyzstan.” April 8, 2010.

    U.S. Department of State. “WikiLeaks and Other Global Events.” December 1, 2010.

    U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. “Christopher Michael Coke Arrives in United States to Face Narcotics and Firearms Trafficking Charges in Manhattan Federal Court.” June 25, 2010.

    U.S. Mission to the United Nations. “Statement by Ambassador Susan E. Rice, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, on the Release of Aung San Suu Kyi.” November 13, 2010.

    International Governmental and Nongovernmental Organizations

    Council of the European Union. “‘Press Remarks by Herman Van Rompuy President of the European Council Following the First Session of the European Council.” October 29, 2010.

    Council of the European Union. “Sharing the Responsibility for European Decisions’: President Herman Van Rompuy Addresses the Representatives of the European Parliament and 27 National Parliaments (COSAC-Meeting).” October 26, 2010.

    Council of the European Union. “Strengthening Economic Governance in the EU: Report of the Task Force to the European Council.” October 21, 2010.

    Economic Community of West African States. “ECOWAS Commission's Statement on the Political Situation in Côte d'Ivoire.” December 5, 2010.

    Economic Community of West African States. Press Releases. “ECOWAS Welcomes the Proper Conduct of the Second Round of the Presidential Election in Guinea.” November 9, 2010.

    Economic Community of West African States. Press Releases. “Postponement of the Second Round of Presidential Elections in Guinea.” October 25, 2010.

    European Union. “Joint Statement of European Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs Olli Rehn and Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund Dominique Strauss-Kahn on Ireland.” November 29, 2010.

    European Union. “Joint Statement on Greece by EU Commissioner Olli Rehn and IMF Managing Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn.” May 2, 2010.

    European Union. Press Releases. “European Commission Assesses Recent Developments in France, Discusses Overall Situation of the Roma and EU Law of Free Movement of EU Citizens.” September 29, 2010.

    European Union. Press Releases. “Statement by Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission, EU Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship, on the Recent Developments Concerning the Respect for EU Law as Regards the Situation of Roma in France.” October 19, 2010.

    European Union. Press Room. “Antitrust: Commission Probes Allegations of Antitrust Violations by Google.” November 30, 2010.

    European Union. Press Room. “Volcanic Ash Crisis: Frequently Asked Questions.” April 20, 2010.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “Campaign Against Deadly Cattle Plague Ending.” October 14, 2010.

    Independent Election Commission. “Independent Election Commission Press Release with Respect to the Statements of Attorney General's Office about Final Results of 2010 WJ Elections.” December 12, 2010.

    International Monetary Fund. “IMF Reaches Staff-level Agreement with Greece on €30 Billion Stand-By Arrangement.” May 2, 2010.

    International Monetary Fund. “IMF Reaches Staff-level Agreement with Ireland on €22.5 Billion Extended Fund Facility Arrangement.” November 28, 2010.

    Nobel Foundation. “Presentation Speech by Thorbjørn Jagland, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.” December 10, 2010.

    United Nations. Assistance Mission for Iraq. “Statement from the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Iraq (SRSG), Ad Melkert, on the National Iraqi Elections.” March 8, 2010.

    United Nations. Assistance Mission for Iraq. “UNDP Supports Iraqis in Electing Their Future Government.” March 7, 2010.

    United Nations. News Centre. “Ban Welcomes Conclusion of Presidential Election in Guinea, Urges Reconciliation.” December 3, 2010.

    United Nations. News Centre. “Ecuador: UN Chief Expresses Deep Concern at Civil Unrest.” September 30, 2010.

    United Nations. News Centre. “Somalia: UN Calls for 4,000 More African Union Peacekeepers.” December 22, 2010.

    United Nations. News Centre. “UN Officials Welcome Release of Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi.” November 13, 2010.

    United Nations. News Centre. “UN Rights Office Concerned at Reported Abuses in Post-Electoral Guinea.” November 19, 2010.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Human Rights Council Debates Situation of Human Rights in Côte d'Ivoire.” December 23, 2010.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between March 1993 and June 2003.” October 1, 2010.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Statement by Ms. Kyung-wha Kang, Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights Council 14th Special Session on ‘The Situation of Human Rights in Côte d'Ivoire Since the Elections on 28 November 2010.’” December 23, 2010.

    United Nations. Political Office for Somalia. “UN Security Council Press Statement on Somalia.” August 24, 2010.

    United Nations. UN Security Council. “Security Council Condemns Acts Resulting in Civilian Deaths During Israeli Operation Against Gaza-Bound Aid Convoy, Calls for Investigation, in Presidential Statement.” May 31, 2010.

    United Nations. “UN Special Advisers of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide and on the Responsibility to Protect on the Situation in Kyrgyzstan.” June 15, 2010.

    United Nations. United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. “UN Representative Visit Kandahar to Express Support for the Elections.” September 16, 2010.

    Judiciary

    U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Comcast Corporation v. FCC. April 6, 2010.

    U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. Perry v. Schwarzenegger. August 4, 2010.

    U.S. Supreme Court. Berghuis v. Thompkins, 560 U.S.___(2010).

    U.S. Supreme Court. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. ____ (2010).

    U.S. Supreme Court. Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. ___ (2010).

    U.S. Supreme Court. Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, 561 U.S.___(2010).

    U.S. Supreme Court. McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. ___ (2010).

    Non-U.S. Governments

    Armenian Socialist Party. “Meeting of the Presidents of Armenia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation.” October 29, 2010.

    Azerbaijan Republic. Office of the President of Azerbaijan. “Speech by Ilham Aliyev at the VII OSCE Summit.” December 1, 2010.

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Korea Central News Agency. “S. Korea's Groundless Accusations against DPRK Refuted.” May 20, 2010.

    Embassy of Ecuador in the United States. “Press Release from the Presidency of Ecuador on the Current Situation.” September 30, 2010.

    Embassy of Haiti in Washington, D.C. “17 Jan—Joint Communique of the Governments of the United States and Haiti.” January 17, 2010.

    Federative Republic of Brazil. Portal Brasil. “Dilma Rousseff is First Woman to be President of Brazil.” November 1, 2010.

    Federative Republic of Brazil. Portal Brasil. “Rousseff and Serra Face Off for Brazil's Presidency.” October 4, 2010.

    French Republic. Constitutional Council of France. “Act Prohibiting the Concealing of the Face in Public.” October 7, 2010.

    Government of Jamaica. Jamaican Information Service. Office of the Governor General. “Regulations Governing the Period of Public Emergency.” May 25, 2010.

    Government of Jamaica. Jamaican Information Service. Office of the Prime Minister. “Address to the Nation on the State of Emergency by PM Golding, May 23, 2010.”

    Government of Jamaica. Jamaican Information Service. Office of the Prime Minister. “State of Emergency Declared in Kingston and St. Andrew with Effect from 6:00 pm Today, May 23, 2010.”

    Government of the United Kingdom. Office of the Prime Minister. “David Cameron's Speech Outside 10 Downing Street as Prime Minister.” May 12, 2010.

    Government of the United Kingdom. Office of the Prime Minister. “Press Conference on the Coalition: Our Programme for Government.” May 20, 2010.

    Hungarian Republic. “Redsludge” Tragedy: The Official Website of the Hungarian Government. “Hungary Is a Totally Safe Place to Stay.” October 6, 2010.

    Hungarian Republic. “Redsludge” Tragedy: The Official Website of the Hungarian Government. “The Hungarian Government Uses Coordinated Efforts in Red Sludge Disaster Recovery.” October 7, 2010.

    Hungarian Republic. “Redsludge” Tragedy: The Official Website of the Hungarian Government. “Statement of the Minister of Internal Affairs.” October 5, 2010.

    Hungarian Republic. “Redsludge” Tragedy: The Official Website of the Hungarian Government. “Victor Orbán's Special On-Site Press Conference.” October 9, 2010.

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Office of the President. “President Chairs a Meeting on Flood Reconstruction and Rehabilitation by the Housing Sector.” August 27, 2010.

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Office of the President. “President Zardari Says BISP's Timely Initiatives Would Be Instrumental for Quick Rehabilitation of the Flood Victims.” August 26, 2010.

    Kingdom of Thailand. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “ASEAN Chairman's Statement on the Situation in Thailand.” May 23, 2010.

    Kingdom of Thailand. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “FM Addresses NGOs’ Concerns Regarding Current Political Situation in Thailand.” May 6, 2010.

    Kingdom of Thailand. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Foreign Minister Kasit Briefs Ambassadors in Jakarta on Current Political Situation in Thailand.” May 4, 2010.

    People's Republic of China. “China Has Backing of More than 100 Countries, Organizations on Nobel Peace Prize.” December 7, 2010.

    People's Republic of China. “China Hits Back at Some Western Politicians’ Support for Nobel Peace Prize.” December 11, 2010.

    People's Republic of China. China State Administration of Foreign Exchange. “Yi Gang, Deputy Governor of the People's Bank of China (PBOC) and Administrator of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), is Interviewed by the Executive Editor-in-Chief of China Reform.” July 30, 2010.

    People's Republic of China. “China Voices Strong Opposition of Nobel Peace Prize to Interfere in Its Internal Affairs.” December 10, 2010.

    People's Republic of China. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Ma Zhaoxu's Remarks.” October 9, 2010.

    Republic of Chile. “Rescue of the 33 Chilean Miners.” October 18, 2010.

    Republic of Ireland. Department of Finance. “Announcement of Joint EU-IMF Programme for Ireland.”

    Republic of Korea. Korean Culture and Information Service. Government News. “Briefing by Cheong Wa Dae Regarding Sinking of South Korean Navy Ship.” March 27, 2010.

    Republic of Korea. Ministry of National Defense. “Investigation result on the sinking of ROKS ‘Cheonan.’” May 20, 2010.

    Republic of Poland. Office of the President. “Address of the New President of the Republic of Poland.” August 6, 2010.

    Republic of Poland. Office of the President. “President Lech Kaczyn´ski and his wife Maria laid to rest in the Wawel.” April 18, 2010.

    Republic of South Africa. “Government Assessment of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™.” July 14, 2010.

    Russian Federation. Office of the President. “Dmitry Medvedev Gave a Series of Instructions at a Special Meeting Following the Terrorist Attacks in the Moscow Metro.” March 29, 2010.

    Russian Federation. Office of the President. “Dmitry Medvedev Signed an Executive Order on Creating a Comprehensive Transport Safety System.” March 31, 2010.

    Russian Federation. Office of the President. “New Recording on Dmitry Medvedev's Blog in Response to the Serious Situation in the Russian Regions Hit by Fire.” August 2, 2010.

    Russian Federation. Office of the President. “Transcript of Meeting on Fire-Fighting and Disaster Relief Efforts in Central Russia.” July 30, 2010.

    State of Israel. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Gaza Flotilla: Statement by PM Netanyahu.” May 31, 2010.

    ThisisChile.cl. “15 Miners Recovered in the First 12 Hours of the Rescue in Chile.” October 13, 2010.

    ThisisChile.cl. “Successful Rescue of 33 Miners in Chile.” October 14, 2010.

    U.S. Nongovernmental Organizations

    http://Amazon.com. Media Room. “http://Amazon.com Announces Second Quarter Sales up 41% to $6.57 Billion.” July 22, 2010.

    http://Amazon.com. Media Room. “Kindle Device Unit Sales Accelerate Each Month in Second Quarter; New $189 Price Results in Tipping Point for Growth.” July 19, 2010.

    American Red Cross. “American Red Cross Releases $10 Million to Help Haiti.” January 15, 2010.

    American Red Cross. “Red Cross Aid Reaches Haitian Earthquake Survivors.” January 17, 2010.

    Democratic National Committee. “DNC Chairman Tim Kaine's Statement on the Midterm Election Results.” November 3, 2010.

    National Association of Realtors®. “Existing-Home Sales Decline in October Following Two Monthly Gains.” November 23, 2010.

    National Association of Realtors®. “Existing-Home Sales Move Up in August.” September 23, 2010.

    National Association of Realtors®. “Existing-Home Sales Resume Uptrend with Stable Prices.” December 22, 2010.

    National Association of Realtors®. “July Existing-Home Sales Fall as Expected but Prices Rise.” August 24, 2010.

    National Association of Realtors®. “September Existing-Home Sales Show Another Strong Gain.” October 25, 2010.

    National Cancer Institute. “Lung Cancer Trial Results Show Mortality Benefit with Low-Dose CT.” November 4, 2010.

    National Cancer Institute. “National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers.” Updated: November 26, 2010.

    National Republican Senatorial Committee. “NRSC Chairman Cornyn's Statement on Delaware Senate Race.” September 15, 2010.

    Republican National Committee. “Statement from RNC Chairman Michael Steele on Kentucky Primaries.” May 19, 2010.

    Republican National Committee. “Statement from RNC Chairman Michael Steele on the Republican Party Gaining Control of the U.S. House.” November 2, 2010.

    U.S. State and Local Governments and Organizations

    National Conference of State Legislatures. “Republicans Exceed Expectations in 2010 State Legislative Elections.” November 3, 2010.

    Office of the Governor of Virginia. “Republican Address to the Nation.” January 27, 2010.

    Office of the Mayor of New York City. “Mayor Bloomberg Discusses the Landmarks Preservation Commission Vote on 45–47 Park Place.” August 3, 2010.

    Office of the Mayor of New York City. “Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Updates New Yorkers on Arrest and Investigation of Incident in Times Square.” May 4, 2010.

    Office of the Mayor of New York City. “Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Urges Senate Passage of Revised James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act.” December 20, 2010.

    Office of Governor of Arizona. “Statement by Governor Jan Brewer.” April 23, 2010.

    Office of the Attorney General of Illinois. “Attorney General Madigan Files Response to Asian Carp Lawsuit.” January 5, 2010.

    White House and the President

    The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. “Press Briefing by Press Secretary Robert Gibbs and Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism John Brennan.” October 29, 2010.

    The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. “Remarks by the President and First Lady at the Signing of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act.” December 13, 2010.

    The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. “Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.” January 27, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Address to the Nation on the End of Combat Operations in Iraq.” August 31, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Executive Order 13531—National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform.” February 18, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Federal Officials Unveil Aggressive Strategy to Reduce Threat of Asian Carp in the Great Lakes.” February 8, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Obama Administration Releases 2011 Asian Carp Control Strategy Framework.” December 16, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks at the Iftar Dinner.” August 13, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Explosive Devices Found Aboard Flights Bound for the United States.” October 29, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing an Executive Order Establishing the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform and an Exchange With Reporters.” February 18, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.” July 21, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on Signing the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment Act.” March 18, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the Nomination of Solicitor General Elena Kagan to Be a Supreme Court Associate Justice.” May 10, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the Parliamentary Elections in Iraq.” March 7, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Remarks on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.” March 23, 2010.

    U.S. Executive Office of the President. “Statement on the Release of Census Bureau Data on Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage.” September 16, 2010.

    Preface

    Republican victories in the midterm election, a devastating oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the passage of landmark health care legislation, the repeal of the military's “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy, a major shift in political power in the United Kingdom, and a landmark Supreme Court decision on campaign finance are just a few of the topics of national and international significance chosen for discussion in Historic Documents of 2010. This edition marks the thirty-ninth volume of a CQ Press project that began with Historic Documents of 1972. This series allows students, librarians, journalists, scholars, and others to research and understand the most important domestic and foreign issues and events of the year through primary source documents. To aid research, many of the lengthy documents written for specialized audiences have been excerpted to highlight the most important sections. The official statements, news conferences, speeches, special studies, and court decisions presented here should be of lasting public and academic interest.

    Historic Documents of 2010 opens with an “Overview of 2010,” a sweeping narrative of the key events and issues of the year that provides context for the documents that follow. The balance of the book is organized chronologically, with each article comprising an introduction entitled “Document in Context” and one or more related documents on a specific event, issue, or topic. The introductions provide context and an account of further developments during the year. A thematic table of contents (page xvii) and a list of documents organized by source (page xxi) follow the standard table of contents and assist readers in locating events and documents.

    As events, issues, and consequences become more complex and far-reaching, these introductions and documents yield important information and deepen understanding about the world's increasing interconnectedness. As memories of current events fade, these selections will continue to further understanding of the events and issues that have shaped the lives of people around the world.

    How to Use This Book

    Each of the 70 entries in this edition consists of two parts: a comprehensive introduction followed by one or more primary source documents. The articles are arranged in chronological order by month. Articles with multiple documents are placed according to the date of the first document. There are several ways to find events and documents of interest:

    • By date: If the approximate date of an event or document is known, browse through the titles for that month in the table of contents. Alternatively, browse the monthly tables of contents that appear at the beginning of each month's articles.
    • By theme: To find a particular topic or subject area, browse the thematic table of contents.
    • By document type or Source: To find a particular type of document or document source, such as the White House or Congress, review the list of document sources.
    • By index: The five-year index allows researchers to locate references to specific events or documents as well as entries on the same or related subjects. The index in this volume covers the years 2006–2010. A separate volume, Historic Documents Index, 1972–2005, may also be useful.

    Each article begins with a section entitled “Document in Context.” This feature provides historical and intellectual contexts for the documents that follow. Documents are reproduced with the spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of the original or official copy. Ellipsis points indicate textual omissions (unless they were present in the documents themselves, as indicators of pauses in speech), and brackets are used for editorial insertions within documents for text clarification. The excerpting of Supreme Court opinions has been done somewhat differently than other documents. Other excerpting exceptions are presented in brackets preceding the document text. In-text references to laws and other cases have been removed to improve the readability of opinions. In those documents, readers will only find ellipses used when sections of narrative text have been removed. Full citations appear at the end of each document. If a document is not available on the Internet, this too is noted. For further reading on a particular topic, consult the “Other Historic Documents of Interest” section at the end of each article. This section provides cross-references for related articles in this edition of Historic Documents as well as in previous editions. References to articles from past volumes include the year and page number for easy retrieval.

    Overview of 2010

    The year 2010 was characterized by domestic policy struggles and international civil unrest. In January, President Barack Obama laid out his plans for the coming months during his State of the Union address, hopeful that his primary legislative efforts, including passage of health care reform and the repeal of “Don't Ask, Don't Tell,” would be signed prior to the November midterm congressional elections. The impending November vote colored the decisions made by those in Congress who wanted to ensure a successful reelection bid. When the votes were tallied, Republicans, driven by the popularity of their more conservative Tea Party members, gained control of the U.S. House of Representatives, picking up sixty-three seats from Democrats who were in the majority in 2009 and 2010. The Senate remained in Democratic control, but Republicans saw a gain of six seats.

    Around the world, 2010 brought new leaders, natural disasters, continued financial distress, and sometimes violent struggles for land and political dominance. In Europe, protests erupted over austerity measures that would cut government spending and, in turn, government services. Chile and Haiti experienced damaging earthquakes from which they are still recovering. Chile was hit with a second near-disaster in August when a mine collapsed, trapping thirty-three miners who were all found alive and rescued in October. Three African nations—Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Somalia—experienced significant spikes in violence. In Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea, presidential election results were rejected by the losing parties, leading to recounts, allegations of fraud, and renewed ethnic violence. In Somalia, the weak central government worked to instill order, but without much authority, antigovernment forces gained ground and attacked government officials and civilians.

    Global Economics

    The global economic downturn showed signs of slowing in 2010, but events made clear that it was not yet over. In the United States, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that the nation's poverty rate reached its highest level in fifteen years in 2009. Americans in nearly all sectors were affected, but commentary and the bureau's report indicated that investments made in expanding the unemployment insurance, food stamp, and other welfare benefits programs had a significant impact on a number of Americans.

    In 2010, the U.S. housing market was still taking a hit from the effects of the recession that began in 2007. After reaching a peak in April, bolstered by an $8,000 homebuyer's tax credit, existing-home sales fell 27 percent in July. With housing sales closely linked to the nation's overall economy, immediate speculation began that one of the major drivers behind the current recession could cause another economic tumble. But by the end of the year, optimism in the real estate market was growing cautiously as existing-home sales began climbing again.

    In Europe, hard-hit public coffers and ailing economies resulted in the euro losing value and public anger over austerity measures, bank bailouts, and a new European Union (EU) monetary policy. In May, Greece accepted a $146 billion bailout from the EU and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to shore up its credit market, and in November, Ireland accepted a similar $118 billion bailout to help stabilize its banking system. In an effort to rein in spending by member nations, the EU approved new economic governance policies for member states. These policies would put a limit on public debt and presented the possibility of extensive fines for noncompliance. A number of European governments had already begun passing austerity measures to reduce government spending to stave off their own debt crises. These measures prompted protests across the continent, led by public employee unions facing layoffs and pension reductions.

    In Asia, economic statistics from the first half of 2010 officially marked China's ascent to become the world's second largest economy, surpassing Japan. The shift was driven by powerful export growth in China, while Japan's economy lagged with nearly zero growth during much of the first decade of the twenty-first century. Japanese analysts said long-term trends in Chinese growth indicate that the nation could overtake the United States to become the world's largest economy by 2025.

    China's global dominance was not felt across the country, nor was it without global critics. Nearly 10 percent of the Chinese population lives below the World Bank's poverty line, set at $2 per day. And the communist government's crackdown on democratic movements and alleged human rights violations showed little sign of slowing. In October 2010, the Nobel committee announced that it would be awarding the year's Nobel Peace Prize to Liu Xiaobo, an imprisoned Chinese dissident. The Chinese government encouraged invited nations to boycott the Nobel ceremony, calling the award an encroachment on internal Chinese affairs. In turn, the Nobel committee, and many Western nations, called for Liu's release and asked China to recognize that its new position in the world would mean increased vigilance and criticism of its state affairs.

    Domestic Affairs

    At the start of his second year in office, President Barack Obama faced a number of pressing domestic problems—the economy, which remained weak even after a $787 billion infusion of federal funds; climbing unemployment; and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. High on the president's list of priorities was passage of his health care reform legislation, and on March 23, 2010, one year of debate and partisan squabbling came to an end when Obama signed a landmark health care reform bill into law. The new law would guarantee access to medical insurance for tens of millions of uninsured Americans and gave additional coverage guarantees to those already insured. The bill had been passed without Republican support, and the party made health care reform a cornerstone of the 2010 midterm congressional elections, promising to challenge the law through any means necessary and available.

    As the American combat mission in Iraq drew to a close and the war in Afghanistan raged on, the president was also faced with following through on his promise to repeal the military's “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy. The policy that disallowed gay and lesbian soldiers from openly serving in the military was supported by key Republicans in the Senate and some senior military officials, while gay rights organizations, Democrats, and other military officials—including the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff—supported repeal of the policy. A November report from the Pentagon stated that repeal of the policy presented a low risk to U.S. military operations and turned the tide in favor of repeal. By December, Congress passed and the president signed legislation to end the ban.

    Continued economic recovery in the United States also took center stage in Congress and the White House in 2010. In February, in an effort to help bring the federal budget under control, President Obama created the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, a body tasked with developing a financial plan that would reduce the U.S. deficit to no more than 3 percent of the U.S. economy by 2015. The commission released its final report on December 1, proposing cuts to discretionary and defense spending and the elimination of some tax breaks. The commission needed fourteen of its eighteen members to vote to approve the report's recommendations before they could be presented to Congress. Only eleven votes in favor of the report were tallied, leaving open the question of how the recommendations might play into the budget plans of the White House and 112th Congress.

    Financial reform was also in play in July, when the president signed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The bank bailouts of 2009 were met with distaste from many Americans questioning why the government would protect big businesses and left Washington to find a way to avoid future financial collapse. Dodd-Frank was a step toward greater security for the U.S. financial system. It reorganized the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) that oversees the financial industry and gave the government increased power to prevent future bailouts.

    With nearly 10 percent of the nation unemployed, job creation was key to helping improve the economy. On March 18, 2010, President Obama signed the Hiring Incentives to Restore Employment (HIRE) Act of 2010. The act provided incentives for employers to begin hiring more unemployed individuals, including payroll tax credits and tax breaks for retaining the employee for at least one year. The HIRE Act was expected to create as many as 250,000 new jobs, but it would only make a small dent in the 8.4 million jobs lost since late 2007.

    The economy's slow growth and sustained unemployment put Republicans in Congress in a position of power following the 2010 midterm elections held on November 4. The GOP took control of the House of Representatives, gaining a net sixty-three seats. In the Senate, Republicans won six seats, but Democrats remained in power. In state legislative and gubernatorial elections, Republicans gained control of nineteen legislative chambers and six governorships, winning key elections in swing states including Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Republican dominance in the election was driven by a portion of the most conservative wing of the GOP, the Tea Party. Tea Party candidates experienced a number of primary and general election victories, campaigning on a platform of smaller government, reduced spending, and lower taxes.

    The uptick in support for Republican candidates was called into question in December when the U.S. Census Bureau released preliminary numbers from its 2010 decennial count. The population of the United States had grown to more than three hundred million people, and this population was continuing its shift toward heavy concentration in western states where Republicans often have more support. The 2010 census data would be used to redraw congressional district lines and reapportion seats in the House of Representatives for the Congress that will meet beginning in 2013. Although Republicans will likely enjoy additional power in the short term, the growth in the U.S. population between 2000 and 2010 was driven largely by immigrants, both legal and illegal. Two-thirds of the twenty-seven million new residents were immigrants, and these residents, while concentrated in many western states, typically support Democratic candidates in elections. But how that impact will be felt is unknown as illegal immigrants, while counted in the census for representation purposes, are unable to vote.

    Immigration has been a controversial topic for a number of years as the United States works to determine the best way to control the influx of immigrants, specifically those who enter the United States illegally from Mexico. In April 2010, Arizona's Republican governor, Jan Brewer, brought the discussion back into the headlines when she signed the nation's toughest and most controversial immigration law. The law required police to question those they suspect to be in the country illegally and required legal immigrants to carry proof of their residency with them at all times. Opponents said the law would lead to racial profiling. The Obama administration led the fight against Arizona's new law, filing suit in federal court, while some cities and counties around the country refused to do business with the state of Arizona until the law was repealed.

    Energy resources presented another key topic of debate in 2010. President Obama, in an outreach to Republicans, proposed opening additional portions of the coastal United States to offshore drilling, a move aimed at ensuring less dependence on often volatile foreign oil. In March, the president said he would open parts of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean to oil exploration. One month later, the offshore oil drilling platform Deepwater Horizon exploded, releasing millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico and putting a hold on offshore drilling plans. The Deepwater Horizon accident was considered the biggest environmental disaster in U.S. history and damage stretched along the Gulf Coast, affecting habitats of coastal-dwelling animals, slowing tourism, and shuttering fishing operations, the lifeblood of the Gulf region. Under pressure from the Obama administration, British Petroleum (BP), which was leasing the well at the time of the explosion, set up a $20 billion fund to compensate those affected by the spill and assist with cleanup costs. Although the full extent of the damage will not be known for years, Obama placed a new ban on offshore drilling and declared areas of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic and Pacific Oceans closed to drilling for at least the next seven years.

    The Gulf oil spill increased national attention on renewable energy sources, including offshore wind generation, that have less potential environmental impact. After nine years of working through government red tape and fighting opposition, in April 2010 the U.S. Department of the Interior approved the nation's first offshore wind farm, set to be built five miles off the Massachusetts coast. Cape Wind was expected to begin generating power in 2012 and would produce enough to power two hundred thousand homes. Eleven other offshore wind farm projects were in development at the time awaiting Interior Department approval, but by the end of 2010, none of these projects had received necessary clearance for building, and Cape Wind remained at a standstill.

    Supreme Court Decisions

    The U.S. Supreme Court welcomed a new justice, Elena Kagan, and handed down significant rulings on Miranda rights, spending on political campaigns, material support of terrorism, gun rights, and juvenile prison terms. To replace retiring justice John Paul Stevens, who had served on the court for nearly thirty-five years, President Obama chose U.S. solicitor general Kagan. Upon confirmation, Kagan became the first justice since William Rehnquist to ascend to the Court without having previously served as a judge, marking Obama's desire to choose a unique candidate who would be above the political fray. Kagan's lack of judicial experience was a key tenet of debate in Senate confirmation hearings, where Republicans said her inexperience would not allow her to properly follow the rule of law. Democrats glazed over the issue, and Kagan was confirmed by the Senate 63 to 37. Because of her time as solicitor general, Kagan made it clear that she planned to recuse herself from a number of cases on the Court's 2010–2011 docket.

    One issue on the Court's 2010 docket involved spending by corporations and labor unions on political campaigns. On January 21, 2010, the Court ruled 5–4 in the landmark Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission that spending on political campaigns as a form of free speech extended beyond private citizens, and that the federal government cannot stop corporations and labor unions from spending to support or oppose a political candidate. The Court stopped short, however, of allowing these organizations to give money directly to candidates. The decision overturned a two-decade-old ruling that had prohibited unions and corporations from paying for campaign advertisements. The ruling also partially overturned McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, a case that upheld the constitutionality of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, which forbids corporations or labor unions from paying for political advertisements during the final days of the campaign. Democrats, led by the Obama administration, expressed discontent with the ruling, noting that it would give undue influence to large corporations—and even foreign corporations—during elections. The ruling had its first impact on the 2010 midterm congressional elections held in November, when a record was set for the amount of money spent on campaigning. Much of the spending used for television advertisements was funneled to candidates by corporations and labor unions.

    The Court took up the issue of Miranda rights in Berghuis v. Thompkins, ruling that criminal suspects who do not want to talk to the police, but rather want to exercise their right to remain silent, must speak up unambiguously to assert that right. Prior to the Court's 5–4 ruling, suspects could invoke their Miranda rights simply by remaining silent to avoid self-incrimination.

    The only terrorism-related case to be heard in 2010 did not involve the rights of detainees at Guantánamo Bay, but rather the USA PATRIOT Act, a sweeping law passed shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. On June 21, 2010, the Court ruled 6–3 in Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, upholding a key section of the Patriot Act that prohibits the provision of “material support” to foreign organizations deemed terrorists by the U.S. secretary of state. By ruling for the government, the Court decided that even the actions of humanitarian organizations, which wanted to provide training and advocacy for peaceful, lawful activity, could be prosecuted under the act.

    For the second time in as many years, the 2010 Court docket included the issue of Second Amendment rights. In 2008, a groundbreaking decision by the Court in District of Columbia v. Heller overturned the District of Columbia's ban on handgun ownership. Because of D.C.'s status as a federal district, the ruling applied only to federal laws, which cover a fraction of handgun owners in the United States. In 2010, a narrowly divided Court ruled in McDonald v. Chicago that individuals in all states and municipalities have the right to bear arms, thus overturning a number of state and local gun bans.

    The Court also took up the issue of sentencing of juvenile offenders who have not committed homicide. A movement that began during a rise in violent crime in the 1990s led state legislatures to crack down on juvenile crime, thus enacting harsher penalties. The result was thousands of children being tried as adults and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. In Graham v. Florida the Court ruled 6–3 to ban the sentence of life in prison without the chance of parole for juvenile offenders who commit a crime that does not involve a killing.

    Foreign Affairs

    Around the world, 2010 was a year wrought with devastation brought on by natural disasters, political strife, and ethnic unrest. In early 2010, Haiti and Chile were struck by earthquakes of historic magnitude. Thousands of Haitians were killed, infrastructure in both nations was destroyed, and the two nations continue to struggle with recovery and rebuilding. The Haitian earthquake, which occurred on January 12, measured a magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter scale, and the impact was devastating. Entire cities were completely destroyed, and despite billions of dollars in pledges, by the end of 2010, 98 percent of debris had yet to be removed and more than one million Haitians remained displaced. Adding to Haiti's difficulty in rebuilding was an outbreak of cholera that killed more than two thousand of those living in temporary tent camps in the capital city of Port-au-Prince in mid-December. Chile's 8.8 magnitude earthquake was the strongest to hit the nation in fifty years. More than seven hundred were killed in the February 27 quake. The low death toll in Chile was directly related to its advanced building standards that far exceeded requirements in Haiti and kept modern buildings secure during the earthquake.

    Chile, however, faced a second disaster on August 5, 2010, when the roof of the San José copper and gold mine collapsed, trapping thirty-three miners inside. More than two weeks later, as rescue workers drilled in an attempt to make contact with the miners, a note came to the surface letting Chileans know that all the miners were alive inside a mine shelter. An international team of experts worked around the clock to drill rescue tunnels and build a capsule that could safely bring the miners to the surface. On October 12, extraction began and slowly each miner was brought to the surface alive to the cheers of families and the nation's president.

    In Europe and the Middle East, weather patterns caused drought and heavy rains and brought air traffic to a standstill. In mid-April, an Icelandic volcano erupted, sending a plume of ash into the atmosphere that grounded flights, stranding travelers across the European continent for more than one week. The airspace closures and flight delays renewed European focus on centralizing air traffic control within one European Union organization.

    The summer of 2010 brought extreme weather patterns to Pakistan and Russia. In Pakistan, provinces were devastated by the worst flooding seen in the nation in eighty years. As the flood waters rose, roads, bridges, homes, schools, and government buildings were destroyed. The devastation was blamed on the nation's “timber mafia,” a key driver behind deforestation. The price tag on Pakistan's disaster called into question how quickly the government could recover and whether it could maintain security to root out Taliban safe havens. In Russia, the worst drought in more than one hundred years was brought on by the hottest summer on record and sparked devastating wildfires across the country that destroyed homes and croplands. The destruction of Russia's grain crop led to a ban on grain exports into 2011 that drove up global food prices.

    Elections in 2010 brought new leaders with new governing plans in some nations and sparked violence in others. In May 2010, the United Kingdom's Labour Party lost its grip on power for the first time in more than a decade. A new governing coalition, formed by the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats and led by David Cameron, took control and was charged with the responsibility of reviving the economically recessed European nation. Brazilians also went to the polls in 2010 and elected the nation's first female president. Dilma Rousseff won a runoff election by a double-digit margin despite being relatively unknown before her campaign began.

    Guinea, one of Africa's poorest nations, held its first democratic elections in June 2010. The first vote, featuring former prime minister Cellou Dalein Diallo and opposition leader Alpha Condé, triggered a runoff election that was twice postponed because of violent clashes between the two ethnic groups supporting the presidential candidates. Condé was declared the victor of the November runoff election, but Diallo refused to accept the results, accusing Condé of suppressing votes from Diallo's ethnic Peuhl supporters. The United Nations reported a number of human rights violations following the election outcome, including hundreds of injuries and deaths. It was not until December 22 that Condé's government was able to officially take over Guinea's government.

    A similar situation unfolded in Côte d'Ivoire, where a long-awaited presidential election and subsequent runoff took place in October and November. Both candidates, then-president Laurent Gbagbo and former prime minister and opposition leader Alassane Ouattara, claimed victory after the runoff election. Gbagbo, who controlled the nation's security forces, cracked down on the opposition movement, killing, wounding, and kidnapping Ouattara supporters. The UN peacekeeping force in the nation attempted to uphold Ouattara's government, being run from a heavily guarded luxury hotel. Ouattara promised to take complete control of the government by January 2011, but it was not until April that Gbagbo was captured, signaling the end of his reign.

    Elections were not the only cause of worldwide violence in 2010. Violence between Armenia and Azerbaijan was reignited after a ceasefire violation over the autonomous Nagorno-Karabakh region. Mediation efforts led by Russia produced few breakthroughs by late 2010 and left governments on both sides of the conflict unconvinced that peace would soon return to the region. In Somalia, where the nation has existed in a state of near anarchy since the collapse of its central government in 1991, violence peaked in the summer and fall of 2010, displacing residents and causing a number of deaths. International security forces were unable to maintain order as they tried to install a new, weak central government, leaving open the question of whether the nation would follow through on holding its first official election in 2011.

    In Kyrgyzstan, one of the former Soviet bloc's poorest nations, unrest that began in April over a government decision to raise utility prices by 200 percent stretched into the summer. The persistent high prices and government corruption reached a breaking point, and hundreds were killed in the fighting that pitted ethnic Kyrgyz against Uzbeks. The violence resulted in the collapse of Kyrgyzstan's government and the installation of a new parliamentary republic. Thailand experienced similar political unrest in March and April 2010, when rallies erupted into clashes between the military and antigovernment forces. Unlike the situation in Kyrgyzstan, however, the Thai government stood its ground and refused the protestors’ calls for new elections, further underscoring the nation's tenuous political situation.

    Violence broke out in Ecuador in September 2010 after the government stalled in its implementation of the president's controversial reform plans that would increase government involvement in the nation's economy. Although the measures were met with significant resistance in parliament, President Rafael Correa used a number of tactics, including veto power, to ensure passage of some key pieces of his reform plan and rewrite others he did not support. Alienation of opposition leaders and a number of austerity measures that hit members of the military and police led to a protest that quickly escalated into violence.

    Long-standing tension on the Korean peninsula was heightened in March 2010 when a torpedo sank a South Korean naval vessel in the nation's territorial waters, killing forty-six sailors. Media outlets were quick to point a finger at North Korea as the responsible party, but South Korea's government called for calm until an official investigation could be completed. When results of the investigation were announced in May, it was made clear that the torpedo that sank the vessel was of North Korean origin. North Korea refused to accept the results and promised “unpredictable strikes” against South Korea. The South Korean government, in cooperation with allies, including the United States, chose to impose financial sanctions on the North rather than retaliate with military action.

    During the summer and fall of 2010, the relationship between the North and South looked as though it was beginning to improve. North Korea reached out to the South, asking to resume allowing families split by the border to reunite, and also calling for a new round of humanitarian and military discussions. The goodwill fell apart on November 23 when North Korea launched an artillery attack at Yeonpyeong Island, just off South Korea's coast, where the South Korean military was preparing for its annual offensive drill training. The North condemned the drills as an act of aggression, and South Korea returned fire. While reason for the attack was unclear, North Korea, which was preparing for the handover of power from Kim Jong-il to his son Kim Jong-un, said the continent was on the “brink of war.”

    Security in the United States and Abroad

    American military action abroad came under fire in 2010 when a website called WikiLeaks began publishing confidential government documents, some containing key elements of U.S. foreign policy. The website had previously published reports on U.S. military operations, but the flow of secret information rose to new levels in 2010. In April, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange released a military video at a Washington, D.C., press conference that featured American troops shooting Iraqi civilians from an Apache helicopter. The U.S. military claimed the helicopter had been flown in to assist coalition forces engaged in combat, but the video featured soldiers congratulating each other on shooting skills and mocking the dead civilians. Three months later, the website released 92,000 U.S. documents on military operations in Afghanistan. An October release followed with 390,000 reports on U.S. military action in Iraq. Details of combat operations, civilian casualties, meeting records, and even information that suggested that the Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence Agency might be working with the Taliban were contained in the documents. In November, 250,000 diplomatic cables from U.S. embassies around the world were released. The U.S. government met each release with outrage, while governments in nations including Russia criticized the American government's actions and called its outrage an attempt at a cover-up.

    Following up on a promise made by President Obama during his first months in office, on August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade left Iraq, signaling the end of the seven-and-a-half-year Operation Iraqi Freedom. The withdrawal of American combat troops was uncertain in March when Iraqis went to the polls to vote for their new members of parliament. The newly elected government would be in charge of working with the United States on combat troop withdrawal. Iraqis voted in large numbers, and little violence was reported, but the vote totals, placing the secular Iraqiya Party ahead of Prime Minister Nuri Kamal al-Maliki's State of Law coalition, ushered in a period of political uncertainty for the nation. Maliki refused to accept the results and called for a recount, which he did not receive. Ayad Allawi, head of the Iraqiya Party, could not form a governing coalition, which opened the door for the State of Law coalition to remain in power. The United States stuck to its withdrawal plan and by September 1 had entered into its new role in Iraq—that of security force trainer and adviser. It was not until November that a tentative agreement for a coalition government, to be led by Maliki, was reached.

    As the United States drew down its troops in Iraq, it maintained its combat forces in Afghanistan. These forces were instrumental in helping keep peace during Afghanistan's September parliamentary elections. Amid threats of violence from the Taliban, Afghanis went to the polls on September 18, 2010, but initial vote counts led to widespread allegations of fraud, and a number of recounts took place. It was not until December 1, 2010, that the election results were certified, and ethnic Pashtuns claimed a majority of parliamentary seats. The 2010 election was another indication of the need for election reform in Afghanistan that was most recently highlighted by Afghan president Hamid Karzai's 2009 election, which was wrought with fraud and brought legitimacy of his government under fire.

    Maintaining security in the Middle East remains a top priority of Western governments. More specifically, these nations, led by the United States, have worked to eliminate safe havens for Taliban and al-Qaeda terrorists. The global effort in increased security came to a head in late October 2010 when two package bombs, bound for the United States on United Parcel Service (UPS) and FedEx cargo planes, were seized in the United Kingdom and Dubai. Neither of the packages made it to U.S. soil, and both were defused before they could cause damage. Cooperation between Saudi Arabia, the United States, and the United Kingdom helped avoid disaster. This cooperation was also instrumental in helping investigators quickly pinpoint the responsible party—al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. The knowledge that the bombs had come from Yemen increased U.S. military aid to the nation's central government, which was losing control of much of its territory to extremist organizations. Yemen refused U.S. encroachment on its internal affairs.

    Not all terrorist acts in 2010 came from abroad. On May 1, 2010, in New York City's crowded Times Square, police were alerted to a smoking car, where they found a bomb hidden inside. The attempted bombing was linked to a Pakistani immigrant who had trained with the militant extremist group Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan. The organization had never before tried to carry out an attack on American soil, but federal counterterrorism officials said the attempt may indicate the strengthening of the organization and a move away from its usual targets in Pakistan. A similar plot unfolded in Oregon in November when a naturalized citizen from Somalia attempted to detonate a remote bomb at a Christmas tree–lighting ceremony. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents had been tracking the responsible party and had even provided him with the materials to build a fake bomb. Both the New York and the Oregon incidents renewed fears of homegrown terrorism in the United States.

    —Heather Kerrigan

Back to Top